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"Kirschenbaum" redirects here. For the surname (of either spelling), see Kirschenbaum (surname).

Kirshenbaum, sometimes called ASCII-IPA or erkIPA, is a system used to represent the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) in ASCII. This way it allows typewriting IPA-symbols by regular keyboard. It was developed for Usenet, notably the newsgroups sci.lang and alt.usage.english. It is named after Evan Kirshenbaum, who led the collaboration that created it.

The system uses almost all lower-case letters to represent the directly corresponding IPA character, but unlike X-SAMPA has the notable exception of the letter 'r'. Examples where the two systems have a different mapping between characters and sounds are:

Sound IPA X-SAMPA Kirshenbaum
alveolar trill r r r<trl>
alveolar approximant ɹ r\ r
near-open front unrounded vowel æ { &
open back rounded vowel ɒ Q A.
open-mid central unrounded vowel ɜ 3 V"
primary stress ˈ " '
secondary stress ˌ % ,

Kirshenbaum charts of consonants and vowelsEdit

This chart is based on information provided in the Kirshenbaum specification.[2], [3] It may also be helpful to compare it to the SAMPA chart or X-SAMPA chart.

Consonant chartEdit

Kirshenbaum chart of consonants (the paired signs are voiceless/voiced consonants)
Place of articulation Labial Coronal Dorsal Radical Glottal Alveolar laterals
Bilabial Labio‐
dental
Dental Alveolar Retro‐
flex
Palato‐
alveolar
Palatal Velar Uvular Labio‐
velar
Pharyn‐
geal
Manner of articulation
Nasals   m   M    n[   n   n.   n^   N   n"   n<lbv>
Stops p b t[ d[ t d t. d. c J k g q G t<lbv> d<lbv> ?
Fricatives P B f v T D s z s. z. S Z C C<vcd> x Q X g" w<vls> w H H<vcd> h<?> s<lat> z<lat>
Approximants r<lbd> r[ r r. j j<vel> g" w h
Laterals l[ l l. l^ L
Trills b<trl> r<trl> r"
Flaps   *   *. *<lat>
Ejectives p` t[` t` c` k` q`
Implosives b` d` d` J` g` G`
Clicks p! t! c! c! k! l!

Vowel chartEdit

</tr>

Kirshenbaum simplified chart of vowels
(the paired signs are unrounded/rounded vowels; symbols in parentheses designate vowels that exist in some spoken languages, but do not have IPA signs)
Front Central Back Rhotic
Close i y</td> <tt>i" u" u- u</td> </td>

</tr>

Near-close</td> <tt>I I. (U-) U
Close-mid e Y @<umd> @. o- o R<umd>
Mid @ R
Open-mid E W V" O" V O
Near-open & &" (no symbols)
Open a. (a" A".) A A.

Vowel modifiers and diacriticsEdit

Modifiers and diacritics follow the symbol they modify.

Modifier/diacriticMeaning
~Nasalized
:Long
-Unrounded
.Rounded
"Centralized
<?>Murmured
<r>Rhoticized

Stress is indicated by ' for primary stress, and , for secondary stress, placed before the stressed syllable.

BackgroundEdit

The Kirshenbaum started developing in August 1992 through a usenet group, after "being fed up with describing the sound of words by using other words"[1] It should be usable for both phonemic and narrow phonetic transcription.

  • It should be possible to represent all symbols and diacritics in the IPA.
  • The previous guideline notwithstanding, it is expected that (as in the past) most use will be in transcribing English, so where tradeoffs are necessary, decisions should be made in favor of ease of representation of phonemes which are common in English.
  • The representation should be readable.
  • It should be possible to mechanically translate from the representation to a character set which includes IPA. The reverse would also be nice.[2]

The developers decided to use the existing IPA alphabet, mapping each segment to a single keyboard character, and adding extra ASCII characters optionally for IPA diacritics.

An early (1993), different set in ASCII was derived from the pronunciation guide in Merriam-Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, which uses straight letters to describe the sound.[3]

ReferencesEdit

  1. [1]
  2. http://www.kirshenbaum.net/IPA/ascii-ipa.pdf
  3. Earlier ASCII version: Miriam-Webster's

External linksEdit

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).

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