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{{ProfPsy}}
 
{{ProfPsy}}
[[Image:Ia_logo.jpg|right|]]
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[[Image:Feb 2008 San Francisco Wikimedia Meetup 01.jpg|thumb|right|Internet Archive headquarters was in the [[Presidio of San Francisco|Presidio]], a former US military base in San Francisco, from 1996 to 2009.]]
[[Image:Internet Archive Sheridan.jpg|frame|right|Internet Archive headquarters.]]
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[[Image:christian_science_church122908_02.jpg|thumb|right|As of Nov 2009, new Internet Archive headquarters at 300 Funston in SF, CA, a former Christian Science Church]]
The '''Internet Archive''', located at the [[Presidio of San Francisco|Presidio]] in [[San Francisco, California]], is dedicated to maintaining an [[archive]] of [[multimedia]] resources. This archive includes "[[snapshot (computer storage)|snapshots]] of the [[World Wide Web]]" (archived copies of pages, taken at various points in time), [[software]], [[film|movie]]s, [[book]]s, and [[Sound recording|audio]] recordings (including recordings of live concerts from [[List of bands which permit recordings of their performances|bands that allow it]]). The Archive makes the collections available at no cost to researchers, historians, and scholars.
 
   
The Archive was founded by [[Brewster Kahle]] in [[1996]].
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[[Image:Internet Archive - Bibliotheca Alexandrina.jpg|thumb|right|Mirror of the Internet Archive in the [[Bibliotheca Alexandrina]]]]
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The Internet Archive is a non-profit digital library with the stated mission: "universal access to all knowledge."<ref>[http://www.archive.org/about/faqs.php#296 Internet Archive Frequently Asked Questions]</ref><ref>[http://www.archive.org/details/SDForumBK Internet Archive: Universal Access to all Knowledge]</ref> It offers permanent storage and access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, music, moving images, and books. The Internet Archive was founded by [[Brewster Kahle]] in 1996.
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With offices located in [[San Francisco, California]], USA and data centers in San Francisco, Redwood City, and Mountain View, California, USA, the Archive's largest collection is its web archive, "[[snapshot (computer storage)|snapshots]] of the World Wide Web." To ensure the stability and endurance of the Internet Archive, its collection is mirrored at the [[Bibliotheca Alexandrina]] in [[Egypt]], making it the only library in the world with a [[Mirror (computing)|mirror]].<ref>[http://archive.bibalex.org/ The Internet Archive at the New Library of Alexandria].</ref>
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The Archive allows the public to both upload and download digital material to its data cluster, and provides unrestricted online access to that material at no cost. The Archive also oversees one of the world's largest book digitization projects. It is a member of the [[American Library Association]] and is officially recognized by the State of [[California]] as a library.<ref>[http://www.archive.org/iathreads/post-view.php?id=121377 " Internet Archive officially a library"], May 2, 2007.</ref>
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In addition to its archiving function, the Archive is an activist organization, advocating for a free and open Internet.
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The Archive is a 501(c)(3) non-profit operating in the United States. It has a staff of 200, most of whom are book scanners in its book scanning centers. Its main offices in San Francisco house about 30 employees. The Archive has an annual budget of $10 million, derived from a variety of sources: revenue from its Web crawling services, various partnerships, grants, donations, and the [[Kahle-Austin Foundation]].<ref>[http://www.cabinetmagazine.org/issues/10/womack.php].</ref>
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==History==
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[[Brewster Kahle]] founded the Archive in 1996 at the same time that he began the for-profit web crawling company [[Alexa Internet]]. The Archive began to archive the [[World Wide Web]] from 1996, but it did not make this collection available until 2001, when it developed the [[Wayback Machine]]. In late 1999, the Archive expanded its collections beyond the Web archive, beginning with the [[Prelinger Archive]]. Now the Internet Archive includes texts, audio, moving images, and software. It hosts a number of other projects: the NASA Images Archive, the contract crawling service [[Archive-It]], and the wiki-editable library catalog and book information site [[Open Library]]. Recently, the Archive has begun working to provide specialized services relating to the information access needs of the print-disabled.
   
 
According to its website:
 
According to its website:
: Most societies place importance on preserving artifacts of their culture and heritage. Without such artifacts, civilization has no memory and no mechanism to learn from its successes and failures. Our culture now produces more and more artifacts in digital form. The Archive's mission is to help preserve those artifacts and create an Internet library for researchers, historians, and scholars. The Archive collaborates with institutions including the [[Library of Congress]] and the [[Smithsonian Institution|Smithsonian]].
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: ''Most societies place importance on preserving artifacts of their culture and heritage. Without such artifacts, civilization has no memory and no mechanism to learn from its successes and failures. Our culture now produces more and more artifacts in digital form. The Archive's mission is to help preserve those artifacts and create an Internet library for researchers, historians, and scholars.''
   
Because of its goal of preserving human knowledge and artifacts, and making its collection available to all, proponents of the archive have likened it to the [[Library of Alexandria]].
 
   
==Wayback Machine==
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===Wayback Machine===
[[Image:Wayback.gif|right]]
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[[Image:Wayback Machine logo.png|right|WM logo]]
 
<div class="infobox">
 
<div class="infobox">
Examples from the Wayback Machine's archives:
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Examples from the Wayback<br>Machine's archives:
*[http://web.archive.org/web/%2A/www.amazon.com Amazon]
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* [http://web.archive.org/web/%2A/www.apple.com Apple Computer]
*[http://web.archive.org/web/%2A/www.microsoft.com Microsoft]
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* [http://web.archive.org/web/%2A/www.amazon.com Amazon]
*[http://web.archive.org/web/%2A/news.bbc.co.uk BBC News]
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* [http://web.archive.org/web/%2A/www.microsoft.com Microsoft]
*[http://web.archive.org/web/%2A/www.google.com Google]
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* [http://web.archive.org/web/%2A/news.bbc.co.uk BBC News]
*[http://web.archive.org/web/%2A/dmoz.org Open Directory]
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* [http://web.archive.org/web/%2A/google.com Google]
*[http://web.archive.org/web/%2A/www.wikipedia.org Wikipedia]
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* [http://web.archive.org/web/%2A/dmoz.org Open Directory]
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* [http://web.archive.org/web/%2A/www.wikipedia.org Wikipedia]
 
</div>
 
</div>
The archive also maintains the "Wayback Machine", with content from [[Alexa Internet]]. This service allows users to see archived versions of [[web page]]s, what the Archive calls a "three dimensional index".
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{{Main|Wayback Machine}}
   
The Wayback Machine's archive is gradually made available. It can take from six to twelve months for an archived snapshot to appear. As an alternative, librarians and scholars who want to permanently archive material and immediately cite an archived version can use the [http://www.archive-it.org/ Archive-It system] instead. [[As of 2004]] the Wayback Machine contained approximately a [[petabyte]] of data and was growing at a rate of 20 terabytes per month, increasing by two thirds the 12 terabytes/month growth rate reported in 2003. Its growth rate eclipses the amount of text contained in the world's largest libraries, including the [[Library of Congress]].
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The Internet Archive has capitalized on the popular use of the term "[[WABAC machine|WABAC Machine]]" from a segment of the old [[Rocky and Bullwinkle Show|Rocky and Bullwinkle]] cartoon, and uses the name "Wayback Machine" for its service that allows archives of the World Wide Web to be searched and accessed.<ref>
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{{cite news
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| url = http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/feb2002/tc20020228_1080.htm
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| title = A Library as Big as the World: Brewster Kahle has the technology to assemble the ultimate archive of human knowledge. What's stopping him? Restrictive copyright laws
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| accessdate = 2007-06-25
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| last = Green
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| first = Heather
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| date = February 28, 2002
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| publisher = [[Business Week]] Online}}
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</ref> This service allows users to see archived versions of [[web page]]s of the past, what the Internet Archive calls a "three dimensional index". Millions of websites and their associated data (images, source code, documents, etc.) are saved in a gigantic database. The service can be used to see what previous versions of websites used to look like, to grab original source code from websites that may no longer be directly available, or to visit websites that no longer even exist. Not all websites are available, however, because many website owners choose to exclude their sites.
   
A copy of the data is also maintained at [[Bibliotheca Alexandrina]].
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The use of the term "Wayback Machine" in the context of the Internet Archive has become so common that "Wayback Machine" and "Internet Archive" are almost synonymous. This usage too occurs in popular culture, e.g., in the television show ''[[Law and Order: Criminal Intent]]'' ("Legacy", first run Aug. 3, 2008), an extra playing a computer tech uses the "Wayback Machine" to find an archive of a student's Facebook style website.
   
The name "Wayback Machine" is a reference to a segment from ''[[The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show]]'' in which [[Mr. Peabody]], a [[bowtie]]-wearing [[dog]] with a [[professor]]ial air, and his human assistant, Sherman, use a [[Time travel|time machine]] called the "WABAC machine" to witness famous events in [[history]].
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===Open Library===
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The [[Open Library]] is another project of the Internet Archive. The site, still in beta, seeks to include a web page database for every book ever published, a sort of Open Source version of [[WorldCat]]. It holds 23 million catalog records of books, in addition to the full texts of about 1,600,000 public domain books, which are fully readable and downloadable.<ref>{{cite news |first=Antone |last=Gonsalves |title=Internet Archive Claims Progress Against Google Library Initiative |url=http://www.informationweek.com/story/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=196701339 |publisher=InformationWeek |date=December 20, 2006 |accessdate=2007-01-05 }}</ref><ref>{{cite news |title=The Open Library Makes Its Online Debut |url=http://chronicle.com/wiredcampus/index.php?id=2235?=atwc |publisher=Chronicle of Higher Education, The Wired Campus |date=July 19, 2007 |accessdate=2007-07-30 }}</ref>
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Open Library is a [[free software|free]]/[[open source software]] project, with its source code freely available on the Open Library site.
   
==Mirrors==
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===Archive-It===
* [http://archive.bibalex.org/ The Internet archive at the New Library of Alexandria]
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Users who want to archive material permanently, and immediately cite an archived version, can use the [http://www.archive-it.org/ Archive-It system], a fee based subscription service.<ref> Stefanie Olsen, [http://www.news.com/8301-10784_3-6067173-7.html "Preserving the Web one group at a time"], CNet News.com, May 1, 2006.</ref> Data collected with Archive-It is periodically indexed into the general Wayback Machine. As of February 2009, Archive-It had created over 724 million URLs for 746 public collections, including government bodies, universities, and cultural institutions. Some of the organizations participating in Archive-It include the [[Electronic Literature Organization]], the State Archives of [[North Carolina]], the [[Texas State Library and Archives Commission]], [[Stanford University]], the [[National Library of Australia]], the [[Research Libraries Group]] (RLG), and [http://www.archive-it.org/public/all_collections/ many others].
* [http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/preservation/webarchive/default.htm The UK National Archives Government Archive]
 
   
== Media collections ==
 
Most of their movies, books, and recordings are [[public domain]] or licensed under a [[Creative Commons License]]. The audio section largely includes [[music]] from independent [[artist]]s, as well as more established [[List of bands which permit recordings of their performances|artists and musical ensembles with permissive rules in regards to the recording of their concerts]] (e.g. [[The Grateful Dead]], [[String Cheese Incident]], [[Toad the Wet Sprocket]], [[311 (band)|311]], [[Fugazi (band)|Fugazi]], etc.).
 
   
== Open Library ==
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==Psychology resources at the internet archive==
The Internet Archive operates the [http://www.openlibrary.org Open Library] where a small number of scanned public domain books are made available in an easily browsable and printable format.
 
   
===Moving Image Collection===
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The archive has many books, particularly of historical interest digitised and available for free access.
Aside from feature films, their Moving Image collection includes: [[newsreel]]s; classic [[cartoon]]s; pro- and anti- war [[propaganda]]; Skip Elsheimer's "A.V. Geeks" collection; and ephemeral material from [[Prelinger Archives]], such as advertising, educational and industrial films and amateur and home movie collections.
 
   
Their ''Brick Films'' collection contains stop-motion animation filmed with [[Lego]] blocks, some of which are 'remakes' of feature films. The ''Election 2004'' collection is a non-partisan public resource for sharing video materials related to the [[2004 United States Presidential Election]]. The ''Independent News'' collection includes sub-collections such as the Internet Archive's ''World At War competition from 2001'', in which contestants created short films demonstrating "why access to history matters." Among their most-downloaded video files are eyewitness recordings of the devastating [[2004 Indian Ocean earthquake|2004 tsunami]].
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===Media collections===
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In addition to web archives, the Internet Archive maintains extensive collections of digital media that are attested by the uploader to be in the [[public domain]] in the United States or licensed under a license that allows redistribution, such as [[Creative Commons]] licenses. The media are organized into collections by media type (moving images, audio, text, ''etc.''), and into sub-collections by various criteria. Each of the main collections includes an "[[Open Source]]" sub-collection where general contributions by the public are stored.
   
Some of the films available on the Internet Archive are:
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====Moving image collection====
<div style="float:left; width:48%;">
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Aside from feature films, IA's Moving Image collection includes: [[newsreel]]s; classic [[cartoon]]s; pro- and anti-war [[propaganda]]; Skip Elsheimer's "A.V. Geeks" collection; and ephemeral material from [[Prelinger Archives]], such as [[advertising]], educational and industrial films and amateur and home movie collections.
* ''[[Battleship Potemkin]]''
 
* ''[[D.O.A. (1950 film)|D.O.A.]]'' ([[1950 in film|1950]])
 
* ''[[Danger Lights]]''
 
* ''[[Dating Do's and Don'ts]]''
 
* ''[[Duck and Cover (film)|Duck and Cover]]''
 
* ''[[Hemp For Victory]]''
 
* ''[[Lying Lips]]''
 
</div><div style="float:right; width:48%;">
 
* ''[[Night of the Living Dead]]''
 
* ''[[Nosferatu]]
 
* ''[[The Power of Nightmares]]''
 
* ''[[Reefer Madness (1936 film)|Reefer Madness]]''
 
* ''[[Sex Madness]]''
 
* Two of the seven episodes of ''[[Why We Fight]]'':
 
** ''The Negro Soldier'' ([[1943 in film|1943]])
 
** ''War Comes to America'' ([[1945 in film|1945]])
 
</div><br clear="all">
 
   
==Controversies==
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IA's [[Brickfilm|''Brick Films'']] collection contains [[stop-motion]] animation filmed with [[Lego]] bricks, some of which are "remakes" of feature films. The ''Election 2004'' collection is a non-partisan public resource for sharing video materials related to the [[2004 United States Presidential Election]]. The ''Independent News'' collection includes sub-collections such as the Internet Archive's ''World At War competition from 2001'', in which contestants created short films demonstrating "why access to history matters." Among their most-downloaded video files are eyewitness recordings of the devastating [[2004 Indian Ocean earthquake]]. The [http://www.archive.org/details/sept_11_tv_archive September 11th Television Archive] contains archival footage from the world's major television networks of the terrorist attacks of [[September 11th, 2001]] as they unfolded on live television.
===Scientology sites===
 
In late [[2002]], the Internet Archive removed various sites critical of [[Scientology]] from the Wayback Machine. The error message stated that this was in response to a "request by the site owner". However, it was later clarified that lawyers from the Church of Scientology had demanded the removal, on unknown legal grounds, and that the actual site owners did ''not'' want their material removed.
 
   
===Archived web pages as evidence===
 
In an October 2004 case called "Telewizja Polska SA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite", the Wayback Machine archives were used as a source of admissible evidence, perhaps for the first time. Telewizja Polska is the provider of [[TVP Polonia]], and [[EchoStar Communications Corporation|EchoStar]] operates the [[Dish Network]]. During the trial's proceedings, EchoStar offered Wayback Machine snapshots as proof of the past content of Telewizja Polska’s website. Telewizja Polska attempted to suppress the snapshots on the grounds of [[hearsay]] and unauthenticated source, but Magistrate Judge Arlander Keys rejected Telewizja Polska’s assertion of hearsay and accepted an affidavit from an Internet Archive employee as sufficient to authenticate the snapshots for admissibility.
 
   
===Grateful Dead===
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====Audio collection====
In November 2005, free downloads of [[Grateful Dead]] concerts were removed from the site. [[John Perry Barlow]] identified [[Bob Weir]], [[Mickey Hart]], and [[Bill Kreutzmann]] as the instigators of the change, according to a ''[[New York Times]]'' article. [[Phil Lesh]] commented on the change in a [[November 30]], [[2005]] posting to his personal website:
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{{Main|Live Music Archive}}
: It was brought to my attention that all of the Grateful Dead shows were taken down from Archive.org right before Thanksgiving. I was not part of this decision making process and was not notified that the shows were to be pulled. I do feel that the music is the Grateful Dead's legacy and I hope that one way or another all of it is available for those who want it.
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A [[November 30]] forum post from [[Brewster Kahle]] summarized what appeared to be the compromise reached among the band members. Audience recordings could be downloaded or [[Streaming media|streamed]], but [[Mixing console|soundboard]] recordings were to be available for streaming only.
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The audio collection includes [[music]], [[audiobook|audio books]], news broadcasts, [[old time radio]] shows and a wide variety of other audio files.
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The Live Music Archive sub-collection includes over 50,000 concert recordings from independent [[musician|artists]], as well as more established artists and musical ensembles with permissive rules about recording their concerts such as the [[Grateful Dead]], and more recently, [[The Smashing Pumpkins]].
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====Text Collection====
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The texts collection includes digitized books from various libraries around the world as well as many special collections. The Internet Archive operates 18 scanning centers in five countries, digitizing about 1,000 books a day, financially supported by libraries and foundations.<ref>[http://www.archive.org/iathreads/post-view.php?id=194217 "Books Scanning to be Publicly Funded"], announcement by Brewster Khale, May 23, 2008.</ref> As of November 2008, when there were about 1 million texts, the entire collection was over 0.5 petabytes, which includes raw camera images, cropped and skewed images, PDFs, and raw OCR data.<ref>[http://blog.openlibrary.org/2008/11/24/bulk-access-to-ocr-for-1-million-books/ "Bulk Access to OCR for 1 Million Books"], via Open Library Blog, by raj, November 24, 2008.</ref>
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Between about 2006 and 2008 Microsoft Corporation had a special relationship with Internet Archive texts through its [[Live Search Books]] project, scanning over 300,000 books which were contributed to the collection, as well as financial support and scanning equipment. On May 23, 2008 Microsoft announced it would be ending the Live Book Search project and no longer scanning books.<ref name=msdown>[http://blogs.msdn.com/livesearch/archive/2008/05/23/book-search-winding-down.aspx "Book search winding down"], Live Search Blog. Official announcement from Microsoft. Last accessed May 23, 2008.</ref> Microsoft will be making its scanned books available without contractual restriction and making the scanning equipment available to its digitization partners and libraries to continue digitization programs.<ref name=msdown/>
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Around October 2007 users began uploading the public domain books from [[Google Book Search]]. <ref>[http://www.archive.org/details/googlebooks Google Books at Internet Archive].</ref> As of January 2010 there are 900,000 million Google-digitized books in the Archive's collection, representing more than half of the total books available from archive.org. The books are identical to the copies found on Google, except without the Google watermarks, and are available for unrestricted use and download, like all Internet Archive materials.<ref>Books imported from Google have a metadata tag of scanner:google for searching purposes. The archive links back to Google for PDF copies, but also maintains a local PDF copy, which is viewable under the "All Files: HTTP" link.</ref>
   
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
*[[Alexa Internet]]
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{{Selfref|[[Wikipedia:Using the Wayback Machine]] - A guide to the Internet Archive's Wayback machine.}}
*[[Digital library]]
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===Similar projects===
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*[[Library of Congress Digital Library project]]
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*[[National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program]]
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*[[Ourmedia]] - Internet Archive project that freely hosts public image, text, audio, and video submissions
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*[[Project Gutenberg]]
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*[[WebCite]]
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===Other===
 
*[[Digital preservation]]
 
*[[Digital preservation]]
 
*[[Heritrix]]
 
*[[Heritrix]]
 
*[[Link rot]]
 
*[[Link rot]]
*[[Project Gutenberg]]
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*[[Memory hole]]
*[[Universal library]]
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*[[Web archiving]]
 
*[[Web crawler]]
 
*[[Web crawler]]
   
 
==References==
 
==References==
===Scientology controversy===
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{{reflist|2}}
*[http://news.com.com/2100-1023-959236.html CNET story]
 
*[http://www.archive.org/iathreads/post-view.php?id=778 Forum post at archive.org]
 
*[http://research.yale.edu/lawmeme/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=350 LawMeme article]
 
 
===Wayback Machine archives as legally admissible evidence===
 
*[http://cyberlaw.stanford.edu/packets/vol_2_no_3/002728.shtml Internet Archive’s Web Page Snapshots Held Admissible as Evidence], from a [[Stanford University]] website
 
 
===Grateful Dead controversy===
 
*[http://www.iht.com/bin/print_ipub.php?file=/articles/2005/12/01/business/deadheads.php Wrath of Deadheads stalls Web crackdown], a ''[[New York Times]]'' story via the ''[[International Herald Tribune]]''
 
*[http://www.phillesh.net/philzonepages/friends_stuff/hotline-051130.html Phil Lesh's Hotline], where a [[November 30]] [[2005]] message commented on the controversy
 
*[http://www.archive.org/iathreads/post-view.php?id=49553 Good News and an Apology: GD on the Internet Archive], Brewster Kahle's forum post at archive.org
 
   
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
*[http://www.archive.org/ The Internet Archive]
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*[http://www.archive.org/ The Internet Archive] in California, United States
*[http://www.openlibrary.org/ The Open Library]
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** [http://archive.bibalex.org/ Internet Archive Mirror] at the Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt
*[http://www.petabox.org/ Petabox, a useful invention created in collaboration with the Internet Archive]
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*[http://www.archive.org/details/other_minds The Other Minds Archive] New Music Resource from [http://radiom.org radiom.org]
*[http://web.archive.org/ Wayback Machine]
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*[http://www.archive.org/web/hardware.php Pictures and descriptions of the Wayback Machine hardware in 2003 (prior to the Petabox), with cost information]
*[http://www.archive.org/web/hardware.php Pictures and descriptions of the Wayback Machine hardware, with cost information]
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* Erik Ringmar, "[http://www.archive.org/download/ErikRingmarliberateAndDisseminate/mlop.pdf Liberate and Disseminate]," ''Times Higher Education Supplement'', April 10, 2008.
*[http://jnana.wikinerds.org/index.php/Form_990-PF_for_Internet_Archive_%282003%29 Form 990-PF for Internet Archive (2003)]
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*[http://web.archive.org/web/19971011064403/http://www.archive.org/index.html Earliest known website of Internet Archive (www.archive.org) from 1997]
*[http://www.archive-it.org/press/release1.5.html Archive-It 1.5 Press Release] and [http://www.archive-it.org/faq.php Archive-It FAQ]
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*[http://web.archive.org/collections/pioneers.html Early websites from 1996]
*[http://www.cs.odu.edu/~fmccown/research/lazy/warrick.html Warrick] - a tool for recovering websites from the Internet Archive and search engine caches
 
   
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[[Category:Internet archives]]
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[[Category:Sound archives]]
 
[[Category:Digital libraries]]
 
[[Category:Digital libraries]]
[[Category:Film archives]]
 
[[Category:Foundations]]
 
[[Category:History of computing]]
 
[[Category:Online databases]]
 
   
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{{enWP| Internet Archive}}

Latest revision as of 14:33, January 15, 2010

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File:Feb 2008 San Francisco Wikimedia Meetup 01.jpg
File:Christian science church122908 02.jpg
File:Internet Archive - Bibliotheca Alexandrina.jpg

The Internet Archive is a non-profit digital library with the stated mission: "universal access to all knowledge."[1][2] It offers permanent storage and access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, music, moving images, and books. The Internet Archive was founded by Brewster Kahle in 1996.

With offices located in San Francisco, California, USA and data centers in San Francisco, Redwood City, and Mountain View, California, USA, the Archive's largest collection is its web archive, "snapshots of the World Wide Web." To ensure the stability and endurance of the Internet Archive, its collection is mirrored at the Bibliotheca Alexandrina in Egypt, making it the only library in the world with a mirror.[3]

The Archive allows the public to both upload and download digital material to its data cluster, and provides unrestricted online access to that material at no cost. The Archive also oversees one of the world's largest book digitization projects. It is a member of the American Library Association and is officially recognized by the State of California as a library.[4]

In addition to its archiving function, the Archive is an activist organization, advocating for a free and open Internet.

The Archive is a 501(c)(3) non-profit operating in the United States. It has a staff of 200, most of whom are book scanners in its book scanning centers. Its main offices in San Francisco house about 30 employees. The Archive has an annual budget of $10 million, derived from a variety of sources: revenue from its Web crawling services, various partnerships, grants, donations, and the Kahle-Austin Foundation.[5]

HistoryEdit

Brewster Kahle founded the Archive in 1996 at the same time that he began the for-profit web crawling company Alexa Internet. The Archive began to archive the World Wide Web from 1996, but it did not make this collection available until 2001, when it developed the Wayback Machine. In late 1999, the Archive expanded its collections beyond the Web archive, beginning with the Prelinger Archive. Now the Internet Archive includes texts, audio, moving images, and software. It hosts a number of other projects: the NASA Images Archive, the contract crawling service Archive-It, and the wiki-editable library catalog and book information site Open Library. Recently, the Archive has begun working to provide specialized services relating to the information access needs of the print-disabled.

According to its website:

Most societies place importance on preserving artifacts of their culture and heritage. Without such artifacts, civilization has no memory and no mechanism to learn from its successes and failures. Our culture now produces more and more artifacts in digital form. The Archive's mission is to help preserve those artifacts and create an Internet library for researchers, historians, and scholars.


Wayback MachineEdit

Examples from the Wayback
Machine's archives:

Main article: Wayback Machine

The Internet Archive has capitalized on the popular use of the term "WABAC Machine" from a segment of the old Rocky and Bullwinkle cartoon, and uses the name "Wayback Machine" for its service that allows archives of the World Wide Web to be searched and accessed.[6] This service allows users to see archived versions of web pages of the past, what the Internet Archive calls a "three dimensional index". Millions of websites and their associated data (images, source code, documents, etc.) are saved in a gigantic database. The service can be used to see what previous versions of websites used to look like, to grab original source code from websites that may no longer be directly available, or to visit websites that no longer even exist. Not all websites are available, however, because many website owners choose to exclude their sites.

The use of the term "Wayback Machine" in the context of the Internet Archive has become so common that "Wayback Machine" and "Internet Archive" are almost synonymous. This usage too occurs in popular culture, e.g., in the television show Law and Order: Criminal Intent ("Legacy", first run Aug. 3, 2008), an extra playing a computer tech uses the "Wayback Machine" to find an archive of a student's Facebook style website.

Open LibraryEdit

The Open Library is another project of the Internet Archive. The site, still in beta, seeks to include a web page database for every book ever published, a sort of Open Source version of WorldCat. It holds 23 million catalog records of books, in addition to the full texts of about 1,600,000 public domain books, which are fully readable and downloadable.[7][8] Open Library is a free/open source software project, with its source code freely available on the Open Library site.

Archive-ItEdit

Users who want to archive material permanently, and immediately cite an archived version, can use the Archive-It system, a fee based subscription service.[9] Data collected with Archive-It is periodically indexed into the general Wayback Machine. As of February 2009, Archive-It had created over 724 million URLs for 746 public collections, including government bodies, universities, and cultural institutions. Some of the organizations participating in Archive-It include the Electronic Literature Organization, the State Archives of North Carolina, the Texas State Library and Archives Commission, Stanford University, the National Library of Australia, the Research Libraries Group (RLG), and many others.


Psychology resources at the internet archiveEdit

The archive has many books, particularly of historical interest digitised and available for free access.

Media collectionsEdit

In addition to web archives, the Internet Archive maintains extensive collections of digital media that are attested by the uploader to be in the public domain in the United States or licensed under a license that allows redistribution, such as Creative Commons licenses. The media are organized into collections by media type (moving images, audio, text, etc.), and into sub-collections by various criteria. Each of the main collections includes an "Open Source" sub-collection where general contributions by the public are stored.

Moving image collectionEdit

Aside from feature films, IA's Moving Image collection includes: newsreels; classic cartoons; pro- and anti-war propaganda; Skip Elsheimer's "A.V. Geeks" collection; and ephemeral material from Prelinger Archives, such as advertising, educational and industrial films and amateur and home movie collections.

IA's Brick Films collection contains stop-motion animation filmed with Lego bricks, some of which are "remakes" of feature films. The Election 2004 collection is a non-partisan public resource for sharing video materials related to the 2004 United States Presidential Election. The Independent News collection includes sub-collections such as the Internet Archive's World At War competition from 2001, in which contestants created short films demonstrating "why access to history matters." Among their most-downloaded video files are eyewitness recordings of the devastating 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. The September 11th Television Archive contains archival footage from the world's major television networks of the terrorist attacks of September 11th, 2001 as they unfolded on live television.


Audio collectionEdit

Main article: Live Music Archive

The audio collection includes music, audio books, news broadcasts, old time radio shows and a wide variety of other audio files.

The Live Music Archive sub-collection includes over 50,000 concert recordings from independent artists, as well as more established artists and musical ensembles with permissive rules about recording their concerts such as the Grateful Dead, and more recently, The Smashing Pumpkins.

Text CollectionEdit

The texts collection includes digitized books from various libraries around the world as well as many special collections. The Internet Archive operates 18 scanning centers in five countries, digitizing about 1,000 books a day, financially supported by libraries and foundations.[10] As of November 2008, when there were about 1 million texts, the entire collection was over 0.5 petabytes, which includes raw camera images, cropped and skewed images, PDFs, and raw OCR data.[11]

Between about 2006 and 2008 Microsoft Corporation had a special relationship with Internet Archive texts through its Live Search Books project, scanning over 300,000 books which were contributed to the collection, as well as financial support and scanning equipment. On May 23, 2008 Microsoft announced it would be ending the Live Book Search project and no longer scanning books.[12] Microsoft will be making its scanned books available without contractual restriction and making the scanning equipment available to its digitization partners and libraries to continue digitization programs.[12]

Around October 2007 users began uploading the public domain books from Google Book Search. [13] As of January 2010 there are 900,000 million Google-digitized books in the Archive's collection, representing more than half of the total books available from archive.org. The books are identical to the copies found on Google, except without the Google watermarks, and are available for unrestricted use and download, like all Internet Archive materials.[14]

See alsoEdit

Wikipedia:Using the Wayback Machine - A guide to the Internet Archive's Wayback machine.

Similar projectsEdit

OtherEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Internet Archive Frequently Asked Questions
  2. Internet Archive: Universal Access to all Knowledge
  3. The Internet Archive at the New Library of Alexandria.
  4. " Internet Archive officially a library", May 2, 2007.
  5. [1].
  6. includeonly>Green, Heather. "A Library as Big as the World: Brewster Kahle has the technology to assemble the ultimate archive of human knowledge. What's stopping him? Restrictive copyright laws", Business Week Online, February 28, 2002. Retrieved on 2007-06-25.
  7. includeonly>Gonsalves, Antone. "Internet Archive Claims Progress Against Google Library Initiative", InformationWeek, December 20, 2006. Retrieved on 2007-01-05.
  8. includeonly>"The Open Library Makes Its Online Debut", Chronicle of Higher Education, The Wired Campus, July 19, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-07-30.
  9. Stefanie Olsen, "Preserving the Web one group at a time", CNet News.com, May 1, 2006.
  10. "Books Scanning to be Publicly Funded", announcement by Brewster Khale, May 23, 2008.
  11. "Bulk Access to OCR for 1 Million Books", via Open Library Blog, by raj, November 24, 2008.
  12. 12.0 12.1 "Book search winding down", Live Search Blog. Official announcement from Microsoft. Last accessed May 23, 2008.
  13. Google Books at Internet Archive.
  14. Books imported from Google have a metadata tag of scanner:google for searching purposes. The archive links back to Google for PDF copies, but also maintains a local PDF copy, which is viewable under the "All Files: HTTP" link.

External linksEdit

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