Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
In linguistics, rhythm orIsochrony is the postulated rhythmic division of time into equal portions by a language. Isochrony is one of the three aspects of prosody, the others being intonation and stress.
Languages can be categorized according to whether they are syllable-timed or stress-timed. Speakers of syllable-timed languages such as Spanish and Cantonese put roughly equal time on each syllable; in contrast, speakers of stressed-timed languages such as English and Mandarin Chinese put roughly equal time lags between stressed syllables, with the timing of the unstressed syllables in between them being adjusted to accommodate the stress timing.
Narmour describes three categories of prosodic rules that create rhythmic successions that are additive (same duration repeated), cumulative (short-long), or countercumulative (long-short). Cumulation is associated with closure or relaxation, countercumulation with openness or tension, while additive rhythms are open-ended and repetitive. Richard Middleton points out this method cannot account for syncopation and suggests the concept of transformation.
Three alternative ways in which a language can divide time are postulated:
- The duration of every syllable is equal (syllable-timed);
- The duration of every mora is equal (mora-timed).
- The temporal duration between two stressed syllables is equal (stress-timed);
The idea as such was first expressed by Kenneth L. Pike in 1945; though the concept of language naturally occurring in chronologically and rhythmically equal measures is found at least as early as 1775 (in Prosodia Rationalis). While many linguists find the idea of different rhythm types appealing, empirical studies have not been able to find acoustic correlates of the postulated types, calling into question the validity of these types.
In a syllable-timed language, every syllable is perceived as taking up roughly the same amount of time, though the absolute length of time depends on the prosody. Syllable-timed languages tend to give syllables approximately equal prominence and generally lack reduced vowels.
Finnish, Icelandic, Cantonese Chinese, Georgian, French, Welsh, Italian and Spanish are commonly quoted as examples of syllable-timed languages. This type of rhythm was originally metaphorically referred to as machine-gun rhythm because each underlying rhythmical unit is of the same duration, similar to the transient bullet noise of a machine-gun.
Since the 1950s, speech scientists have tried to show the existence of equal syllable durations in the acoustic speech signal without success. More recent research claims that the duration of consonantal and vocalic intervals is responsible for syllable-timed perception.
Some languages such as Japanese, Gilbertese or Ganda also have regular pacing but are mora-timed rather than syllable-timed. In Japanese, a V or CV syllable takes up one timing unit. Japanese does not have long vowels or diphthongs but double vowels, so that CVV takes twice the time as CV. A final /N/ also takes as much time as a CV syllable, and, at least in poetry, so does the extra length of a geminate consonant. However, colloquial language is less settled than poetic language, and the rhythm may vary from one region to another or with time. Ancient Greek and Vedic Sanskrit were also strictly mora-timed.
In a stress-timed language, syllables may last different amounts of time, but there is perceived to be a fairly constant amount of time (on average) between consecutive stressed syllables. Stress-timing is sometimes called Morse-code rhythm. Stress-timing is strongly related to vowel reduction processes. English, Thai, German, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Faroese, Dutch, Portuguese, and Persian are typical stress-timed languages, Some stress-timed languages, for example Arabic, retain unreduced vowels.
Degrees of durational variabilityEdit
Despite the relative simplicity of the classifications above, in the real world languages do not fit quite so easily into such precise categories. Languages exhibit degrees of durational variability both in relation to other languages and to other standards of the same language.
There can be varying degrees of stress-timing within the various standards of a language. Some southern dialects of Italian, a syllable-timed language, are effectively stress-timed. English, a stress-timed language, has become so widespread over the globe that some standards tend to be more syllable-timed than the British or North American standards, an effect which comes from the influence of other languages spoken in the relevant region. Indian English, for example, tends toward syllable-timing). This does not necessarily mean the language standard itself is to be classified as syllable-timed, of course, but rather that this feature is more pronounced. A subtle example is that to a native English speaker, for example, some accents from Wales may sound more syllable-timed.
A better-documented case of these varying degrees of stress-timing in a language comes from Portuguese. European Portuguese is more stress-timed than the Brazilian standard. The latter has mixed characteristics and varies according to speech rate, sex and dialect. At fast speech rates, Brazilian Portuguese is more stress-timed, while in slow speech rates, it can be more syllable-timed. The accents of rural, southern Rio Grande do Sul and the Northeast (especially Bahia) are considered to sound more syllable-timed than the others, while the southeastern dialects such as the mineiro, in central Minas Gerais, the paulistano, of the northern coast and eastern regions of São Paulo, and the fluminense, along Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo and eastern Minas Gerais as well the Federal District, are most frequently essentially stress-timed. Also, male speakers of Brazilian Portuguese speak faster than female speakers and speak in a more stress-timed manner.
See also Edit
- ↑ Narmour (1980), p 147–53. Cited in Winold, Allen (1975).
- ↑ Middleton, Richard (1990). Studying Popular Music, Philadelphia: Open University Press.
- ↑ Mark Liberman. Slicing the syllabic bologna. Language Log.
- ↑ Mark Liberman. Another slice of prosodic sausage. Language Log.
- ↑ Antonio Pamies Bertrán. Prosodic Typology: On the Dichotomy between Stress-Timed and Syllable-Timed Languages.
- ↑ George Keretchashvili. Recording in Georgian at Omniglot.
- ↑  Timing patterns in Welsh, Gibbon & Williams, 2007
- ↑ Clark John, Yallop Collin, Fletcher Janet (2007). Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology, (pp)340, Oxford: Blackwell.
- ↑ The Inflectional Accent in Indo-European. Paul Kiparsky. Language. Vol. 49, No. 4 (Dec., 1973), pp. 794–849. Linguistic Society of America.
- ↑  Charles Philip Brown. Sanskrit prosody and numerical symbols explained (1869).
- ↑ Gimson, A.C. (1989), An Introduction to the Pronunciation of English (4th ed.), London: Edward Arnold
- ↑ This article is based on a translation of an article from the German Wikipedia.Kohler, K.J. (1995), Einführung in die Phonetik des Deutschen (2nd ed.), Berlin: Erich Schmidt Verlag
- ↑ Azevedo, Milton Mariano. 2005. Portuguese: a linguistic introduction. P.54
- ↑ Silva, David James. 1994. The Variable Elision of Unstressed Vowels in European Portuguese: A Case Study
- ↑ Grabe, Esther, "Variation Adds to Prosodic Typology", B.Bel and I. Marlin (eds), Proceedings of the Speech Prosody 2002 Conference, 11–13 April 2002, Aix-en-Provence: Laboratoire Parole et Langage, 127-132. ISBN 2-9518233-0-4. (.doc)
- ↑ Kenworthy, J. (1987). Teaching English pronunciation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- ↑  Durational Variability, Low & Grabe
- ↑ Grice, M.; D’Imperio, M.; Savino, M.; Avesani, C., 1998. "Strategies for intonation labelling across varieties of Italian" in Hirst, D. ; Di Christo, A., 1998. Intonation Systems. Cambridge University Press.
- ↑ UTA Working Papers in Linguistics. ed. Susan C. Herring and John C. Paolillo. P.83
- ↑ Bisol, leda, PUCRS – O Troqueu Silábico no Sistema Fonológico (Um Adendo ao Artigo de Plínio Barbosa)
- ↑ Meireles, Alexsandro R.; Tozetti1, João Paulo; Borges, Rogério R.; Speech rate and rhythmic variation in Brazilian Portuguese; Phonetics Laboratory, Federal University of Espírito Santo, Speech Prosody Studies Group, Brazil English:
Further reading Edit
- Kono, Morio. (1997). "Perception and Psychology of Rhythm." Accent, Intonation, Rhythm and Pause. (Japanese)
- Roach, Peter (1998). Language Myths, “Some Languages are Spoken More Quickly Than Others”, eds. L. Bauer and P. Trudgill, Penguin, 1998, pp. 150–8
- Étude sur la discrimination des langues par la prosodie (pdf document) (French)
- Languages’ rhythm and language acquisition (pdf document)
- Supra-segmental Phonology (rhythm, intonation and stress-timing)