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Isoniazid

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Isoniazid (also called is isonicotinyl hydrazine or isonicotinic acid hydrazide); abbreviated INH or just H. Isoniazid is a first-line antituberculous medication used in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis.

It is available in tablet, syrup, and injectable forms (given via intramuscular or intravenous forms), available world-wide, inexpensive to produce and is generally well tolerated.

Mechanism of action

Isoniazid is a prodrug and must be activated by bacterial catalase. The active form inhibits the synthesis of mycolic acid in the mycobacterial cell wall.

Isoniazid reaches therapeutic concentrations in serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and within caseous granulomas. Isoniazid is metabolized in the liver via acetylation. There are two forms of the enzyme responsible for acetylation, so that some patients metabolize the drug quicker than others. Hence, the half-life is bimodal with peaks at 1 hour and 3 hours in the US population. The metabolites are excreted in the urine. Doses do not usually have to be adjusted in case of renal failure.

Isoniazid is bactericidal to rapidly-dividing mycobacteria, but is bacteriostatic if the mycobacterium is slow-growing.

Side effects

Adverse reactions include rash, abnormal liver function tests, hepatitis, peripheral neuropathy, mild central nervous system (CNS) effects, and drug interactions resulting in increased phenytoin (Dilantin) or disulfiram (Antabuse) levels.

Peripheral neuropathy and CNS effects are associated with the use of isoniazid and is due to pyridoxine (vitamin B6) depletion, but is uncommon at doses of 5 mg/kg. Persons with conditions in which neuropathy is common (e.g., diabetes, uremia, alcoholism, malnutrition, HIV-infection), as well as pregnant women and persons with a seizure disorder, may be given pyridoxine (vitamin B6) (10-50 mg/day) with isoniazid.

Wikipedia links

References

See Chapter 6, Treatment of LTBI Regimens - Isoniazid
See Chapter 7 - Treatment of TB Disease Monitoring - Adverse Reactions to First-Line TB Drugs - Isoniazid
See Table 5 First-Line Anti-TB Medications

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