Wikia

Psychology Wiki

Isolation effect

Talk0
34,117pages on
this wiki

Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |

Cognitive Psychology: Attention · Decision making · Learning · Judgement · Memory · Motivation · Perception · Reasoning · Thinking  - Cognitive processes Cognition - Outline Index


The isolation effect, also called the Von Restorff effect (named after Hedwig von Restorff) or Kohler-Restorff phenomenon, predicts that salient items, those that "stands out like a sore thumb", (called distinctive encoding) will be more likely to be remembered than other items.

For instance, if you see a list of items on a shopping list, if one item is written in bright green and the others are not, you may be more likely to remember that one item.

This distinctiveness may come in the form of humor, in which case the humor effect is incurred. Similarly, specific examples may also include the bizarreness effect and the serial position effect.

ReferencesEdit

  • Von Restorff, H. (1933). Über die Wirkung von Bereichsbildungen im Spurenfeld (The effects of field formation in the trace field). Psychologie Forschung, 18, 299-34.

See alsoEdit

References & BibliographyEdit

Key textsEdit

BooksEdit

  • Moravcsik, J. E., & Healy, A. F. (1998). Highlighting important words leads to poorer comprehension. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

PapersEdit

  • Alovisetti, M. C. (1976). Effects of perceptual isolation on recall by field-dependent and field-independent subjects: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 43(3) Dec 1976, 1311-1315.
  • Bellezza, F. S., & Cheney, T. L. (1973). Isolation effect in immediate and delayed recall: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 99(1) Jun 1973, 55-60.
  • Bellezza, F. S., & Hofstetter, G. P. (1974). Isolation, serial position, and rehearsal in free recall: Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society Vol 3(5-A) May 1974, 362-364.
  • Bhatnagar, M., & Sen, A. (1973). The effect of the Von-Restorff phenomenon on different temporal positions in free learning: Indian Journal of Psychology Vol 48(4) 1973, 53-63.
  • Bhatnagar, M., & Sen, A. (1973). The effect of the Von-Restorff phenomenon on different temporal positions in serial learning: Indian Journal of Psychology Vol 48(4) 1973, 44-52.
  • Bone, R. N., & Goulet, L. R. (1968). Serial Position and the Von Restorff Isolation Effect: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 76(3, Pt 1) Mar 1968, 494-496.
  • Bruce, D., & Gaines, M. T. (1976). Tests of an organizational hypothesis of isolation effects in free recall: Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior Vol 15(1) Feb 1976, 59-72.
  • Caplan, J. B. (2005). Associative isolation: Unifying associative and list memory: Journal of Mathematical Psychology Vol 49(5) Oct 2005, 383-402.
  • Caplan, J. B., Glaholt, M. G., & McIntosh, A. R. (2006). Linking associative and serial list memory: Pairs versus triples: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition Vol 32(6) Nov 2006, 1244-1265.
  • Chiu, Y.-C. (2003). Is There a Framing Effect? The Asset Effect in Decision-Making under Risk: Chinese Journal of Psychology Vol 45(2) Jun 2003, 171-182.
  • Chiu, Y.-C. (2003). Is There an Isolation Effect? Effects of Asset Comparability in Decision-Making under Risk: Chinese Journal of Psychology Vol 45(2) Jun 2003, 157-170.
  • Cimbalo, R. S., & Brink, L. (1982). Aging and the von Restorff isolation effect in short/term memory: Journal of General Psychology Vol 106(1) Jan 1982, 69-76.
  • Cimbalo, R. S., Capria, R. A., Neider, L. L., & Wilkins, M. A. (1977). Isolation effect: Overall list facilitation in short-term memory: Acta Psychologica Vol 41(6) Oct 1977, 419-432.
  • Cimbalo, R. S., Clark, D., III, & Matayev, A. I. (2003). Relating sensation seeking and the von Restorff isolation effect: Psychological Reports Vol 92(3,Pt2) Jun 2003, 1287-1294.
  • Cimbalo, R. S., McQuestion, C., & Wittig, D. M. (1980). Short-term memory isolation: Null, facilitative, and debilitative effects and their preconditions: Journal of General Psychology Vol 103(2) Oct 1980, 171-178.
  • Cimbalo, R. S., Nowak, B. I., & Soderstrom, J. A. (1981). The isolation effect in children's short term memory: Journal of General Psychology Vol 105(Pt 2) Oct 1981, 215-223.
  • Cunningham, T. F., Healy, A. F., & Kole, J. A. (2005). Short-term recall of order information: Influence of encoding and generation processes on distinctiveness, isolation, and background effects: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review Vol 12(3) Jun 2005, 519-523.
  • Davis, D. D. (2006). Rebate subsidies, matching subsidies and isolation effects: Judgment and Decision Making Vol 1(1) Jul 2006, 13-22.
  • Derks, P. L., Goalder, J., & Schulz, L. S. (1972). Immediate memory for simultaneously presented items: The effects of search for a target item: Psychonomic Science Vol 28(2) Jul 1972, 100-102.
  • Deshpande, S. W. (1982). Isolation effects in verbal learning: Indian Educational Review Vol 17(4) Oct 1982, 48-67.
  • Deshpande, S. W., & Aljapurkar, V. B. (1975). Background meaningfulness and isolation effect in serial verbal learning: Psychological Studies Vol 20(1) Jan 1975, 46-49.
  • Dunlosky, J., Hunt, R. R., & Clark, E. (2000). Is perceptual salience needed in explanations of the isolation effect? : Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition Vol 26(3) May 2000, 649-657.
  • Erickson, R. L. (1968). Role of Associative Learning in the Production of Differential Stimulus-Response Isolation Effects: Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior 7(1) 1968, 225-229.
  • Erickson, R. L. (1974). Effects of differential stimulus-response isolation under two reading order conditions in paired-associate learning: Canadian Journal of Psychology/Revue canadienne de psychologie Vol 28(1) Mar 1974, 62-68.
  • Fabiani, M., & Donchin, E. (1995). Encoding processes and memory organization: A model of the von Restorff effect: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition Vol 21(1) Jan 1995, 224-240.
  • Fabiani, M., Gratton, G., Chiarenza, G. A., Donchin, E., & et al. (1990). A psychophysiological investigation of the von Restorff paradigm in children: Journal of Psychophysiology Vol 4(1) 1990, 15-24.
  • Fafard, M.-B., & Prehm, H. J. (1976). Isolation of information in learning: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 42(3, Pt 2) Jun 1976, 1203-1210.
  • Gabassi, P. G. (1976). Direction of presentation of elements as a means of producing the isolation effect: Giornale Italiano di Psicologia Vol 3(1) Apr 1976, 127-131.
  • Gabassi, P. G. (1981). Meaningfulness and isolation effect for normal and retarded subjects: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 52(2) Apr 1981, 595-598.
  • Gabassi, P. G., & Batic, N. (1980). The von Restorff effect and arousal in retarded and non-retarded subjects: Bollettino di Psicologia Applicata No 153 Jan-Mar 1980, 5-14.
  • Ghosh, A. (1990). Isolation effect in free recall in hearing-impaired children: Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology Vol 16(1) Jan 1990, 9-12.
  • Goulet, L. R., Bone, R. N., & Barker, D. D. (1967). Serial Position, Primacy and the Von Restorff Isolation Effect: Psychonomic Science Vol 9(10) 1967, 529-530.
  • Govardhan, B., Sandeep, P., & Rao, G. S. (1973). The von Restorff effect in paired associate learning: Indian Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 7(1) Jan 1973, 37-41.
  • Guerard, K., Hughes, R. W., & Tremblay, S. (2008). An isolation effect in serial memory for spatial information: The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 61(5) May 2008, 752-762.
  • Gumenik, W. E. (1967). The Von Restorff Effect as a Function of the Degree of Stimulus Isolation: Psychonomic Bulletin 1(2) 1967, 12.
  • Holen, M. C., & Oaster, T. R. (1976). Serial position and isolation effects in a classroom lecture simulation: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 68(3) Jun 1976, 293-296.
  • Huang, I. N., Ballering, L., & Nikl, L. D. (1974). Isolation effect in immediate and delayed free recall: Journal of General Psychology Vol 91(1) Jul 1974, 81-85.
  • Huang, I. n., & Borter, S. J. (1987). The color isolation effect in free recall by adults with Down syndrome: American Journal of Mental Deficiency Vol 92(1) Jul 1987, 115-118.
  • Huang, I. n., & Wille, C. (1979). The von Restorff isolation effect in free recall: Journal of General Psychology Vol 101(1) Jul 1979, 27-34.
  • Hunt, R. R. (1995). The subtlety of distinctiveness: What von Restorff really did: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review Vol 2(1) Mar 1995, 105-112.
  • Hunt, R. R. (2009). Does salience facilitate longer-term retention? : Memory Vol 17(1) Jan 2009, 49-53.
  • Hunt, R. R., & Lamb, C. A. (2001). What causes the isolation effect? : Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition Vol 27(6) Nov 2001, 1359-1366.
  • Johnson, R. E. (1972). Meaningfulness differentials, number of isolates, and isolation effects: Journal of General Psychology Vol 87(2) Oct 1972, 181-186.
  • Kelley, M. R., & Nairne, J. S. (2001). von Restorff revisited: Isolation, generation, and memory for order: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition Vol 27(1) Jan 2001, 54-66.
  • Lewandowsky, S., & Brown, G. D. A. (2005). Serial recall and presentation schedule: A micro-analysis of local distinctiveness: Memory Vol 13(3-4) Apr-May 2005, 283-292.
  • Lippman, L. G. (1980). A reexamination of isolation-by-material in serial learning: American Journal of Psychology Vol 93(1) Mar 1980, 99-105.
  • Lippman, L. G. (1981). Isolation-by-material in serial learning: Supplementary report: Journal of General Psychology Vol 104(2) Apr 1981, 235-242.
  • Lippman, L. G. (1983). Perceptual isolation and list difficulty in serial learning: Journal of General Psychology Vol 109(1) Jul 1983, 103-112.
  • Lippman, L. G., & Lippman, M. Z. (1968). Comment on "Serial Isolation by Shock." Psychonomic Science Vol 10(4) 1968, 130, 134.
  • Lippman, L. G., & Thompson, R. W. (1981). Intermittent isolation in a serial anticipation task: Journal of General Psychology Vol 105(1) Jul 1981, 93-100.
  • Main, K. M., Leland, L. S., Jr., & Bartlett, G. C. (1998). The properties of one: Facial memory and the isolation effect: Journal of General Psychology Vol 125(2) Apr 1998, 192-206.
  • Malhotra, A., & Dixit, R. C. (1982). Recall and recognition measures of the Von Restorff effect and the serial position of the item: Archivio di Psicologia, Neurologia e Psichiatria Vol 43(3) Jul-Sep 1982, 378-389.
  • Malhotra, A., & Dixit, R. C. (1982). The Von Restorff effect as a function of the conditions of recall and the serial position of the item: Archivio di Psicologia, Neurologia e Psichiatria Vol 43(2) Apr-Jun 1982, 193-201.
  • Malhotra, A., & Dixit, R. C. (1983). Primacy and recency effects of isolation on delayed recall and recognition: Archivio di Psicologia, Neurologia e Psichiatria Vol 44(1) Jan-Mar 1983, 117-127.
  • McCaffery, E. J., & Baron, J. (2006). Isolation Effects and the Neglect of Indirect Effects of Fiscal Policies: Journal of Behavioral Decision Making Vol 19(4) Oct 2006, 289-302.
  • McManis, D. L. (1967). Intralist Differentiation and the Isolation Effect in Serial Learning: a Test of the S-R Competition Hypothesis: Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior 6(5) 1967, 714-720.
  • Meazzini, P. (1974). The von Restorff effect as a function of increasing heterogeneity of the isolated item and retroactive interference: Giornale Italiano di Psicologia Vol 1(1) Apr 1974, 67-81.
  • Mounts, J. R. W., & Melara, R. D. (1999). Attentional selection of objects or features: Evidence from a modified search task: Perception & Psychophysics Vol 61(2) Feb 1999, 322-341.
  • Nimmo, L. M., & Lewandowsky, S. (2006). Distinctiveness Revisited: Unpredictable Temporal Isolation Does Not Benefit Short-Term Serial Recall of Heard or Seen Events: Memory & Cognition Vol 34(6) Sep 2006, 1368-1375.
  • Pinto, A. C. (2006). The isolation effect for the words psychology and Freud: Conditions for positive spread on the previous item: Psicologia Educacao Cultura Vol 10(1) May 2006, 209-226.
  • Rabinowitz, F. M., & Andrews, S. R. (1973). Intentional and incidental learning in children and the von Restorff effect: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 100(2) Oct 1973, 315-318.
  • Raskin, D. C., Hattle, M., & Rubel, E. W. (1967). The Effects of Electric Shock Isolation in Serial Learning: Psychonomic Science Vol 8(10) 1967, 413-414.
  • Raskin, D. C., & Rubel, E. W. (1968). Serial Isolation by Shock: a Reply: Psychonomic Science Vol 10(4) 1968, 136.
  • Sakamoto, Y. (2006). The roles of isolation and differentiation in enhanced oddball memory. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Santos, I. M., & Young, A. W. (2005). Exploring the perception of social characteristics in faces using the isolation effect: Visual Cognition Vol 12(1) 2005, 213-247.
  • Sikstrom, S. (2006). The Isolation, Primacy, and Recency Effects Predicted by an Adaptive LTD/LTP Threshold in Postsynaptic Cells: Cognitive Science: A Multidisciplinary Journal Vol 30(2) Mar-Apr 2006, 243-275.
  • Simon, E. B. (1972). Over-all list facilitation and the von Restorff effect with nonnoxious isolation stimuli: Psychological Reports Vol 31(2) Oct 1972, 631-637.
  • Van Dam, G., Peeck, J., Brinkerink, M., & Gorter, U. (1974). The isolation effect in free recall and recognition: American Journal of Psychology Vol 87(3) Sep 1974, 497-504.
  • Winters, J. J., & Hoats, D. L. (1989). On the development of the isolation effect in free recall: Isolation by color: Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society Vol 27(3) May 1989, 219-222.

Additional materialEdit

BooksEdit

PapersEdit

DissertationsEdit

  • Fabiani, M. (1991). Are odd things all the same? Physical and semantic distinctiveness, memory, and event-related brain potentials: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Forsyth, G. A. (1967). An Investigation of Selective Perceptual Attention and Perceptual Isolation: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Gibby, R. G., Jr. (1967). The Effects of Visual Restriction on Visual and Auditory Discrimination: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Ludwig, B. P. (2005). The incongruity hypothesis and the early isolation effect: Comparing the role of primary and secondary distinctive targets in the early isolation effect. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.

External linksEdit

((enWP|Von Restorff effect}}

Advertisement | Your ad here

Around Wikia's network

Random Wiki