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Integrative Psychotherapy involves the fusion of different schools of psychotherapy.
Initially, Sigmund Freud developed a talking cure called psychoanalysis; then he wrote about his therapy and popularized psychoanalysis. After Freud, many different disciplines splintered off. Some of the more common therapies include: psychoanalytic psychotherapy, counseling, co-counseling, analysis, transactional analysis, cognitive behavioral therapy, gestalt therapy, body psychotherapy, psychodynamic psychotherapy, family systems therapy, person-centered psychotherapy, and existential therapy. Over two hundred different acknowledged theories of psychotherapy are practiced.[How to reference and link to summary or text]
A new therapy is born in several stages. After being trained in an existing school of psychotherapy, the therapist begins to practice. Then, after follow up training in other schools, the therapist may combine the different theories as a basis of a new practice. Then, some practitioners write about their new approach and label this approach with a new name. This overall pattern has been observed in numerous new therapies and is certain to form many future therapies.
A pragmatic or a theoretical approach can be taken when fusing schools of psychotherapy. Pragmatic practitioners blend a few strands of theory from a few schools as well as various techniques; such practitioners are sometimes called eclectic psychotherapists and are primarily concerned with what works. Alternatively, other therapists consider themselves to be more theoretically grounded as they blend their theories; they are called integrated psychotherapists and are not only concerned with what *works, but why it works.
For example an eclectic therapist might experience a change in their client after administering a particular technique and be satisfied with a positive result. In contrast, an integrative therapist is curious about the "why and how" of the change as well. A theoretical emphasis is important; for example, the client may only have been trying to please the therapist and was adapting to the therapist rather than becoming more fully empowered in themselves.
Different Routes to Integrative PsychotherapyEdit
The most recent edition of the Handbook of Psychotherapy Integration (Norcross & Goldfried, 2005) recognized four general routes to integration: Common Factors, Technical Eclecticism, Theoretical Integration, and Assimilative Integration (Norcross, 2005).
The first route to integration is called common factors and "seeks to determine the core ingredients that different therapies share in common" (Norcross, 2005, p. 9) The advantage of a common factors approach is the emphasis on therapeutic actions that have been demonstrated to be effective. The disadvantage is that common factors may overlook specific techniques that have been developed within particular theories. Common factors have been described by Jerome Frank (Frank & Frank, 1991), Bruce Wampold (2001), and Miller, Duncan and Hubble (2005).
The second route to integration is technical eclecticism which is designed "to improve our ability to select the best treatment for the person and the problem…guided primarily by data on what has worked best for others in the past" (Norcross, 2005, p. 8). The advantage of technical eclecticism is that it encourages the use of diverse strategies without being hindered by theoretical differences. A disadvantage is that there may not be a clear conceptual framework describing how techniques drawn from divergent theories might fit together. The most well known model of technical eclectic psychotherapy is Arnold Lazarus’ (2005) Multimodal Therapy. Larry E. Beutler’s model of Systematic Treatment Selection (Beutler, Consoli, & Lane, 2005) represents another model of technical eclecticism.
The third route to integration commonly recognized in the literature is theoretical integration in which "two or more therapies are integrated in the hope that the result will be better than the constituent therapies alone" (Norcross, 2005, p. 8). Some models of theoretical integration focus on combining and synthesizing a small number of theories at a deep level, whereas others describe the relationship between several systems of psychotherapy. One prominent example of theoretical synthesis is Paul Wachtel's (Wachtel, Kruk, & McKinney, 2005) model of Cyclical Psychodynamics that integrates psychodynamic, behavioral, and family systems theories. Another example of synthesis is Anthony Ryle’s (2005) model of Cognitive Analytic Therapy, integrating ideas from psychoanalytic object-relations theory and cognitive psychotherapy. The most notable model describing the relationship between several different theories is Prochaska and DiClemente’s (2005) Transtheoretical Model.
"This mode of integration favors a firm grounding in any one system of psychotherapy, but with a willingness to incorporate or assimilate, in a considered fashion, perspectives or practices from other schools" (Messer, 1992, p. 151). Assimilative integration is the fourth route and acknowledges that most psychotherapists select a theoretical orientation that serves as their foundation but, with experience, incorporate ideas and strategies from other sources into their practice. Increasingly, integrationists are acknowledging that most counselors will prefer the security of one foundational theory as they begin the process of integrative exploration. Formal models of assimilative integration have been described based on a psychodynamic foundation (Stricker & Gold, 2005) and based on cognitive-behavioral therapy (Castonguay, Newman, Borkovec, Holtforth, & Maramba, 2005).
Emerging Models that Combine RoutesEdit
In addition to well-established approaches that fit into one of four routes, there are newer models that combine aspects of the traditional routes. For example, Hill’s (2004) three-stage model of helping skills encourages counselors to emphasize skills from different theories during different stages of helping. Hill’s model might be considered a combination of theoretical integration and technical eclecticism. Good and Beitman (2006) described an integrative approach highlighting both core components of effective therapy and specific techniques designed to target clients’ particular areas of concern. This approach can be described as an integration of common factors and technical eclecticism. Multitheoretical Psychotherapy (Brooks-Harris, 2008) is a new integrative model that combines elements of technical eclecticism and theoretical integration. Therapists are encouraged to make intentional choices about combining theories and intervention strategies.
- Arnold Lazarus Multimodal Therapy
- Contextual therapy
- Eclectic psychotherapy
- Larry E. Beutler's Systematic Treatment Selection
- IBP Integrative Body Psychotherapy
- Integrated services
- Interdisciplinary treatment approaches
- Internal Family Systems Model
- Multimodal treatment approach
- Multitheoretical Psychotherapy
- Prochaska and DiClemente's Transtheoretical Model
- Society for the Exploration of Psychotherapy Integration
- Unifying psychology
References & BibliographyEdit
- Brooks-Harris, J. E. (2008). Integrative Multitheoretical Psychotherapy. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.
- Evans, K and Gilbert, M (2004))An Introduction to Integrative Psychotherapy.Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0333987268
- Good, G. E. & Beitman, B. D. (2006). Counseling and psychotherapy essentials: Integrating theories, skills, and practices. New York: W. W. Norton.
- Norcross, J. C. (2005). A primer on psychotherapy integration. In J. C. Norcross & M. R. Goldfried (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy integration (2nd ed., pp. 3-23). New York: Oxford.
- Norcross, J. C., & Goldfried, M. R. (Eds.). (2005). Handbook of psychotherapy integration (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford.
- Beutler, L. E., Consoli, A. J. & Lane, G. (2005). Systematic treatment selection and prescriptive psychotherapy: An integrative eclectic approach. In J. C. Norcross & M. R. Goldfried (Eds.), Handbook of Psychotherapy Integration (2nd ed., pp. 121-143). New York: Oxford.
- Castonguay, L. G., Newman, M. G., Borkovec, T. D., Holtforth, M. G. & Maramba, G. G. (2005). Cognitive-behavioral assimilative integration. In J. C. Norcross & M. R. Goldfried (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy integration (2nd ed., pp. 241-260). New York: Oxford.
- Lazarus, A. A. (2005). Multimodal therapy. In J. C. Norcross & M. R. Goldfried (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy integration (2nd ed., pp. 105-120). New York: Oxford.
- Messer, S. B. (1992). A critical examination of belief structures in integrative and eclectic psychotherapy. In J. C. Norcross, & M. R. Goldfried, (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy integration (pp. 130-165). New York: Basic Books.
- Prochaska, J. O., & DiClemente, C. C. (2005). The transtheoretical approach. In J. C. Norcross & M. R. Goldfried (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy integration (2nd ed., pp. 147-171). New York: Oxford.
- Stricker, G. & Gold, J. (2005). Assimilative psychodynamic psychotherapy. In J. C. Norcross & M. R. Goldfried (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy integration (2nd ed., pp. 221-240). New York: Oxford.
- Wachtel, P. L., Kruk, J. C., & McKinney, M. K. (2005). Cyclical psychodynamics and integrative relational psychotherapy. In J. C. Norcross & M. R. Goldfried (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy integration (2nd ed., pp. 172-195). New York: Oxford.
- Ryle, A. (2005). Cognitive analytic therapy. In J. C. Norcross & M. R. Goldfried (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy integration (2nd ed., pp. 196-217). New York: Oxford.
- The Problem of Psychotherapy Integration by Tullio Carere
- The rise of integrative psychotherapy by John Söderlund
- Integrative Theory of Psychotherapy and other Human Sciences (Documents No. 8 and 9 in English)
- Society for the Exploration of Psychotherapy Integration
- Hungarian Association for Integrative Psychotherapy
- Institute for Integrative Psychotherapy and Counselling, Ljubljana
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