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The term individual psychology can be used to refer to what is more commonly known as differential psychology or the psychology of individual differences. Usage of this term is likely to imply a more individualistic focus than is found in mainstream psychology of personality and individual differences, where there is frequently a bias towards nomothetic research.

The term is also used to refer to the psychology of Alfred Adler. Although after breaking with Freud, Adler did call his work "free psychoanalysis" for a time, he later rejected the label of "psychoanalyst" and his work became known as "Individual Psychology". In the context of Adlerian psychology, this term denotes the sense that a person is "indivisible", meaning that people should be treated holistically. This makes Adlerian psychology share certain parallels with the humanistic psychology of Maslow. Examples of psychologists and therapists who could be called "individual psychologists" in the sense of being Adlerian include Rudolf Dreikurs and Henry Stein.

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