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Ingroup outgroup

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In social psychology , an ingroup is a social group towards which an individual feels loyalty and respect, usually due to membership in the group. This loyalty often manifests itself as an ingroup bias. Commonly encountered ingroups include family members, people of the same race, culture or religion, and so on. The term originates from social identity theory which grew out of the work of social psychologists Henri Tajfel and John Turner. Using a method called the minimal group paradigm, Tajfel and colleagues discovered that people can form ingroups, as well as outgroups within a matter of minutes. Such groups can form even on the basis of seemingly trivial characteristics, such as preferences for certain paintings.[1][2]

Research demonstrates that people often privilege ingroup members over outgroup members even when the ingroup has no actual social standing; for instance, a group of people with the same color shirts, when the other group has another color of shirt.[3].

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