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Individual differences |
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Labiodental consonant in IPAEdit
The labiodental consonants identified by the International Phonetic Alphabet are:
|p̪||voiceless labiodental plosive|
|b̪||voiced labiodental plosive|
|p̪͡f||voiceless labiodental affricate||Tsonga||N/A||[tiɱp̪͡fuβu]||'hippos'|
|b̪͡v||voiced labiodental affricate||Tsonga||N/A||[ʃileb̪͡vu]||'chin'|
|f||voiceless labiodental fricative||English||fan||[fæn]||'fan'|
|v||voiced labiodental fricative||English||van||[væn]||'van'|
The IPA symbol ɧ refers to a sound occurring in Swedish, officially described as similar to the velar fricative [x], but one dialectal variant is a rounded, velarized labiodental, less ambiguously rendered as [fˠʷ].
The only common labiodental sounds to occur phonemically are the fricatives and the approximant. The labiodental flap occurs phonemically in over a dozen languages, but it is restricted geographically to central and southeastern Africa (Olson & Hajek 2003). With most other manners of articulation, the norm are bilabial consonants (which together with labiodentals, form the class of labial consonants).
[ɱ] is quite common, but in all or nearly all languages in which it occurs, it occurs only as an allophone of /m/ before labiodental consonants such as /v/ and /f/. It has been reported to occur phonemically in a dialect of Teke, but similar claims in the past have proven spurious.
The XiNkuna dialect of Tsonga features a pair of affricates as phonemes. In some other languages, such as Xhosa, affricates may occur as allophones of the fricatives. These differ from the German bilabial-labiodental affricate <pf>, which commences with a bilabial p. All these affricates are rare sounds.
The plosives are not confirmed to exist as separate phonemes in any language. They are sometimes written as ȹ ȸ (qp and db ligatures). They may also be found in children's speech or as speech impediments.
- Ladefoged, Peter (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages, Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8.
- Olson, Kenneth S. & John Hajek. 2003. Crosslinguistic insights on the labial flap. Linguistic Typology 7(2). 157–186
International Phonetic Alphabet
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