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Interviewers are the people who conduct interviews using the methods of interviewing which may include interview schedules

Characteristics of interviewersEdit

Issues in clinical settingsEdit

Issues in forensic settingsEdit

See alsoEdit

References & BibliographyEdit

Key textsEdit



  • Almerigogna, J., Ost, J., Akehurst, L., & Fluck, M. (2008). How interviewers' nonverbal behaviors can affect children's perceptions and suggestibility. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 100(1), 17-39.
  • Almerigogna, J., Ost, J., Bull, R., & Akehurst, L. (2007). State of high anxiety: How non-supportive interviewers can increase the suggestibility of child witnesses. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 21(7), 963-974.
  • Alterman, A. I., Mulvaney, F. D., Cacciola, J. S., Cnaan, A., McDermott, P. A., & Brown, L. S., Jr. (2001). The validity of the interviewer severity ratings in groups of ASI interviewers with varying training. Addiction, 96(9), 1297-1305.
  • Andres-Lemay, V. J. (2001). The effect of interviewer bias and number of interviewers on interviewing style and accuracy of children's eyewitness accounts. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 62(4-B).
  • Athey, K. R., Coleman, J. E., Reitman, A. P., & Tang, J. (1960). Two experiments showing the effect of the interviewer's racial background on responses to questionnaires concerning racial issues. Journal of Applied Psychology, 44(4), 244-246.
  • Barioux, M. (1952). Living research; a method for the selection, training, and evaluation of interviewers. Public Opinion Quarterly, 16, 128-130.
  • Barker, R. F. (1987). A demographic profile of marketing research interviewers. Journal of the Market Research Society, 29(3), 279-292.
  • Baron, R. A. (1987). Interviewer's moods and reactions to job applicants: The influence of affective states on applied social judgments. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 17(10), 911-926.
  • Baron, R. A. (1993). Interviewers' moods and evaluations of job applicants: The role of applicant qualifications. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 23(4), 253-271.
  • Bauman, K. E., & Chase, C. L. (1974). Interviewers as coders of occupation. Public Opinion Quarterly, 38(1), 107-112.
  • Bell, E. V. (1973). A comparative study of teenaged and adult interviewers eliciting drug information from youth. Dissertation Abstracts International, 34(5-A).
  • Bell, E. V. (1978). Analysis of the amount of information teenaged and adult interviewers elicited from teenaged drug users and non-users. Drug Forum, 7(1), 27-34.
  • Bell, E. V. (1978). The relationships of drug items communicated by teenaged interviewees to teenaged and adult interviewers. Journal of Drug Education, 8(2), 113-117.
  • Berg, B. L., Sanudo, F., Hovell, M. F., Sipan, C., Kelley, N., & Blumberg, E. (2004). The use of indigenous interviewers in a study of Latino men who have sex with men: A research note. Sexuality & Culture: An Interdisciplinary Quarterly, 8(1), 87-103.
  • Biesanz, J. C., Neuberg, S. L., Judice, T. N., & Smith, D. M. (1999). When interviewers desire accurate impressions: The effects of notetaking on the influence of expectations. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29(12), 2529-2549.
  • Billow, R. M., & Mendelsohn, R. (1990). The interviewer's "presenting problems" in the initial interview. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 54(3), 391-397.
  • Bjorklund, D. F., Cassel, W. S., Bjorklund, B. R., Brown, R. D., Park, C. L., Ernst, K., et al. (2000). Social demand characteristics in children's and adults' eyewitness memory and suggestibility: The effect of different interviewers on free recall and recognition. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 14(5), 421-433.
  • Blair, E. (1977). More on the effects of interviewer's voice intonation. Public Opinion Quarterly, 41(4), 544-548.
  • Blanchet, A. (1989). The effect of the interviewer's nondirective interventions on the modalities of the interviewee's discourse. L'Annee Psychologique, 89(3), 367-391.
  • Bloch, E. L., Goodstein, L. D., Jourard, S. M., & Jaffe, P. E. (1971). Comment on "Influence of an interviewer's disclosure on the self-disclosing behavior of interviewees." Journal of Counseling Psychology, 18(6), 595-597.
  • Blohm, M., Hox, J., & Koch, A. (2007). The influence of interviewers' contact behavior on the contact and cooperation rate in face-to-face household surveys. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 19(1), 97-111.
  • Boat, B. W., & Everson, M. D. (1996). Concerning practices of interviewers when using anatomical dolls in child protective services investigations. Child Maltreatment, 1(2), 96-104.
  • Bolster, B. I., & Springbett, B. M. (1961). The reaction of interviewers to favorable and unfavorable information. Journal of Applied Psychology, 45(2), 97-103.
  • Bond, M. H., & Shiraishi, D. (1973). The effect of interviewers' body lean and status on the non-verbal behavior of interviewees. Japanese Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 13(1), 11-21.
  • Botega, N. J., Pereira, W. A. B., Bio, M. R., Garcia, C., & et al. (1995). Psychiatric morbidity among medical in-patients: A standardized assessment (GHQ-12 and CIS--R) using "lay" interviewers in a Brazilian hospital. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 30(3), 127-131.
  • Bouhuys, A. L., & Sam, M. M. (2000). Lack of coordination of nonverbal behaviour between patients and interviewers as a potential risk factor to depression recurrence: Vulnerability accumulation in depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 57(1-3), 189-200.
  • Bourg, W., Broderick, R., Flagor, R., Kelly, D. M., Ervin, D. L., & Butler, J. (1999). A child interviewer's guidebook. A child interviewer's guidebook.
  • Boutain, D. M., & Hitti, J. (2006). Orienting Multiple Interviewers: The Use of an Interview Orientation and Standardized Interview. Qualitative Health Research, 16(9), 1302-1309.
  • Boyd, H. W., Jr., & Westfall, R. (1955). Interviewers as a source of error in surveys. Journal of Marketing, 19, 311-324.
  • Braverman, M. T. (1988). Respondent cooperation in telephone surveys: The effects of using volunteer interviewers. Evaluation and Program Planning, 11(2), 135-140.
  • Britton, J. O., & Thomas, K. R. (1973). Age and sex as employment variables: Views of employment service interviewers. Journal of Employment Counseling, 10(4), 180-186.
  • Brown, J. M. (1955). Respondents rate public opinion interviewers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 39(2), 96-102.
  • Brugha, T. S., Nienhuis, F., Bagchi, D., Smith, J., & Meltzer, H. (1999). The survey form of SCAN: The feasibility of using experienced lay survey interviewers to administer a semi-structured systematic clinical assessment of psychotic and non-psychotic disorders. Psychological Medicine, 29(3), 703-711.
  • Buranji, I., Smalc-Folnegovic, V., Korbar, M., & Kulcar, Z. (1973). Reliability of medical students-interviewers' assessment of the psychiatric condition of schizophrenics. Socijalna Psihijatrija, 1(2-3), 241-245.
  • Cable, D. M., & Judge, T. A. (1997). Interviewers' perceptions of person-organization fit and organizational selection decisions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(4), 546-561.
  • Campion, M. A. (1978). Identification of variables most influential in determining interviewers' evaluations of applicants in a college placement center. Psychological Reports, 42(3, Pt 1), 947-952.
  • Campion, M. A. (1980). Relationship between interviewers' and applicants' reciprocal evaluations. Psychological Reports, 47(3, Pt 2), 1335-1338.
  • Carlson, R. E. (1967). Selection Interview Decisions: The Relative Influence Of Appearance And Factual Written Information On An Interviewer's Final Rating. Journal of Applied Psychology, 51(6), 461-468.
  • Carlson, R. E. (1969). Relative influence of a photograph vs. factual written information on an interviewer's employment decision. Personnel Psychology, 22(1), 45-56.
  • Cartwright, A., Hyams, G., & Spratley, T. (1996). Is the interviewer's therapeutic commitment an important factor in determining whether alcoholic clients engage in treatment? Addiction Research, 4(3), 215-230.
  • Cesare, S. J., Tannenbaum, R. J., & Dalessio, A. (1990). Interviewers' decisions related to applicant handicap type and rater empathy. Human Performance, 3(3), 157-171.
  • Christman, L. A., & Branson, D. H. (1990). Influence of physical disability and dress of female job applicant on interviewers. Clothing & Textiles Research Journal, 8(3), 51-57.
  • Clark, C. C., Scott, E. A., Boydell, K. M., & Goering, P. (1999). Effects of client interviewers on client-reported satisfaction with mental health services. Psychiatric Services, 50(7), 961-963.
  • Colombotos, J., Elinson, J., & Loewenstein, R. (1969). Effect of interviewers' sex on interview responses. Milbank Quarterly, 47(1, Pt. 2), 227-232.
  • Cooper, G. D., Adams, H. B., Dickinson, J. R., & York, M. W. (1975). Interviewer's role-playing and responses to sensory deprivation: A clinical demonstration. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 40(1), 291-303.
  • Coryell, W., Cloninger, C. R., & Reich, T. (1978). Clinical assessment: Use of nonphysician interviewers. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 166(8), 599-606.
  • DeGroot, T., & Motowidlo, S. J. (1999). Why visual and vocal interview cues can affect interviewers' judgments and predict job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(6), 986-993.
  • Dohrenwend, B. S., & Richardson, S. A. (1956). Analysis of the interviewer's behavior. Human Organization, 15(2), 29-32.
  • Dudley, W. H., & Blanchard, E. B. (1976). Comparison of experienced and inexperienced interviewers on objectively scored behavior. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 32(3), 690-697.
  • Emmertsen, S. (2007). Interviewers' challenging questions in British debate interviews. Journal of Pragmatics, 39(3), 570-591.
  • Erbsloh, E., & Timaeus, E. (1972). The influence of interviewers on intelligence test performances. European Journal of Social Psychology, 2(4), 449-452.
  • Eva, K. W., Reiter, H. I., Rosenfeld, J., & Norman, G. R. (2004). The Relationship between Interviewers' Characteristics and Ratings Assigned during a Multiple Mini-Interview. Academic Medicine, 79(6), 602-609.
  • Faravelli, C., Abrardi, L., Bartolozzi, D., Cecchi, C., Cosci, F., D'Adamo, D., et al. (2004). The Sesto Fiorentino Study: Background, Methods and Preliminary Results: Lifetime Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in an Italian Community Sample Using Clinical Interviewers. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 73(4), 216-225.
  • Faravelli, C., Abrardi, L., Bartolozzi, D., Cecchi, C., Cosci, F., D'Adamo, D., et al. (2004). The Sesto Fiorentino Study: Point and One-Year Prevalences of Psychiatric Disorders in an Italian Community Sample Using Clinical Interviewers. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 73(4), 226-234.
  • Fear, R. A., & Jordan, B. (1943). Employee evaluation manual for interviewers. Employee evaluation manual for interviewers.
  • Forsythe, S., Drake, M. F., & Cox, C. E. (1985). Influence of applicant's dress on interviewer's selection decisions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70(2), 374-378.
  • Forsythe, S. M. (1990). Effect of applicant's clothing on interviewer's decision to hire. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 20(19, Pt 1), 1579-1595.
  • Franzen, R., & Williams, R. (1956). A method for measuring error due to variance among interviewers. Public Opinion Quarterly, 20, 587-592.
  • Furnham, A., & Burbeck, E. (1989). Employment interview outcomes as a function of interviewers' experience. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 69(2), 395-402.
  • Gampel, Y., & Mazor, A. (1994). The effects of interviews on child survivors and on the interviewers in Israel. Children during the Nazi reign: Psychological perspective on the interview process., 161-174.
  • Giles, W. F., & Feild, H. S. (1982). Accuracy of interviewers' perceptions of the importance of intrinsic and extrinsic job characteristics to male and female applicants. Academy of Management Journal, 25(1), 148-157.
  • Gilstrap, L. L. (2004). A Missing Link in Suggestibility Research: What Is Known About the Behavior of Field Interviewers in Unstructured Interviews With Young Children? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 10(1), 13-24.
  • Gobo, G. (2006). Set them free: Improving data quality by broadening the interviewer's tasks. International Journal of Social Research Methodology: Theory & Practice, 9(4), 279-301.
  • Goldman-Eisler, F. (1952). Individual differences between interviewers and their effect on interviewees' conversational behavior. Journal of Mental Science, 98, 660-671.
  • Graves, L. M. (1999). Gender bias in interviewers' evaluations of applicants: When and how does it occur? Handbook of gender and work., 145-164.
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  • Groves, R. M., & Mathiowetz, N. A. (1984). Computer assisted telephone interviewing: Effects on interviewers and respondents. Public Opinion Quarterly, 48(1B), 356-369.
  • Guest, L. (1954). A new training method for opinion interviewers. Public Opinion Quarterly, 18, 286-299.
  • Guest, L. P. (1954). A new training method for opinion interviewers. Yearbook of the American Philosophical Society, 184-185.
  • Gwartney, P. A. (2007). The telephone interviewer's handbook: How to conduct standardized conversations. The telephone interviewer's handbook: How to conduct standardized conversations.
  • Hakel, M. D., Hollmann, T. D., & Dunnette, M. D. (1970). Accuracy of interviewers, certified public accountants, and students in identifying the interests of accountants. Journal of Applied Psychology, 54(2), 115-119.
  • Harasym, P. H., Woloschuk, W., Mandin, H., & Brundin-Mather, R. (1996). Reliability and validity of interviewers' judgments of medical school candidates. Academic Medicine, 71(Suppl 1), S40-S42.
  • Heeb, J.-L., & Gmel, G. (2001). Interviewers' and respondents' effects on self-reported alcohol consumption in a Swiss health survey. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 62(4), 434-442.
  • Helzer, J. E., Robins, L. N., Croughan, J. L., & Welner, A. (1981). Renard Diagnostic Interview: Its reliability and procedural validity with physicians and lay interviewers. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38(4), 393-398.
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  • Hollmann, T. D. (1972). Employment interviewers' errors in processing positive and negative information. Journal of Applied Psychology, 56(2), 130-134.
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  • Johns, G. (1975). Effects of information order and frequency of applicant evaluation upon linear information-processing competence of interviewers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 60(4), 427-433.
  • Johnson, K. K. (1958). Company interviewers rate job applicants. Personnel & Guidance Journal, 36, 422-424.
  • Jones, E. E. (1974). Review of Conversations at Random: Survey Research as Interviewers See It. PsycCRITIQUES, 19(7).
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  • Judice, T. N., & Neuberg, S. L. (1998). When interviewers desire to confirm negative expectations: Self-fulfilling prophecies and inflated applicant self-perceptions. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 20(3), 175-190.
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Additional materialEdit


  • Aiello, J. R. (1973). Male and female visual behavior as a function of distance and duration of an interviewer's direct gaze: Equilibrium theory revisited. Dissertation Abstracts International, 33(9-B), 4482-4483.
  • Atkinson-Tovar, L. T. (2003). Transformation of self: Portrait of youth investigators and forensic interviewers exposed to repeated trauma. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 63(11-A).
  • Barnes, D. F. (1973). A and B college students as interviewers of schizophrenic and neurotic inpatients: A test of the interaction hypothesis. Dissertation Abstracts International, 34(3-B).
  • Brown, J. M. (1951). The development and testing of a respondent rating scale for opinion and market research interviewers. Pennsylvania State College, Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations, 14, 435-439.
  • Cannell, C. F. (1958). A study of the effects of interviewers' expectations upon interviewing results. Dissertation Abstracts, 18, 1092-1094.
  • Crim, J. L. (1993). Effects of interviewer's responsiveness on subjects' self-disclosure, perceptions of the interviewer, and mood state. Dissertation Abstracts International, 54(5-B).
  • de la Zerda, N. J. (1978). Employment interviewers' reactions to Mexican American speech. Dissertation Abstracts International, 38(7-A).
  • Ellickson, J. L. (1981). The effect of interviewers responding differentially to subjects' representational systems as indicated by eye movement. Dissertation Abstracts International, 41(7-B), 2754-2755.
  • Elsenrath, D. E. (1970). Teaching interviewers delayed, brief responses. Dissertation Abstracts International, 31(6-A).
  • Forsythe, S. M. (1982). Influence of female applicants' mode of dress on interviewers' perception of personal characteristics and subsequent hiring recommendations for middle management positions. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42(11-B).
  • Furtwengler, W. J. (1972). A study of relationships among numbers of available candidates, selection interviewing styles, and candidates' attraction to interviewers. Dissertation Abstracts International, 32(8-A).
  • Gorman, C. D. (1976). The paper-people analog in investigations of interviewers' decision processes. Dissertation Abstracts International, 37(2-B).
  • Gottschalk, M. R. (1990). An investigation of the characteristics of effective recruitment interviewers. Dissertation Abstracts International, 51(6-B).
  • Greenwood, V. B. (1979). The effect of the interviewer's status upon the linguistic style and impact messages generated by the obsessive personality. Dissertation Abstracts International, 39(7-B).
  • Guenzel, P. I. (1985). The development and evaluation of a program to train survey interviewers. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46(4-A).
  • Hagen, S. J. (1981). Novice interviewers' message structure and interview methods. Dissertation Abstracts International, 41(11-A).
  • Herold, K. P. P. (1996). The effects of an interviewee's self-disclosure and disability on selected perceptions and attitudes of interviewers. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 57(1-A).
  • Hertz, L. S. (2007). Vicarious traumatization and transformation in Holocaust interviewers: A qualitative investigation of the impact of indirect traumatic exposure. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 68(6-B).
  • Heuser, M. L. (1990). The employment interviewer's effective use of self: A theoretical reconceptualization of the employment interview. Dissertation Abstracts International, 50(7-B).
  • Holmes, J. L. (1983). The effects of interviewees' nonverbal behavior on interviewers' evaluations during a selection interview. Dissertation Abstracts International, 44(4-A).
  • Kaplan, R. A. (1972). The effects of manipulating nonverbal behaviors of interviewers on the nonverbal behavior of interviewees. Dissertation Abstracts International, 32(9-B), 5425-5426.
  • Kessel, P. (1967). Control of verbal behavior as a function of social reinforcement, the subject's conception of the interviewer's values relative to his own, and need for social approval: a psychotherapy analogue study. Dissertation Abstracts International, 28(3-B), 1198-1199.
  • Long, E. J. (1993). The relationship between candidate self-monitoring, verbal impression management, and interviewers' ratings in the employment interview. Dissertation Abstracts International, 53(7-B).
  • Lubera, E. T. (1970). The effects of the race and the sex of test interviewers on the responses of intermediate grade American children on the measurement of interest in school work. Dissertation Abstracts International, 30(7-A), 2765-2766.
  • McGovern, T. V. (1977). The making of a job interviewee: The effect of nonverbal behavior on an interviewer's evaluations during a selection interview. Dissertation Abstracts International, 37(9-B), 4740-4741.
  • Miltenberger, R. G. (1986). Training behavioral assessment interviewers: A comparison of two procedures. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46(12-B, Pt 1).
  • Mino, M. K. (1987). The relative effects of content and vocal delivery on interviewers' assessments of interviewees during a simulated employment interview. Dissertation Abstracts International, 47(7-A).
  • Neal, J. M. (1972). A study to determine the training effects of selected reinforcement on A and B type female interviewers. Dissertation Abstracts International, 32(7-A).
  • Nordstrom, C. R. (1992). The impact of self-regulation on interviewers' evaluations and attributions. Dissertation Abstracts International, 52(10-B).
  • O'Brien, D. E. (1977). An investigation of the effects of videotape feedback in the training of interviewers. Dissertation Abstracts International, 37(8-A).
  • Retts, W. L. (1973). The effect of interview training on the non-possessive warmth of employment interviewers. Dissertation Abstracts International, 34(3-A), 1085-1086.
  • Riessman, C. K. (1977). Interviewer effects in psychiatric epidemiology: A study of medical and lay interviewers and their impact on reported symptoms. Dissertation Abstracts International, 38(1-B), 138-139.
  • Ritchie, P. L. J. (1976). The effect of the interviewer's presentation on some schizophrenic symptomatology. Dissertation Abstracts International, 36(10-B), 5279-5280.
  • Rutherford, A. J. (1992). A comparative study of training personnel interviewers with computer-based interactive video and video. Dissertation Abstracts International, 53(4-A).
  • Shaw, M. (1978). Communicative behavior of female and male interviewers and applicants: An empirical study of observed variations and respondents' assessments. Dissertation Abstracts International, 39(2-A), 540-541.
  • Sillers, B. D. (1968). Model interviewer verbal behaviors as determinants of students' information-seeking behaviors and perceptions of model interviewers. Dissertation Abstracts International, 28(11-A).
  • Skenderian, D. (1982). Effects of interviewer's impersonal and personal self-disclosures on somatic symptom verbalizations of psychiatric outpatients. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42(11-B).
  • Spadaro, N. I. (1984). Influence of the interviewer's voice on the interviewee's vocal behavior. Dissertation Abstracts International, 45(5-B), 1596-1597.
  • Uliana, R. L. (1976). Measurement of Black children's affective states and the effect of interviewer's race on affective states as manifested through language behavior. Dissertation Abstracts International, 37(3-B).
  • Welch, R. D. (1971). The effectiveness of A and B college males as models and interviewers with schizophrenic and neurotic patients. Dissertation Abstracts International, 32(4-B).

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