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Johann Karl Friedrich Zöllner (1834 – 1882) was a German astrophysicist who studied optical illusions. He invented the Zöllner illusion where lines that are parallel appear diagonal. The crater Zöllner on the Moon is named in his honor. For the first time he actually proved Christian Doppler's theory on the effect of motion of the color of stars, and the shift of absorption lines thereby (red-shift) (1869), by the invention of a very sesitive spectroscope which he named "Reversionspectroscope". He had shown also that the red-shift was in addition caused by variation in the stars' lights intensities with the help of his "Astrophotometer" (1865).
- Zollner F (1865). Photometrische Untersuchungen (in German), Leipzig: W. Elgelmann.
- Zollner, JKF (1869). Uber ein neues Spektroskop nebst Beitragen zur Spektralanalyse der Gestirne.. Annalen der Physik 138: 32 - 45.
- Zöllner F (1860). Ueber eine neue Art von Pseudoskopie und ihre Beziehungen zu den von Plateau und Oppel beschrieben Bewegungsphaenomenen. Annalen der Physik 186: 500–25.
- Table VIII Figure 4
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