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Jerome S. Bruner

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Jerome S. Bruner (b. 1 October 1915) is an American psychologist, who has contributed to cognitive psychology and cognitive learning theory in educational psychology.

Bruner's ideas are based on categorization. "To perceive is to categorize, to conceptualize is to categorize, to learn is to form categories, to make decisions is to categorize." Bruner maintains people interpret the world in terms of its similarities and differences. Like Bloom's Taxonomy, Bruner suggests a system of coding in which people form a hierarchical arrangement of related categories. Each successively higher level of categories becomes more specific, echoing Benjamin Bloom's understanding of knowledge acquisition as well as the related idea of instructional scaffolding.

He has also suggested that there are two primary modes of thought: the narrative mode and the paradigmatic mode. In narrative thinking, the mind engages in sequential, action-oriented, detail-driven thought. In paradigmatic thinking, the mind transcends particularities to achieve systematic, categorical cognition. In the former case, thinking takes the form of stories and "gripping drama." In the latter, thinking is structured as propositions linked by logical operators.

The Narrative Construction of Reality

In 1991, Bruner published an article in Critical Inquiry entitled "The Narrative Construction of Reality." In this article, he argued that the mind structures its sense of reality through mediation through "cultural products, like language and other symbolic systems" (3). He specifically focuses on the idea of narrative as one of these cultural products. He defines narrative in terms of ten things:

  1. Narrative diachronicity: The notion that narratives take place over some sense of time.
  2. Particularity: The idea that narratives deal with particular events, although some events may be left vague and general.
  3. Intentional state entailment: The concept that characters within a narrative have "beliefs, desires, theories, values, and so on" (7).
  4. Hermeneutic composability: The theory that narratives are that which can be interpreted in terms of their role as a selected series of events that constitute a "story." See also Hermeneutics
  5. Canonicity and breach: The claim that stories are about something unusual happening that "breaches" the canonical (i.e. normal) state.
  6. Referentiality: The principle that a story in some way references reality, although not in a direct way that offers verisimilitude.
  7. Genericness: The flipside to particularity, this is the characteristic of narrative whereby the story can be classified as a genre.
  8. Normativeness: The observation that narrative in some way supposes a claim about how one ought to act. This follows from canonicity and breach.
  9. Context sensitivity and negotiability: Related to hermeneutic composability, this is the characteristic whereby narrative requires a negotiated role between author or text and reader, including the assigning of a context to the narrative, and ideas like suspension of disbelief.
  10. Narrative accrual: Finally, the idea that stories are cumulative, that is, that new stories follow from older ones.

Bruner observes that these ten characteristics at once describe narrative and the reality constructed and posited by narrative, which in turn teaches us about the nature of reality as constructed by the human mind via narrative.



  • Bruner, J.S., Goodnow, J.J. and Austin, G.A. (1956) A Study of Thinking, New York: John Wiley.
  • Bruner, J.S. (1960)The Process of Education
  • J.S. Bruner, R.R. Olver and P.M. Greenfield (1966)(eds) Studies in Cognitive Growth, New York John Wiley.
  • Bruner, J.S. (1966)Toward a Theory of Instruction
  • Bruner, J.S. (1973a) Beyond the Information Given: Studies in the Psychology of Knowing, New York:W.W. Norton.
  • Bruner, J.S. (1986)Actual Minds, Possible Worlds
  • Bruner, J.S. (1990)Acts of Meaning
  • Bruner, J.S. (1996)The Culture of Education


  • Bruner, J. S. & Goodman, C. C. (1947). Value and need as organizing factors in perception. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, 42, 33-44. Available online at the Classics in the History of Psychology archive.
  • Bruner, J. S. & Postman, L. (1947). Tension and tension-release as organizing factors in perception. Journal of Personality, 15, 300-308.
  • Bruner, J. S. & Postman, L. (1949). On the perception of incongruity: A paradigm. Journal of Personality, 18, 206-223. Available online at the Classics in the History of Psychology archive.
  • Bruner, J.S. and Minturn, A.L. (1955) Perceptual identification and perceptual organisation, Journal of General Psychology 53: 21-8.
  • Bruner, J,S. (1957) On perceptual readiness, Psychological Review 64: 123-51.
  • Bruner, J.S. and Kenney, H. (1966) The development of the concepts of order and proportion in children.In: J.S. Bruner, R.R. Olver and P.M. Greenfield (eds) Studies in Cognitive Growth, New York John Wiley.
  • Bruner, J.S. (1964) The course of cognitive growth, American Psychologist 19: 1-15.
  • Bruner, J.S. (1972) The nature and uses of immaturity, American Psychologist 27: 687-708.
  • Bruner, J.S. (1973b) The organisation of early skilled action, Child Development 44: 1-11.
  • Bruner, J.S. (1975) The ontogenesis of speech acts, Journal of Child Language 2: 1-19.
  • Wood, D., Bruner, J., & Ross, G. (1976). The role of tutoring in problem solving. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, 17, 89-100. (Addresses the concept of instructional scaffolding.)
  • Bruner, J.S. (1991)"The Narrative Construction of Reality" Critical Inquiry, 18:1, 1-21.

es:Jerome Bruner fr:Jerome Brunerzh:杰罗姆·布鲁纳

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