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{{ProfPsy}}
'''Jay Haley''' in relation to [[family therapy]] is a creative, provocative [[clinician]] who seems to delight in making definitive, challenging statements. Perhaps, then, it is no coincidence that his method of therapy-–he claims not to have a theory of therapy—-emphasizes creative and provocative instructions for the clients to react to.
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'''Jay Douglas Haley''' (July 19, 1923 – February 13, 2007)<ref>Holley, J. (2007, March 3). [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/03/01/AR2007030101741.html Jay Haley, pioneer in family therapy]. ''[[Washington Post]]''.</ref> was a [[psychotherapy|psychotherapist]].<ref>Ray, W. A. (2007). Jay Haley a memorial. ''Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 33''(3), 291-292.</ref> He was one of the founding figures of [[brief therapy|brief]] and [[family therapy]] and a teacher, supervisor, and author in these disciplines.<ref>Nichols, M., & Schwartz, R. (2005). ''Family Therapy: Concepts and Methods'' (7th Ed.). New York: Prentice Hall.</ref>
   
Haley adheres to a [[systems theory|systems]]/communications model of family interaction, and in fact restricts himself to dealing specifically with the interactions, the repeated sequences of behaviors, and has little interest in such areas as insight, catharsis, or other concepts not directly tied to overt behavior. Haley sees [[dysfunctional family]] communication as paradoxical, in that their content is not congruent with their metacommunication. His therapeutic goal is to stop problematic behavior sequences and replace them with more functional, flexible ones. Haley believes that [[feeling]]s will change as a result of behavior changing, and thus need not be dealt with directly. He tends to formulate the issue, for the clients, in terms of solving the problem that brought them into therapy, while keeping within himself a more sophisticated formulation focused on patterns of repeated interactions, dysfunctionally inflexible and often involving issues of control over the creating and enforcement of family rules. The therapist’s role is to intervene in whatever ways will effectively and efficiently bring about changes in the family’s hierarchy and interactive patterns, to promote congruence in communications and family rules. He uses a variety of techniques, all intended to change the behavior of the system rapidly, with or without awareness. Typical of his interventions are metaphorical statements, purposely kept at what might be called a subliminal level, alluding to the type of change desired by the therapist, and the introduction of a paradoxical injunction intended to restructure the system (e.g., by having a relatively alienated couple work together in trying to deal with the therapist’s bizarre prescriptions).
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==Life and works==
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Conceived in a log cabin on his family's homestead in Montana, Haley was born in [[Midwest, Wyoming]]. His family moved to Berkeley, California when he was 4. After serving in the [[United States Army Air Forces]] during [[World War II]], he attended UCLA where he received a BA in Theater Arts. During his undergraduate years, Haley published a short story in ''The New Yorker''.<ref>Haley, J. (1947, July 5). The Eastern question. ''The New Yorker'', p. 53.</ref> After a year spent in pursuit of a career as a playwright, he returned to California and received a Bachelors of Library Science degree from University of California at Berkeley and then a Masters Degree in Communication from Stanford University. Jay was married for the first time in 1950 and had three children, Kathleen, Gregory, and Andrew, with his wife Elizabeth.
   
Successful therapy is the successful [[solution]] to specific problems, achieved through an increase in the variety, complexity, and congruence of the family members’ responses. For Haley, change within an organization produces change within individuals. By forcing a change in interactional patterns, new patterns, and with them new hierarchies and coalitions, emerge; those changes require individuals to respond in new ways, to develop new patterns of response. Haley does not distinguish between a “changed” individual and an individual simply emitting new behaviors in response to a new environment. Whether the individual would respond in old ways if the rest of the family “regressed” to an old pattern is left unanswered; the system has changed in the direction of functionality, alleviating the presenting problem(s); individuals, in this new setting, are reacting with different patterns, and thus, for Haley, they are changed.
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While at Stanford, Haley met the anthropologist [[Gregory Bateson]] who invited him to join a communications research project that later became known as The Bateson Project, a collaboration that became one of the driving factors in the creation of family therapy and that published the single most important paper in the history of family therapy,<ref>Keim, J., & Lappin, J. (2002). Structural-strategic marital therapy. In A. S. Gurman & N. S. Jacobson (Eds.), ''Clinical Handbook of Couple Therapy'' (3rd Ed.) (pp. 86-117, here p. 88). New York: Guilford.</ref> "Towards a Theory of Schizophrenia."<ref>Bateson, G., Jackson, D., Haley, J., & Weakland, J. (1956). Toward a theory of schizophrenia. ''Behavioral Science, 1''(4), 251-264.</ref> The central members of this Project were [[Gregory Bateson]], [[Donald deAvila Jackson]], Jay Haley, John Weakland, and Bill Fry.
   
[[Category:Psychotherapists]]
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In addition to his personal involvement in the birth and evolution of family therapy, Jay was an observational researcher of psychotherapy in the 1950s and early 1960s. The Bateson Project arranged for Jay and John Weakland to observe and record clinicians including [[Milton Erickson]], [[Joseph Wolpe]], John Rosen, Don Jackson, Charles Fulweiler, [[Frieda Fromm-Reichmann]], and others.
   
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In 1962, while working at the [[Mental Research Institute]] in Palo Alto, Jay became the founding editor of the family therapy journal Family Process (assisted by his first wife, Elizabeth Haley, an experienced journalist). While at MRI, Jay continued the professional relationship with [[Milton Erickson]] that had been established in the earliest years of the Bateson Project. Jay helped to introduce Erickson to the clinical public with such important books as ''Uncommon Therapy''.
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Haley moved to Philadelphia in the mid-1960s to take a position at the Philadelphia Child Guidance Clinic. Through his collaboration with [[Salvador Minuchin]] and Braulio Montalvo, Jay influenced (and was influenced by) the evolution of [[Structural Family Therapy]] in the early 1970s.
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After founding the Family Therapy Institute of Washington DC with second wife Cloe Madanes in 1976, Haley continued to be a central force in the evolution of [[Strategic Family Therapy]]. His publications from the years at the Family Therapy Institute include one of the field's most influential best selling books, ''Problem Solving Therapy''.
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After leaving the Family Therapy Institute in the 1990s, Jay moved to the San Diego area and, in collaboration with his third wife Madeleine Richeport-Haley, produced a number of films relating to both anthropology and psychotherapy. Madeleine also collaborated in the writing of Jay's final book, ''Directive Family Therapy''. At the time of his death, he was also a Scholar In Residence at [[California School of Professional Psychology]] at [[Alliant International University]].
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Haley combined a systemic understanding of human problems and strengths with a pragmatic approach to intervention. His method of therapy-–he claimed not to have a theory of therapy—-emphasizes creative and sometimes provocative instructions for the clients to react to. The approach emphasizes careful contracting between clients and the therapist, experimenting with possible solutions (in a manner sometimes inspired by the therapist and sometimes inspired by the client), review of the results and informed resumption of experimentation until the goal of therapy is achieved. In the 1960s and 1970s when psychodynamic approaches to therapy dominated, such practicality was commonly seen as heretical. The here-and-now emphasis of Haley and others of his generation of pragmatic practitioners is now the norm for the field of psychotherapy.
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==Bibliography==
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===By Haley===
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* ''Uncommon Therapy: The Psychiatric Techniques of Milton H. Erickson, M.D.''
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* ''The Art of Strategic Therapy''
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* ''The Power Tactics of Jesus Christ and Other Essays'' (Avon Books 1969)
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* ''Strategies of Psychotherapy''
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* ''Problem-Solving Therapy''
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* ''Ordeal Therapy: Unusual Ways to Change Behavior'' (Jossey-Bass 1984)
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* ''Learning and Teaching Therapy'' (Guilford Press 1996)
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* ''Directive Family Therapy'' (written with Madeleine Richeport-Haley)
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* ''Leaving Home: The Therapy of Disturbed Young People'', Second Edition. (Brunner/Routledge 1997) ISBN 978-0876308455
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===Coauthored===
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* ''Techniques of family therapy'' (written with [[Lynn Hoffman]]) (1967; 1994). New York: Basic Books. (1994 printing – Northvale, NJ: Aronson.)
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* ''Changing Directives: The Strategic Therapy of Jay Haley'' (written with Jeffrey K. Zeig) (2001)
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==References==
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{{reflist}}
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==See also==
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*[[Brief therapy]]
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*[[Family therapy]]
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==External links==
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*[http://www.jay-haley-on-therapy.com/ Jay Haley's Homepage]
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*[http://www.abacon.com/famtherapy/haley.html Brief profile of Jay Haley at Allyn & Bacon Family Therapy Website]
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*[http://www.alliant.edu/wps/wcm/connect/website/News+and+Events/Alliant+News/Anonymous+Donor+Gives+%2450%2C000+to+Establish+Scholarship+Honoring+Dr.+Jay+Haley Anonymous Donor Gives $50,000 to Establish Scholarship Honoring Dr. Jay Haley]
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*[http://www.alliant.edu/wps/wcm/connect/website/News+and+Events/News+Center/News+Releases/Feb.+2007+-+Remembering+the+Life+%26+Work+of+MFT+Pioneer+Dr.+Jay+Haley Alliant Community Remembers the Life and Work of Dr. Jay Haley]
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*[http://www.mri.org/ The Mental Research Institute Homepage]
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{{DEFAULTSORT:Haley, Jay}}
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[[Category:1923 births]]
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[[Category:2007 deaths]]
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[[Category:American psychology writers]]
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[[Category:American psychotherapists]]
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[[Category:Family therapists]]
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[[Category:Relationship counseling]]
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Latest revision as of 07:41, May 26, 2010

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Jay Douglas Haley (July 19, 1923 – February 13, 2007)[1] was a psychotherapist.[2] He was one of the founding figures of brief and family therapy and a teacher, supervisor, and author in these disciplines.[3]

Life and worksEdit

Conceived in a log cabin on his family's homestead in Montana, Haley was born in Midwest, Wyoming. His family moved to Berkeley, California when he was 4. After serving in the United States Army Air Forces during World War II, he attended UCLA where he received a BA in Theater Arts. During his undergraduate years, Haley published a short story in The New Yorker.[4] After a year spent in pursuit of a career as a playwright, he returned to California and received a Bachelors of Library Science degree from University of California at Berkeley and then a Masters Degree in Communication from Stanford University. Jay was married for the first time in 1950 and had three children, Kathleen, Gregory, and Andrew, with his wife Elizabeth.

While at Stanford, Haley met the anthropologist Gregory Bateson who invited him to join a communications research project that later became known as The Bateson Project, a collaboration that became one of the driving factors in the creation of family therapy and that published the single most important paper in the history of family therapy,[5] "Towards a Theory of Schizophrenia."[6] The central members of this Project were Gregory Bateson, Donald deAvila Jackson, Jay Haley, John Weakland, and Bill Fry.

In addition to his personal involvement in the birth and evolution of family therapy, Jay was an observational researcher of psychotherapy in the 1950s and early 1960s. The Bateson Project arranged for Jay and John Weakland to observe and record clinicians including Milton Erickson, Joseph Wolpe, John Rosen, Don Jackson, Charles Fulweiler, Frieda Fromm-Reichmann, and others.

In 1962, while working at the Mental Research Institute in Palo Alto, Jay became the founding editor of the family therapy journal Family Process (assisted by his first wife, Elizabeth Haley, an experienced journalist). While at MRI, Jay continued the professional relationship with Milton Erickson that had been established in the earliest years of the Bateson Project. Jay helped to introduce Erickson to the clinical public with such important books as Uncommon Therapy.

Haley moved to Philadelphia in the mid-1960s to take a position at the Philadelphia Child Guidance Clinic. Through his collaboration with Salvador Minuchin and Braulio Montalvo, Jay influenced (and was influenced by) the evolution of Structural Family Therapy in the early 1970s.

After founding the Family Therapy Institute of Washington DC with second wife Cloe Madanes in 1976, Haley continued to be a central force in the evolution of Strategic Family Therapy. His publications from the years at the Family Therapy Institute include one of the field's most influential best selling books, Problem Solving Therapy.

After leaving the Family Therapy Institute in the 1990s, Jay moved to the San Diego area and, in collaboration with his third wife Madeleine Richeport-Haley, produced a number of films relating to both anthropology and psychotherapy. Madeleine also collaborated in the writing of Jay's final book, Directive Family Therapy. At the time of his death, he was also a Scholar In Residence at California School of Professional Psychology at Alliant International University.

Haley combined a systemic understanding of human problems and strengths with a pragmatic approach to intervention. His method of therapy-–he claimed not to have a theory of therapy—-emphasizes creative and sometimes provocative instructions for the clients to react to. The approach emphasizes careful contracting between clients and the therapist, experimenting with possible solutions (in a manner sometimes inspired by the therapist and sometimes inspired by the client), review of the results and informed resumption of experimentation until the goal of therapy is achieved. In the 1960s and 1970s when psychodynamic approaches to therapy dominated, such practicality was commonly seen as heretical. The here-and-now emphasis of Haley and others of his generation of pragmatic practitioners is now the norm for the field of psychotherapy.

BibliographyEdit

By HaleyEdit

  • Uncommon Therapy: The Psychiatric Techniques of Milton H. Erickson, M.D.
  • The Art of Strategic Therapy
  • The Power Tactics of Jesus Christ and Other Essays (Avon Books 1969)
  • Strategies of Psychotherapy
  • Problem-Solving Therapy
  • Ordeal Therapy: Unusual Ways to Change Behavior (Jossey-Bass 1984)
  • Learning and Teaching Therapy (Guilford Press 1996)
  • Directive Family Therapy (written with Madeleine Richeport-Haley)
  • Leaving Home: The Therapy of Disturbed Young People, Second Edition. (Brunner/Routledge 1997) ISBN 978-0876308455

CoauthoredEdit

  • Techniques of family therapy (written with Lynn Hoffman) (1967; 1994). New York: Basic Books. (1994 printing – Northvale, NJ: Aronson.)
  • Changing Directives: The Strategic Therapy of Jay Haley (written with Jeffrey K. Zeig) (2001)

ReferencesEdit

  1. Holley, J. (2007, March 3). Jay Haley, pioneer in family therapy. Washington Post.
  2. Ray, W. A. (2007). Jay Haley – a memorial. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 33(3), 291-292.
  3. Nichols, M., & Schwartz, R. (2005). Family Therapy: Concepts and Methods (7th Ed.). New York: Prentice Hall.
  4. Haley, J. (1947, July 5). The Eastern question. The New Yorker, p. 53.
  5. Keim, J., & Lappin, J. (2002). Structural-strategic marital therapy. In A. S. Gurman & N. S. Jacobson (Eds.), Clinical Handbook of Couple Therapy (3rd Ed.) (pp. 86-117, here p. 88). New York: Guilford.
  6. Bateson, G., Jackson, D., Haley, J., & Weakland, J. (1956). Toward a theory of schizophrenia. Behavioral Science, 1(4), 251-264.

See alsoEdit

External linksEdit

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