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James Kennedy (born November 5, 1950) is an American social psychologist, best known as an originator and researcher of particle swarm optimization. The first papers on the topic, by Kennedy and Russell C. Eberhart, were presented in 1995; since then more than ten thousand papers have been published on particle swarms. The Academic Press / Morgan Kaufmann book, Swarm Intelligence, by Kennedy and Eberhart with Yuhui Shi, was published in 2001.
The particle swarm paradigm draws on social-psychological simulation research in which Kennedy had participated at the University of North Carolina, integrated with evolutionary computation methods that Eberhart had been working with in the 1990s. The result was a problem-solving or optimization algorithm based on the principles of human social interaction. Individuals begin the program with random guesses at the problem solution. As the program runs, the "particles" share their successes with their topological neighbors; each particle is both teacher and learner. Over time, the population converges reliably on optimal vectors.
Kennedy is an active combatant in the controversy over sex education in Montgomery County, Maryland, supporting the public schools' efforts to develop a comprehensive and inclusive program. He also worked to support a gender identity nondiscrimination law in Montgomery County that came under attack from conservatives. He also worked as a professional musician for twenty years and currently plays in a rockabilly band called The Colliders.
- Kennedy, J., Eberhart, R. C., with Shi, Y. (2001) Swarm Intelligence. Morgan Kaufmann / Academic Press.
- Jim Kennedy: "A Tolerant, Scientific Approach", Washington Post, August 24, 2005.
- The Colliders
- Kennedy, J. (2004). "Particle swarms: optimization based on sociocognition". In L. N. de Castro and F. J. Von Zuben (Eds.) Recent Developments in Biologically Inspired Computing. Hershey, PA: The Idea Group, Inc.
- Kennedy, J. (2004) "Swarm intelligence". In A. Zomaya (Ed.), Handbook of Innovative Computational Paradigms: Biological and Adaptive Computing, 187-220. New York: Springer-Verlag.
- Kennedy, J. (2002). "We don’t think the way we think we think. Review of Wegner’s The Illusion of Conscious Will". Science, 296, 1973.
- Kennedy, J., and Eberhart, R. C. (1999). "The particle swarm: Social adaptation in information-processing systems", in D. Corne, M. Dorigo, and F. Glover (eds.), New Ideas in Optimization, London: McGraw-Hill.
- Kennedy, J., and Mendes, R. (2006). "Neighborhood topologies in fully informed and best-of-neighborhood particle swarms". IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part C: Applications and Reviews, 36 (4), 515-519.
- Clerc, M., and Kennedy, J. (2002). "The particle swarm: Explosion, stability, and convergence in a multi-dimensional complex space". IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 6, 58-73.
- Kennedy, J. (1999). "Minds and cultures: Particle swarm implications for beings in sociocognitive space". Adaptive Behavior Journal, 7, 269-288.
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