Wikia

Psychology Wiki

Jungian cognitive functions

Talk0
34,142pages on
this wiki

Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |

Personality: Self concept · Personality testing · Theories · Mind-body problem


In some forms of psychological testing, particularly those related to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, the cognitive functions (sometimes known as mental functions) are defined as different ways of perceiving and judging the world. They are defined as "thinking", "feeling", "sensing" and "intuition".

History Edit

The model in which these four cognitive functions combine in different ways to form different people's personalities was initially conceived by Carl Jung in his pioneering work Psychological Types (1921, ISBN 0-691-09770-4). Jung also posited that the functions formed a hierarchy within a person's personality—the most important function is referred to as the "dominant", with the remaining three filling the roles as "auxiliary" and "inferior" functions. In addition, each mental function is seen as either introverted or extroverted (known as attitudes). This idea is interpreted in terms of whether the person finds it more rewarding when using the function in question to have an outward focus on people and things (extroversion) or an inward focus on thoughts and ideas (introversion). These models do not claim that people are only capable of applying the function in question in that attitude, but rather that operating in the opposite attitude requires the expenditure of "energy" (or rather, emotional resources, enthusiasm, and so on) whilst operating in the person's natural attitude replenishes that same energy.

Myers' Dichotomies
Extraversion Introversion
Sensing iNtuition
Thinking Feeling
Judging Perceiving
Bold letters are used as shorthand labels

Isabel Myers, an early pioneer of psychometric testing whose ideas remain controversial within psychology, formalised these ideas and proposed that the mixture of types in an individual's personality could be measured through responses to a personality test she devised along with her mother, Katharine Cook Briggs, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. In this model, four "dichotomies" are defined, each labelled by two letters (one for each of the opposites in question), as shown by the emboldened letters in the table. Individuals' personalities fall into sixteen different categories depending on which side of each dichotomy they belong to, labelled by the four applicable letters (for example, an "ESFP" type is someone whose preferences are extraversion, sensing, feeling and perceiving).

Controversy over attitudes Edit

Myers interpreted Jung as saying that the auxiliary, tertiary, and inferior functions are always in the opposite attitude of the dominant. In support of Myers' (and/or Briggs') interpretation, in one sentence Jung seems to state that the "three inferior" functions of an (extreme) extravert are introverted. The "most differentiated function is always employed in an extraverted way, whereas the inferior functions are introverted" (Jung, [1921] 1971:par. 575).

Many, however, have found Jung's writing to be ambiguous, and those who study and follow Jung's theories (Jungians) are typically adamant that Myers is incorrect.[citation needed] Jungians interpret Jung as explicitly stating that the tertiary function is actually in the same attitude as the dominant, providing balance.[citation needed] More recently, typologists such as John Beebe and Linda Berens have introduced theoretical systems in which all people possess eight functions—equivalent to the four functions as defined by Jung and Myers but in each of the two possible attitudes—with the four in the opposite attitude to that measured known as the "shadow functions", residing largely in the unconscious.

There is controversy even within the Center for Applications of Psychological Type (CAPT), co-founded by Myers, regarding the attitude of the tertiary relative to the dominant. "The MBTI Qualifying Program", a binder given out during official training, puts the tertiary in the opposite attitude to the dominant on page 13; however, "The Manual", which gives official instructions on how to use the test, has the tertiary in the same attitude on page 31. Charles Martin, ex-vice president of research at CAPT, writes the following on page 22 of the binder, "In what attitude is the tertiary? Isabel Myers read Jung to say that the auxiliary, tertiary, and inferior are all in the same attitude and opposite the dominant. Others (Harold Grant) read: tertiary is in the same attitude as the dominant."[citation needed]

Different models Edit

The tables below give different theorists' ideas about personality types in terms of "cognitive functions".

Carl Jung Edit

Carl Jung developed the theory of cognitive processes in his work "Psychological Types". He used the terms dominant, auxiliary, and inferior.

 
Extraverted Rational
Extraverted Irrational
Dominant
Extraverted Thinking
Extraverted Feeling
Extraverted Sensation
Extraverted Intuition
Auxiliary
?
?
?
?
Inferior
?
?
?
?
 
Introverted Rational
Introverted Irrational
Dominant
Introverted Thinking
Introverted Feeling
Introverted Sensation
Introverted Intuition
Auxiliary
?
?
?
?
Inferior
?
?
?
?

There is a difference between Jung and the MBTI regarding the designation of "inferior" function. While the MBTI clearly designates only the fourth function as the inferior, Jung uses a more flexible definition. "As a consequence of this one-sided development, one or more functions are necessarily retarded. These functions may properly be called inferior ..." (Jung, [1921] 1971:Def. Inferior Function, par. 763).

Isabel Myers Edit

Isabel Myers created the original type table. In her table, diametrically opposite personality types (that is, those with no traits in common among the dichotomies) are separated by one block along diagonals.

Type
ISITEJ
ISIFEJ
INIFEJ
INITEJ
Dominant or first Introverted_Sensing Introverted_Sensing Introverted_Intuition Introverted_Intuition
Auxiliary or second Extraverted_Thinking Extraverted Feeling Extraverted Feeling Extraverted_Thinking
Tertiary or third Introverted Feeling Introverted_Thinking Introverted_Thinking Introverted Feeling
Inferior or fourth Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Sensing
Type
ISETIP
ISEFIP
INEFIP
INETIP
Dominant or first Introverted Thinking Introverted Feeling Introverted Feeling Introverted Thinking
Auxiliary or second Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Intuition
Tertiary or third Introverted Intuition Introverted Intuition Introverted Sensing Introverted Sensing
Inferior or fourth Extraverted Feeling Extraverted Thinking Extraverted Thinking Extraverted Feeling
Type
ESETIP
ESEFIP
ENEFIP
ENETIP
Dominant or first Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Intuition
Auxiliary or second Introverted Thinking Introverted Feeling Introverted Feeling Introverted Thinking
Tertiary or third Extraverted Feeling Extraverted Thinking Extraverted Thinking Extraverted Feeling
Inferior or fourth Introverted Intuition Introverted Intuition Introverted Sensing Introverted Sensing
Type
ESITEJ
ESIFEJ
ENIFEJ
ENITEJ
Dominant or first Extraverted Thinking Extraverted Feeling Extraverted Feeling Extraverted Thinking
Auxiliary or second Introverted Sensing Introverted Sensing Introverted Intuition Introverted Intuition
Tertiary or third Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Sensing
Inferior or fourth Introverted Feeling Introverted Thinking Introverted Thinking Introverted Feeling

John Beebe Edit

Though John Beebe has not published a type table, the format that Isabel Myers devised can also be applied to his theory. Beebe describes the different cognitive functions' role in the overall personality in terms of various mythic archetypes. Just as in Myers's table, personality types whose primary four functions are completely opposite are separated by one block along diagonals. The same does not apply to the four "shadow" functions, however.

Type
ISITEJ
ISIFEJ
INIFEJ
INITEJ
1st - Hero/Heroine Introverted_Sensing Introverted_Sensing Introverted_Intuition Introverted_Intuition
2nd - Good Parent Extraverted_Thinking Extraverted Feeling Extraverted Feeling Extraverted_Thinking
3rd - Puer/Puella Introverted Feeling Introverted_Thinking Introverted Thinking Introverted Feeling
4th - Anima/Animus Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Sensing
5th - Opposing Personality Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Intuition
6th - Senex/Witch Introverted Thinking Introverted Feeling Introverted Feeling Introverted Thinking
7th - Trickster Extraverted Feeling Extraverted Thinking Extraverted Thinking Extraverted Feeling
8th - Daemon Introverted Intuition Introverted Intuition Introverted Sensing Introverted Sensing
Type
ISETIP
ISEFIP
INEFIP
INETIP
1st - Hero/Heroine Introverted Thinking Introverted Feeling Introverted Feeling Introverted Thinking
2nd - Good Parent Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Intuition
3rd - Puer/Puella Introverted Intuition Introverted Intuition Introverted Sensing Introverted Sensing
4th - Anima/Animus Extraverted Feeling Extraverted Thinking Extraverted Thinking Extraverted Feeling
5th - Opposing Personality Extraverted_Thinking Extraverted Feeling Extraverted Feeling Extraverted Thinking
6th - Senex/Witch Introverted Sensing Introverted Sensing Introverted Intuition Introverted Intuition
7th - Trickster Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Sensing
8th - Daemon Introverted Feeling Introverted Thinking Introverted Thinking Introverted Feeling
Type
ESETIP
ESEFIP
ENEFIP
ENETIP
1st - Hero/Heroine Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Intuition
2nd - Good Parent Introverted Thinking Introverted Feeling Introverted Feeling Introverted Thinking
3rd - Puer/Puella Extraverted Feeling Extraverted Thinking Extraverted Thinking Extraverted Feeling
4th - Anima/Animus Introverted Intuition Introverted Intuition Introverted Sensing Introverted Sensing
5th - Opposing Personality Introverted Sensing Introverted Sensing Introverted Intuition Introverted Intuition
6th - Senex/Witch Extraverted Thinking Extravertd Feeling Extraverted Feeling Extraverted Thinking
7th - Trickster Introverted Feeling Introverted Thinking Introverted Thinking Introverted Feeling
8th - Daemon Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Sensing
Type
ESITEJ
ESIFEJ
ENIFEJ
ENITEJ
1st - Hero/Heroine Extraverted Thinking Extraverted Feeling Extraverted Feeling Extraverted Thinking
2nd - Good Parent Introverted Sensing Introverted Sensing Introverted Intuition Introverted Intuition
3rd - Puer/Puella Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Sensing
4th - Anima/Animus Introverted Feeling Introverted Thinking Introverted Thinking Introverted Feeling
5th - Opposing Personality Introverted Thinking Introverted Feeling Introverted Feeling Introverted Thinking
6th - Senex/Witch Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Intuition
7th - Trickster Introverted Intuition Introverted Intuition INtroverted Sensing Introverted Sensing
8th - Daemon Extraverted Feelings Extraverted Thinking Extraverted Thinking Extraverted Feeling

Linda Berens Edit

The layout of Linda Berens's type table is unique and her terminology differs from that of Beebe; however, the ordering of cognitive processes in her and Beebe's models are the same.

    Guide Mediator Monitor Conservator
Envisioner

Mentor
ENFJ

Foreseer

Devevloper
INFJ

Discoverer

Advocate
ENFP

Harmonizer

Clarifier
INFP

Implementor

Supervisor
ESTJ

Planner

Inspector
ISTJ

Facilitator

Caretaker
ESFJ

Protector
Supporter

ISFJ

Leading
Dominant
1st Fe Ni Ne Fi Te Si Fe Si
Supporting
Overprotective
2nd Ni Fe Fi Ne Si Te Si Fe
Relief
Unsettling
3rd Se Ti Te Si Ne Fi Ne Ti
Aspirational
Projective
4th Ti Se Si Te Fi Ne Ti Ne
Opposing
Backup
5th Fi Ne Ni Fe Ti Se Fi Se
Critical
Discovery
6th Ne Fi Fe Ni Se Ti Se Fi
Deceiving
Comedic
7th Si Te Ti Se Ni Fe Ni Te
Devilish
Transformative
8th Te Si Se Ti Fe Ni Te Ni
  Coordinator Engineer Expeditor Improvisor
  Strategist

Mobilizer
ENTJ

Conceptualizer

Director
INTJ

Explorer

Inventor
ENTP

Designer

Theorizer
INTP

Promoter

Executor
ESTP

Analyzer

Operator
ISTP

Motivator

Presenter
ESTP

Composer

Producer
ISFP

Leading
Dominant
1st Te Ni Ne Ti Se Ti Se Fi
Supporting
Overprotective
2nd Ni Te Ti Ne Ti Se Fi Se
Relief
Unsettling
3rd Se Fi Fe Si Fe Ni Te Ni
Aspirational
Projective
4th Fi Se Se Fe Ni Fe Ni Te
Opposing
Backup
5th Ti Ne Ni Te Si Te Se Fe
Critical
Discovery
6th Ne Ti Te Ni Te Si Fe Si
Deceiving
Comedic
7th Si Fe Fi Se Fi Ne Ti Ne
Devilish
Transformative
8th Fe Si Se Fi Ne Fi Ne Ti

Lenore Thomson Edit

Lenore Thomson offers yet another model of the cognitive functions. In her book, Personality Type: An Owners Manual, Thomson advances a hypothesis of a modular relationship of the cognitive functions paralleling left-right brain lateralization. In this approach the Judging functions are in the left-brain and the Perception functions in the right brain. Likewise, the extraverted functions are in the front of the brain, while the introverted functions are in the back of the brain. The order of the cognitive functions are then determined not by an archetypal hierarchy (as supposed by Beebe) but by an innate brain lateralization preference.

Brain Types by Lenore Thomson
 
Front of Left Brain Front of Right Brain
Extraverted Thinking
&
Extraverted Feeling
Extraverted Intuition
&
Extraverted Sensing
Introverted Sensation
&
Introverted Intuition
Introverted Feeling
&
Introverted Thinking
Back of Left Brain Back of Right Brain

Template:CognitiveFunctionsOfLenoreThomson

Further reading Edit

  • Jung, C.G. [1921] (1971). Psychological Types, Collected Works, Volume 6, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01813-8.
  • Myers, Isabel Myers [1980] (1995). Gifts Differing, Palo Alto, C.A.: Davies-Black Publishing. ISBN 0-89106-074-X.
  • Thomson, Lenore (1998). Personality Type: An Owners Manual, Boston & London: Shambhala Publications, Inc. ISBN 1-57062-987-0.

External links Edit

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).

Around Wikia's network

Random Wiki