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Individual differences |
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To enable Esquirol to take up the intensive study of insanity in an appropriate setting, Pinel reportedly put up the security for the house and garden on Rue de Buffon where Esquirol established a maison de santé or private asylum in 1801 or 1802. Esquirol's maison was quite successful, being ranked, in 1810, as one of the three best such institutions in Paris.
In 1805 he published his thesis The passions considered as causes, symptoms and means of cure in cases of insanity. Esquirol, like Pinel, believed that the origin of mental illness could be found in the passions of the soul and was convinced that madness does not fully and irremediably affect a patient's reason.
Esquirol was made médecin ordinaire at the Salpêtrière in 1811, following the death of Jean-Baptiste Pussin, Pinel's trusted concierge. Pinel chose Esquirol because he was "a physician… devoted exclusively to the study of insanity,"Template:Cite quote arguing that with his many years of maison de santé experience he was the only man suited for the job.
Esquirol saw the question of madness as institutional and national. This was especially true for the poor where he saw the state, with the help of doctors, playing an important role. He also saw an important role for doctors in caring for people accused of crimes who were declared not responsible by reason of insanity. In public controversies over this question he promoted the usefulness of the diagnosis of monomania. By taking such an active role in these public matters, his fame eclipsed that of his teacher Pinel.
In 1817, under the [restored Bourbon monarchy, Esquirol initiated a course in maladies mentales in the makeshift quarters of the Salpêtrière dining hall. This was perhaps the first formal teaching of psychiatry in France. At this time he was neither a professor at the Paris faculty or the chief physician at a Paris hospital, but merely a médecin ordinaire. Nonetheless he was reported to have been one of the clinical instructors to whose hospital visits "students flock with a kind of frenzy".Template:Cite quote He had many very distinguished students.
In 1810, 1814 and 1817 Esquirol, at his own expense, had toured facilities for lunatics throughout France. In 1818 following these trips he wrote a short memoir presented to the minister of the interior and a more detailed description of his findings published in the Dictionnaire des sciences médicales. These articles described, in precise and frightening terms, the conditions in which the insane lived throughout France. They demonstrate that the reforms undertaken in Paris had not penetrated the provinces. Together these two articles constituted a program of reform directed both at the government and the medical profession.
This program consisted of four points:
- First, that insanity should be treated in special hospitals by physicians with special training.
- Second, that reform involved exporting the advances made in Paris to the provinces.
- Third, that "a lunatic hospital is an instrument of cure". By this he meant that the physical structure of new psychiatric hospitals must be designed to support the practice of the new specialty.
- Fourth, Esquirol insisted on the definitive medicalization of the care of the insane. "The physician must be the vital principal of a lunatic hospital. It is he who should set everything in motion… The physician should be invested with an authority from which no one is exempt."Template:Cite quote
At the behest of the minister of internal affairs, Esquirol next undertook a nationwide survey, visiting all the institutions throughout France where mental patients were confined. In 1822 he was appointed inspector general of medical faculties, and in 1825 director of Charenton Hospice. He became the main architect of the national law of 1838 that instituted departmental asylums for all needy French mental patients and that is still in force today. In 1834, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
- (1838) Des maladies mentales considérées sous les rapports médical, hygiénique et médico-légal, Volume 1 (in French), Paris: Chez J.-B. Baillière. URL accessed 2011-07-14.
- (1838) Des maladies mentales considerées sous les rapports médical, hygiènique et médico-légal, Volume 2 (in French), Paris: Chez J.-B. Baillière. URL accessed 2011-07-14.
- [1838 (original French edition)] (1845) Mental maladies; a treatise on insanity, Translated from the French by Ebenezer Kingsbury Hunt, Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard. URL accessed 2011-07-13.
- Ottaviani, R, Vanni Paolo, Guerin E, Boddi V, Vanni D (Jun. 2002). [On Esquirol's historical and statistical study of the royal establishment at Charenton]. Vesalius : acta internationales historiae medicinae 8 (1): 23–33.
- Caire, M (1997). [Esquirol in 1805: titles, publications, performed duties]. Histoire des sciences médicales 31 (1): 45–52.
- Weiner, D B (1989). Esquirol's patient register: the first private psychiatric hospital in Paris, 1802-1808. Bulletin of the history of medicine 63 (1): 110–20.
- Szapiro, E (Jun. 1976). [Pinel and Esquirol: some comments on the beginning of a friendship]. Annales médico-psychologiques 2 (1): 59–61.
- Schrenk, M (Apr. 1973). [Pathology of passions. In memoriam J.E.D. Esquirol, born 1772]. Der Nervenarzt 44 (4): 195–8.
- Mora, G (Nov. 1972). On the bicentenary of the birth of Esquirol (1772-1840), the first complete psychiatrist. The American journal of psychiatry 129 (5): 562–7.
- Grecu, G (1972). [200th anniversary of the birth of the great French psychiatrist, Jean-Etienne-Dominique Esquirol]. Neurologia, psihiatria, neurochirurgia 17 (6): 553–7.
- Baruk, H (1971). [Work of Pinel and Esquirol in the light of "antipsychiatry"]. Bull. Acad. Natl. Med. 155 (9): 205–15.
- Goldstein, Jan. Console and Classify: The French Psychiatric Profession in the Nineteenth Century, [Cambridge, Cambridge U.P., 1987].
- Weiner, Dora. ‘Le geste de Pinel: Psychiatric Myth,’ in Mark S. Micale and Roy Porter [eds.], Discovering the History of Psychiatry [Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1994] 232-247.
- Gauchet, Marcel & Swain, Gladys. [Translated by Catherine Porter], Madness and Democracy: the Modern Psychiatric Universe. [Princeton NJ, Princeton University Press, 1999].
- Rafael Huertas, "Between doctrine and clinical practice: nosography and semiology in the work of Jean-Etienne-Dominique Esquirol (1772—1840)," History of Psychiatry, 19,2 (2008), 123-140.
de:Jean Etienne Dominique Esquirol es:Jean Étienne Dominique Esquirol fr:Jean-Étienne Esquirolpt:Jean-Étienne Esquirol ru:Эскироль, Жан-Этьен Доминик sk:Jean Etienne Dominique Esquirol sv:Jean Étienne Dominique Esquirol