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John William Atkinson, also known as Jack Atkinson, (December 1923 - October 27, 2003) was an American social psychologist who pioneered the scientific study of human motivation, achievement and behavior. He was a WWII veteran, teacher, scholar, and long term member of the University of Michigan Community.
Atkinson was a leader in establishing motivation as a distinct field of study in psychology research. His belief that scientific progress came from conceptual breakthroughs fueled his formulation and reformulation of a theory of motivation. He was one of the first in psychology to incorporate rigorous mathematical models in his theories and to use computer simulations of these models for experimentation. He also recognized the importance of measurement in science, maintaining a career-long interest in the refinement of measures of human motivation, especially by means of content analysis of imaginative thought. His discipline-changing ideas were followed around the world. In recognition, he received in 1979 the American Psychological Association's highest award, the Gold Medal for Distinguished Scientific Contributions.
Atkinson was born in Jersey City, NJ, to Frank G. and Wilhelmina "Minnie" Atkinson. He attended public schools in Oradell NJ, graduating from Dwight Morrow High School in Englewood NJ. He enlisted in the U.S. Army Air Corp, earning his wings in 1944, He served as an advanced instrument flight instructor for the B-25 and other bombers. On earning his wings Jack married his high-school sweetheart Mary Jane. They were married in 1944 in Macon, GA.
After the war Atkinson completed his undergraduate psychology degree with Honors at Wesleyan University, graduating in the middle of the 1946-47 academic year. At this point he began to pursue his interests in basic research on the arousal of human needs and behavior with the financial support of the Office of Naval Research. Atkinson was awarded his doctorate in Psychology in 1950 at the University of Michigan. He was invited to join the faculty of the University of Michigan in the Psychology Department where he remained his entire career.
Atkinson was devoted to the teaching of undergraduates throughout his career. As one of the original founders of the University's Honor's Program in the College of Literature, Science and the Arts, Professor Atkinson fostered unique opportunities and created multi-disciplinary courses to challenge undergraduate students. He authored and edited many books and articles on the scientific study of human motivation, achievement and behavior. Atkinson was one of the first in Psychology to incorporate rigorous mathematical models in his theories and to use computer simulations of these models for experimentation. His theoretical and experimental work spanned decades and spawned many doctorates.
His awards and honors included election to membership in the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, participation twice as a Fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University, Fellow of the American Psychological Association, an Honorary Doctorate from Ruhr University, Germany, and the American Psychological Association's highest award, the Gold Medal for Distinguished Scientific Contribution. Atkinson was honored on his retirement with a special colloquium at the University which brought together a number of his former students and colleagues who spoke of his inspiration and contributions to the science of human motivation. He was named Professor Emeritus in 1985.
Atkinson insisted on ethical behavior and highly valued the fundamental freedoms on which our country was founded. An expression of this was his role as a member of the Board of Control of the Michigan Daily during the turbulent 1960s. In the early 1970's, his belief's led him to become outraged by the behavior of President Richard M. Nixon, whom he viewed as a threat to liberty and justice. Jack organized and led public meetings and demonstrations denouncing President Nixon and vigorously promoted Nixon's impeachment by Congress.
- "Studies in Projective Measurement of Achievement Motivation", By John William Atkinson, University of Michigan Microfilms, 1950.
- The Achievement Motive, By McClelland, D. C., Atkinson, J. W., Clark, R. A., 4 Lowell, E. L., New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1953.
- "Nebraska Symposium on Motivation", By Marshall R. Jones and John William Atkinson, University of Nebraska Press, 1954.
- Motives in Fantasy, Action, and Society: a method of assessment and study, By John W. Atkinson, Van Nostrand (1958) ISBN 0-442-00367-6 ISBN 978-0442003678
- "Achievement Motive and Text Anxiety Conceived as Motive to Approach Success and Motive to Avoid Failure", By John William Atkinson and George H. Litwin, Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1960.
- Effects of ability grouping in schools: Related to individual differences in achievement-related motivation, final report, By John W. Atkinson and Patricia O'Connor, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, Dept. of Psychology (1963)
- An Introduction to Motivation, By John William Atkinson, D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc (1965), Oxford, England: Van Nostrand; (1964), ISBN 0-442-20367-5
- Human motivation: a symposium, By Marshall R. Jones and John William Atkinson, University of Nebraska Press; 1st Edition (1965)
- The Dynamics of Action, By John William Atkinson and David Birch, New. York: Wiley (1970) ISBN 0-471-03624-2 ISBN 978-0471036241
- A Theory of Achievement Motivation, By John William Atkinson and Norman T. Feather, Volume 6, Wiley, (1966), Krieger Pub Co (June 1, 1974), ISBN 0-88275-166-2
- Motivation and Achievement, By John William Atkinson and Joel O. Raynor, Winston; [distributed by Halsted Press Division, New York] (1974) ISBN 0-470-03626-5, ISBN 978-0-470-03626-6
- Personality, Motivation and Achievement, By John William Atkinson and Joel O. Raynor, Hemisphere Pub. Corp. (1978) ISBN 0-470-99336-7, ISBN 978-0-470-99336-1
- Personality, Motivation, and Action: Selected papers (Centennial psychology series), By John William Atkinson, Praeger (1983), ISBN 0-03-060541-5
- Motivation, Thought, and Action, By Julius Kuhl, and John W. Atkinson, New York: Praeger Publishers (June 6, 1986) ISBN 0-275-92096-8
- "Dictionary of Psychology", By John William Atkinson, Eric Berne, and Robert Sessions Woodworth, 4th Edition, GOYL SaaB, 1988.
Chapters in books
- Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions
- Frontiers of Motivational Psychology: Essays in Honor of John W. Atkinson
- John Simon Guggenheim Memorial FoundationA Fellows Page
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