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The terms '''indigenous populations''' and "indigenous peoples" have no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. However several widely-accepted formulations, which define the term '''"Indigenous peoples"''' in stricter terms, have been put forward by prominent and internationally-recognised organizations, such as the United Nations, the International Labour Organization and the World Bank. Indigenous peoples in this article is used in such a narrower sense.
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{{Hatnote|This article is about indigenous peoples in general. For links to articles about indigenous people in specific areas, see [[Indigenous peoples by geographic regions]]}}
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[[File:Kaiapos.jpeg|300px|right|thumb|Brazilian indigenous chiefs of the [[Kayapo people|Kayapo]] tribe.]]
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[[File:Saami Family 1900.jpg|right|thumb|A [[Sami people|Sami]] family in Norway around 1900.]]
   
*{{Seealso|List of indigenous peoples}}
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'''Indigenous peoples''' are ethnic groups that are defined as indigenous according to one of the various definitions of the term, there is no universally accepted definition<ref>"Because of the varied and changing contexts in which Indigenous Peoples live and because there is no universally accepted definition of “Indigenous Peoples,” this policy does not define the term. Indigenous Peoples may be referred to in different countries by such terms as "indigenous ethnic minorities," "aboriginals," "hill tribes," "minority nationalities," "scheduled tribes," or "tribal groups."[http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/PROJECTS/EXTPOLICIES/EXTOPMANUAL/0,,contentMDK:20553653~menuPK:4564185~pagePK:64709096~piPK:64709108~theSitePK:502184,00.html]</ref> but most of which carry connotations of being the "original inhabitants" of a territory.
   
{{Wikisourcepar|Draft United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples}}
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In the late twentieth century the term became a political term used to refer to ethnic groups have historical ties to groups that existed in a territory prior to [[colonization]] or formation of a [[nation state]], and which normally preserve a degree of cultural and political separation from the mainstream culture and political system of the nation state within the border of which the indigenous group is located. The political sense of the term indigenous people, defines these groups as particularly vulnerable to exploitation and oppression by nation states, and as a result a special set of political rights in accordance with international law have been set forth by International Organizations such as the [[United Nations]], the [[International Labour Organization]] and the [[World Bank]].<ref>Sanders, Douglas. 1999. Indigenous peoples: Issues of definition. International Journal of Cultural Property. No. 8 pp. 4 - 13.</ref> The United Nations have issued a [[Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples]], the purpose of which it is to protect the collective rights of indigenous peoples to their culture, identity, language, employment, health, education and natural resources.
{{Wikisourcepar|Convention concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries}}
 
   
Drawing on these, a contemporary working definition of "indigenous peoples" for certain purposes has criteria which would seek to include cultural groups (and their descendants) who have an historical continuity or association with a given region, or parts of a region, and who formerly or currently inhabit the region either:
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Different states designate the groups within their boundaries that are recognized as indigenous peoples according to international legislation by different terms, for example "[[Indigenous peoples of the Americas|Native Americans]]" "Pacific Islander" (USA), "[[Inuit]]", [[Métis people (Canada)|Métis]] "[[First Nations]]" (Canada),<ref>http://www.aidp.bc.ca/terminology_of_native_aboriginal_metis.pdf</ref> [[Australian Aborigines|Aborigines]] (Australia), [[Hill tribes]] (South East Asia), indigenous ethnic minorities, scheduled tribes or [[Adivasi]] (India), tribal groups, or autochtonous groups.<ref>"Because of the varied and changing contexts in which Indigenous Peoples live and because there is no universally accepted definition of “Indigenous Peoples,” this policy does not define the term. Indigenous Peoples may be referred to in different countries by such terms as "indigenous ethnic minorities," "aboriginals," "hill tribes," "minority nationalities," "[[scheduled tribes]],([[India]])" or "tribal groups."[http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/PROJECTS/EXTPOLICIES/EXTOPMANUAL/0,,contentMDK:20553653~menuPK:4564185~pagePK:64709096~piPK:64709108~theSitePK:502184,00.html]</ref>
* before its subsequent [[Colonialism|colonization]] or annexation; ''or''
 
* alongside other cultural groups during the formation of a [[nation-state]]; ''or''
 
* independently or largely isolated from the influence of the claimed governance by a nation-state,
 
And who furthermore:
 
* have maintained at least in part their distinct [[Linguistics|linguistic]], [[Culture|cultural]] and [[Society|social / organizational]] characteristics, and in doing so remain differentiated in some degree from the surrounding populations and dominant culture of the nation-state.
 
To the above, a criterion is usually added to also include:
 
*peoples who are self-identified as indigenous, and those recognised as such by other groups.
 
   
Other related terms for indigenous peoples include '''aborigines''', '''native peoples''', '''first peoples''', '''[[Fourth World]]''', '''[[First Nations|first nations]]''' and '''autochthonous''' (this last term having a derivation from Greek, meaning "sprung from the earth"). ''Indigenous peoples'' may often be used in preference to these or other terms, as a neutral replacement where these terms may have taken on negative or [[pejorative]] connotations by their prior association and use. It is the preferred term in use by the United Nations and its subsidiary organizations.
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==Origins of phrase==
   
==Characteristics of indigenous peoples: overview==
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During the late twentieth century the term ''Indigenous peoples'' evolved into a legal category that refers to culturally distinct groups that in various ways had been affected by the processes of [[colonization]]. These are usually collectives that have preserved some degree of cultural and political separation from the mainstream culture and political system that has grown to surround or dominate them economically, politically, culturally, or geographically. "'Indigenous peoples' ... is a term that internationalizes the experiences, the issues and the struggles of some of the world's colonized peoples," writes [[Maori people|Maori]] educator Linda Thuwai Smith. "The final 's' in 'indigenous peoples' ... [is] a way of recognizing that there are real differences between different indigenous peoples."<ref>Smith, Linda Tuhiwai. ''Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples.'' London: Zed Books, 1999. ISBN 978-1-85649-624-7. p. 7</ref>
===Population and distribution===
 
Indigenous societies range from those who have been significantly exposed to the colonizing or expansionary activities of other societies (example: the [[Maya peoples]] of Mexico and Central America) through to those who as yet remain in comparative isolation from any external influence (example: the [[Sentinelese]] and [[Jarawa (Andaman Islands)|Jarawa]] of the [[Andaman Islands]]).
 
   
Precise estimates for the total population of the world's indigenous peoples are very difficult to compile, given the difficulties in identification and the variances and inadequacies of available census data. Recent source estimates range from 300 million<ref>{{cite paper | author=WGIP | title=Indigenous Peoples and the United Nations System | publisher=Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, United Nations Office at Geneva | date=2001 | url=http://www.unhchr.ch/html/racism/indileaflet1.doc }}</ref> to 350 million<ref>{{cite web | title=Indigenous issues | work=International Work Group on Indigenous Affairs | url=http://www.iwgia.org/sw155.asp | accessdate=September 5 | accessyear=2005}}</ref> as of the start of the 21st century. This would equate to just under 6% of the total [[world population]]. This includes at least 5000 distinct peoples<ref>''Ibid.''</ref> in over 72 countries.
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Used politically, the term defines these groups as particularly vulnerable to exploitation and oppression by nation states, and as a result a special set of political rights in accordance with international law have been set forth by international organizations such as the United Nations, the [[International Labour Organization]] and the [[World Bank]].<ref name="Sanders, Douglas 1999. pp. 4 - 13">Sanders, Douglas. 1999. Indigenous peoples: Issues of definition. International Journal of Cultural Property. No. 8 pp. 4 13.</ref> The United Nations issued a [[Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples]], with the intent to protect the collective rights of indigenous peoples to their culture, identity, language, employment, health, education and natural resources.
   
Contemporary distinct indigenous groups survive in populations ranging from only a few dozen to hundreds of thousands or more. Many indigenous populations have undergone a dramatic decline and even extinction, and remain threatened in many parts of the world. In other cases, indigenous populations are undergoing a recovery or expansion in numbers.
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However, the phrase is not applied consistently in all cultures. The notion of an indigenous group depends on context and other issues. The World Bank's policy for indigenous people states:
   
Certain indigenous societies persist even though they may no longer inhabit their "traditional" lands, owing to migration, relocation, forced resettlement or having been supplanted by other cultural groups.
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{{quote|Because of the varied and changing contexts in which Indigenous Peoples live and because there is no universally accepted definition of “Indigenous Peoples, this policy does not define the term. Indigenous Peoples may be referred to in different countries by such terms as "indigenous ethnic minorities," "aboriginals," "hill tribes," "minority nationalities," "scheduled tribes," or "tribal groups."<ref name=worldbank410>{{cite web|url=http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/PROJECTS/EXTPOLICIES/EXTOPMANUAL/0,,contentMDK:20553653~menuPK:4564185~pagePK:64709096~piPK:64709108~theSitePK:502184,00.html |title=Operational Policy 4.10 – Indigenous Peoples}}</ref>}}
   
===Common characteristics===
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Different states designate the groups within their boundaries that are recognized as indigenous peoples according to international legislation by different terms. These include, for example "[[Indigenous peoples of the Americas|Native Americans]]" and "Pacific Islander" in the United States; "[[Aboriginal peoples in Canada|Aboriginals]] ([[Inuit]]", "[[Métis people (Canada)|Métis]]" and "[[First Nations]])" in Canada;<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.aidp.bc.ca/terminology_of_native_aboriginal_metis.pdf |title=Terminlogy of Native Aboriginal}}</ref> [[Australian Aborigines|Aborigines]] in Australia; [[Hill tribes]] in Southeast Asia; indigenous ethnic minorities, scheduled tribes or [[Adivasi]] in India; tribal groups, or autochthonous groups.<ref name=worldbank410/>
   
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== Definition ==
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{{Main|Definitions and identity of indigenous peoples|Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples}}
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[[File:Ati woman.jpg|thumb|right|[[Ati (tribe)|Ati]] woman, the [[Philippines]], 2007.<ref>"[http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/country,,,COUNTRYPROF,PHL,4562d8cf2,4954ce2123,0.html World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Philippines: Overview, 2007]", UNHCR | Refworld.</ref> The [[Negrito]]s were the earliest inhabitants of Southeast Asia.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/110486797/ABSTRACT?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0 |title=Negritos, Australian Aborigines, and the proto-sundadont dental pattern: The basic populations in East Asia |work=Wiley InterScience |accessdate =2009-10-23}} {{dead link|date=September 2010}}</ref>]]
   
Characteristics common across many indigenous groups include present or historical reliance upon [[List of subsistence techniques|subsistence-based]] production (based on [[pastoralism|pastoral]], [[Horticulture|horticultural]] and/or [[Hunter gatherer|hunting and gathering]] techniques), and a predominantly non-[[Urbanization|urbanized]] society. Indigenous societies may be either settled in a given locale/region or exhibit a [[nomad]]ic lifestyle across a large territory. Indigenous societies are found in every inhabited [[climate zone]] and [[continent]] of the world.
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The [[adjective]] ''indigenous'' has the common meaning of "from" or "of the original origin". Therefore, in a purely adjectival sense any given people, ethnic group or community may be described as being ''indigenous'' in reference to some particular region or location.<ref name="united"/>
   
Shared [[cultural norms]] amongst indigenous global populations differ so drastically from those of the imperial [[colonialism|colonizer]] culture that sociopolitical and economic integration of persons from the former populace to the later has and continues to result in disaster. George Tinker identifies the following 4 fundamental differences that distinguish indigenous cultures from all others:
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Key to a contemporary understanding of "indigenousness" is the political role a cultural group plays, for all other criteria usually taken to denote indigenous groups (territory, race, history, subsistence lifestyle, etc.) can, to a greater or lesser extent, also be applied to majority cultures.<ref name="FAQ">{{cite web |url=http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/documents/FAQsindigenousdeclaration.pdf |title=Frequently Asked Questions: Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples |work= United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues|format=PDF |accessdate =2009-10-23}}</ref> Therefore, the distinction applied to indigenous groups can be formulated as "a politically underprivileged group, who share a similar... identity different to the nation in power",<ref name="united">{{cite web |url=http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/documents/DRIPS_en.pdf |title= United NationsDeclaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (A/RES/61/295)|work=United Nations|publisher=UNPFII| accessdate =2009-10-23}}</ref> and who share territorial rights to a particular area governed by a colonial power.
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However, the specific term ''indigenous peoples'' has a more restrictive interpretation when it used in the more formalized, legalistic, and academic sense, associated with the [[collective rights]] of human populations.<ref name="united"/> In these contexts, the term is used to denote particular peoples and groups around the world who, as well as being native to or associated with some given territory,<ref name="FAQ"/> meet certain other criteria (such as having reached a social and technological plateau thousands of years ago).
   
*Spatiality as a general frame of reference
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=== Criteria ===
*The priority of communal sustainability over individualistic action
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Drawing on these, a contemporary working definition of "indigenous people" for certain purposes has criteria which would seek to include cultural groups (and their continuity or association with a given region, or parts of a region, and who formerly or currently inhabit the region) either:<ref name="FAQ"/>
*Conception of the interrelatedness of all of creation, including humanity’s place within the natural universe
 
*Attachment to particular lands or territory
 
   
The colonizing Euro-American [[Western culture|Western]] mind is structured around various understandings and attachments to notions of [[temporality]]. History itself is designed to perpetuate “structures of cognition and modes of discourse that pay homage to” temporal explanations of civilization progression. All academic discussions of history and development from the West are thus in conflict with indigenous conceptions of [[civilization]]. While still possessing a sense of temporal awareness, indigenous populations overwhelmingly understand the world around them through the lens of [[spatial]]ity, the opposite of Western cultures who perceive things from a temporal perspective almost exclusively, even though possessing a sense of spatial understanding. Time and space are both instrumental determinants of each culture, yet the cognitive placement and analysis of each, changes the normative social base. Indigenous [[traditions]] and [[spirituality|spiritualities]] are rooted in a spatial understanding of the universe. Indigenous spirituality is the single most influential aspect of in the formulation of indigenous values and ethics, [[social structure|social]] and [[political structure]]s. Therefore indigenous cultural [[institutions]] and practices reflect a spatial consciousness that promotes a horizontal, [[communitarian]] organization in the interest of maintain [[balance]] and [[harmony]] in the natural world. The advancement of temporal notions of progress as a result of increased Western imperial efforts over the course of the past 2500 some odd years have served to empower those imposing and pursuing [[capitalist]] agendas.
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* before or its subsequent [[colonialism|colonisation]] or annexation; ''or''
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* alongside other cultural groups during the formation or reign of a colony or [[nation-state]]; ''or''
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* independently or largely isolated from the influence of the claimed governance by a nation-state,
   
Communitarianism (versus [[individualism]]) emphasized in indigenous philosophy is evidenced first and foremost by the various social institutions that evenly distribute power at every level of national organization, from the [[body politic]] to [[Nuclear family|nuclear families]]. This is to ensure that no individual can manipulate or wrest power for self-serving interests or gain at the expense of the greater community or at the cost of disturbing the balance and harmony of existence.
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and who furthermore:<ref name="united"/>
   
Where the West regards the [[natural world]] as something that can be controlled or manipulated or used in the interest of humanity, the Indigenous [[mentality]] believes it to be in their best interests to simply manage and work to sustain the natural world. The recognition of the intimate relationship between individuals and communities around the world to everyone and everything in this world is key to understanding the indigenous [[worldview]]. To us, all living things are members of their own nations, to be respected as such, and any [[consumption]] or utilization of resources is understood as a sacrifice on behalf of the member of that nation to continue the “life of the people” or more generally sustain the natural process of life. Indigenous peoples understand themselves to be a part of the world they live in rather than the center of it.
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* have maintained at least in part their distinct [[culture|cultural]], [[society|social/organisational]], or [[natural language|linguistic]] characteristics, and in doing so remain differentiated in some degree from the surrounding populations and dominant culture of the nation-state.
   
The resulting mix of emotional, mental, spiritual and psychological attachments to particular lands is the result of the combining of the two previously stated major tenets of communitarianism and interrelatedness. Ownership of land is a foreign concept for indigenous societies, as traditionally they regarded themselves as [[stewards]] of their surroundings in exchange for access and managed extraction of natural resources. The relationship between the local indigenous population and the land is one of filial responsibility, rather than systematic consumption for surplus regional production. It is with this understanding that the significance of the loss of land during the course of Euro-American invasion can be viewed in its correct light, and the true devastation of indigenous community structure can be understood.
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To the above, a criterion is usually added to also include:<ref name="united"/>
   
The resulting wake of 500 plus years of Western physical and cultural [[invasion]] surfaced a seemingly never-ending laundry list of humanitarian concerns for every single individual on the face of this planet. From the [[indigenous peoples of the Americas|American Indian]] perspective, as well as global indigenous populations for that matter, a good place to start working towards a useful understanding of contemporary policy complications will be the exploration of modern national and federal policy with regards to who is eligible for communal, state, national and international recognition as a member of an indigenous national entity. The issues swirling in the storm of enrollment controversies of federally recognized tribes are just the beginning of a greater set of issues regarding American Indian identity. Indigenous, north-American, cultural sociopolitical organization differs from Euro-American organization because of the establishment of national (“tribal”) affiliation as being a [[modal]] social institution: membership of the community is not something decided upon by either the individual or the community leaders, it is simply inherent as a [[birthright]]. This type of national community structure and organization forms the backbone of all subsequent logistical organizing, including [[clan]] and social responsibility designations. Clan membership identifies more specifically whom individuals are related to within the greater national community, as different clans serve different purposes within the national community. All sources of identity and self-signification in the indigenous world are possible as a result of such modal organization, allowing for trade, the maintenance of cultural, political, social institutions, and other basic functions of exchange and municipal operations.
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* peoples who are self-identified as indigenous, or those recognized as such by other groups.
   
===Common concerns===
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Note that even if all the above criteria are fulfilled, some people may either not consider themselves as indigenous or may not be considered as indigenous by governments, organizations or scholars. The discourse of indigenous / non-indigenous may also be viewed within the context of [[postcolonialism]] and the evolution of post-colonial societies.
   
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==Characteristics==
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=== Population and distribution ===
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[[File:Veddah Man.jpg|upright|thumb|left|Man from the [[Veddah]] indigenous group of [[Sri Lanka]].]]
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Indigenous societies range from those who have been significantly exposed to the colonizing or expansionary activities of other societies (such as the [[Maya peoples]] of Mexico and Central America) through to those who as yet remain in comparative isolation from any external influence (such as the [[Sentinelese people|Sentinelese]] and [[Jarawa people (Andaman Islands)|Jarawa]] of the [[Andaman Islands]]).
   
Indigenous peoples confront a diverse range of concerns associated with their status and interaction with other cultural groups, as well as changes in their inhabited environment. Some challenges are specific to particular groups; however, other challeges are commonly experienced. Bartholomew Dean and Jerome Levi (2003) explore why and how the circumstances of indigenous peoples are improving in some places of the world, while their human rights continue to be abused in others.<ref>Bartholomew Dean and Jerome Levi (eds.) ''At the Risk of Being Heard: Indigenous Rights, Identity and Postcolonial States'' University of Michigan Press (2003)[http://www.press.umich.edu/titleDetailDesc.do;jsessionid=1ADB525E82D520F3CE8B1393F0EAA914?id=11605]</ref> These issues include cultural and linguistic preservation, [[land rights]], ownership and exploitation of [[natural resources]], political determination and autonomy, [[Natural environment|environmental]] degradation and incursion, [[poverty]], [[Public health|health]], and [[discrimination]].
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Precise estimates for the total population of the world's Indigenous peoples are very difficult to compile, given the difficulties in identification and the variances and inadequacies of available census data. Recent source estimates range from 300 million<ref>{{Cite journal |author=WGIP |title=Indigenous Peoples and the United Nations System |publisher=Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, United Nations Office at Geneva |year=2001 |url=http://www.unhchr.ch/html/racism/indileaflet1.doc }} {{dead link|date=September 2010}}</ref> to 350 million<ref name=r1>{{cite web |title=Indigenous issues |work=International Work Group on Indigenous Affairs |url=http://www.iwgia.org/sw155.asp |accessdate=September 5, 2005}}</ref> as of the start of the 21st century. This would equate to just fewer than 6% of the total [[world population]]. This includes at least 5000 distinct peoples<ref name=r1/> in over 72 countries.
   
The interaction between indigenous and non-indigenous societies throughout history has been complex, ranging from outright conflict and subjugation to some degree of mutual benefit and cultural transfer. A particular aspect of [[Anthropology|anthropological study]] involves investigation into the ramifications of what is termed [[First contact (anthropology)|''first contact'']], the study of what occurs when two cultures first encounter one another. The situation can be further confused when there is a complicated or contested history of [[migration]] and population of a given region, which can give rise to disputes about primacy and ownership of the land and resources.
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Contemporary distinct indigenous groups survive in populations ranging from only a few dozen to hundreds of thousands and more. Many indigenous populations have undergone a dramatic decline and even extinction, and remain threatened in many parts of the world. Some have also been assimilated by other populations or have undergone many other changes. In other cases, indigenous populations are undergoing a recovery or expansion in numbers.
   
Who is, in the present day context, capable of determining the standards of [[tribal]] enrollment once that power has been returned to each national community? Postmodern [[postcolonial]] cultural competency must be regarded as demonstrating an ability to continually develop the community in a "consistent trajectory of development from the national community’s aboriginal existence" (Tinker, 33). After physically coercing the colonized, Euro-American imperial colonialist [[ideology]] dictates a collective effort on behalf of both church and state organizations to disconnect indigenous peoples from their respective cultures, continuing to blur the lines of [[ethnic]] and national authenticity.
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Certain indigenous societies survive even though they may no longer inhabit their "traditional" lands, owing to migration, relocation, forced resettlement or having been supplanted by other cultural groups. In many other respects, the [[transformation of culture]] of indigenous groups is ongoing, and includes permanent loss of language, loss of lands, encroachment on traditional territories, and disruption in traditional lifeways due to contamination and pollution of waters and lands.
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{{Clear}}
The marriage between [[religious]] and [[secular]] organizations, in both historical and contemporary contexts, act as [[agents]] in the organization of reservation life and set precedents that determine the relationship between the [[federal government]] and "tribal" political nations. One such meeting, a gathering of influential federal [[indigenous peoples of the Americas|American Indian]] policy makers named themselves "Friends of the Indian", and collaborated to create "devices and policies" designed to reduce the populations of cultural and ethnic Native Americans to the point of dissolution. <!-- THE FOLLOWING IS GOOD INFO BUT IS AN INCOMPLETE SENTENCE: Government sponsored relocation, female sterilization, economic co-optation, continued violations of native nations sovereign and inherent rights within the national and global context. --> Western [[bureaucrat]]ic administrative techniques continue to encourage termination policy, such as establishing a minimum blood quantum requirement for "tribal membership" for what is to be deemed "legal" enrollment.
 
 
Enrollment in an indigenous national entity is tied directly to blood quantum measurements. The systematic organization of a population to signify and differentiate it from the dominant population is only a social-engineering weapon that has been employed by [[Nazi]] Germany and [[apartheid|apartheid South Africa]]. Inevitable intermarriage and mixing of ethnic populations will lead to diminishing indigenous populations to the point of dissolution.
 
   
Questions raised by the insistence on the colonizer to use blood [[quantum]] as the determinant of legal national enrollment include the following:
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=== Common characteristics ===
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Characteristics common across many Indigenous groups include present or historical reliance upon [[List of subsistence techniques|subsistence-based]] production (based on [[pastoralism|pastoral]], horticultural and/or [[Hunter gatherer|hunting and gathering]] techniques), and a predominantly non-[[Urbanization|urbanized]] society. Not all indigenous groups share these characteristics. Indigenous societies may be either settled in a given locale/region or exhibit a [[nomad]]ic lifestyle across a large territory, but are generally historically associated with a specific territory on which they are dependent. Indigenous societies are found in every inhabited [[climate zone]] and [[continent]] of the world.<ref name="Sanders, Douglas 1999. pp. 4 - 13"/><ref>Acharya, Deepak and Shrivastava Anshu (2008): Indigenous Herbal Medicines: Tribal Formulations and Traditional Herbal Practices, Aavishkar Publishers Distributor, Jaipur- India. ISBN 978-81-7910-252-7. pp 440</ref>
   
*What is to be the selected blood quantum measurement for determining ones ethnic [[authenticity]]?
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=== Common concerns ===
*What minimal measurement of blood quantum is deemed too low for an individual to be eligible for enrollment and tribal membership?
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Indigenous peoples confront a diverse range of concerns associated with their status and interaction with other cultural groups, as well as changes in their inhabited environment. Some challenges are specific to particular groups; however, other challenges are commonly experienced. Bartholomew Dean and Jerome Levi (2003) explore why and how the circumstances of indigenous peoples are improving in some places of the world, while their human rights continue to be abused in others.<ref>Bartholomew Dean and Jerome Levi (eds.) ''At the Risk of Being Heard: Indigenous Rights, Identity and Postcolonial States'' University of Michigan Press (2003)[http://www.press.umich.edu/titleDetailDesc.do;jsessionid=1ADB525E82D520F3CE8B1393F0EAA914?id=11605]</ref> These issues include cultural and linguistic preservation, [[land rights]], ownership and exploitation of [[natural resources]], political determination and autonomy, [[environment (biophysical)|environmental]] degradation and incursion, poverty, [[Public health|health]], and [[discrimination]].
   
Blood quantum is based on the records of the colonizer. As late the 19th and early 20th century, federal recognition as a legal member of a national tribal entity required proof of blood relation to an individual accounted for on the original documents as members of the coerced nation. New complications thus materialized, such as what should be done to incorporate those who refused to comply with enrollment as a form of protest against the obvious violation of indigenous national sovereignty? Displaying visible indicators of indigenous cultural origin and ethnic behavioral traits, these culturally competent individuals are accepted socially and are identified as one of the nation’s own, yet federal control of native national membership stands testament to the refusal of U.S. policy to recognize the legal and theoretical sovereign powers of North American indigenous nations.
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The interaction between indigenous and non-indigenous societies throughout history has been complex, ranging from outright conflict and subjugation to some degree of mutual benefit and cultural transfer. A particular aspect of [[Anthropology|anthropological study]] involves investigation into the ramifications of what is termed [[First contact (anthropology)|''first contact'']], the study of what occurs when two cultures first encounter one another. The situation can be further confused when there is a complicated or contested history of migration and population of a given region, which can give rise to disputes about primacy and ownership of the land and resources.
   
Five <!-- this originally said four but listed five --> critical assessments have been identified as being vital considerations in determining acceptance to a particular native nation:
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In further evidence of how vulnerable some of the [[Indigenous Peoples]] are, the [[Bangladesh]] Government has stated that there are "no [[Indigenous Peoples]] in Bangladesh".<ref name="Shafiq">[http://bdnews24.com/details.php?id=198775&cid=3 No 'indigenous', reiterates Shafique]. bdnews24.com (2011-06-18). Retrieved on 2011-10-11.</ref> This has angered the [[Indigenous Peoples]] of [[Chittagong Hill Tracts]], Bangladesh, collectively known as the Jumma (whichs include the [[Chakma]], [[Marma]], [[Tripura]], [[Tenchungya]], [[Chak]], [[Pankho]], [[Mru]], [[Murung]], [[Bawm]], [[Lushai]], [[Khyang]], [[Gurkha]], [[Assamese people|Assamese]], [[Santal]] and Khumi).<ref name="Mochta">[http://web.archive.org/web/20080708205108/http://www.mochta.gov.bd/faq.php Ministry of Chittagong Hill Tracts Affairs]</ref> Experts have protested against this move of the Bangladesh Government and have questioned the Government's definition of the term "[[Indigenous Peoples]]".<ref name="ChakmaRaja">[http://bdnews24.com/details.php?id=196924&cid=2 INDIGENOUS PEOPLEChakma Raja decries non-recognition]. bdnews24.com (2011-05-28). Retrieved on 2011-10-11.</ref><ref name="SultanaKamal">[http://www.bdnews24.com/details.php?id=196847&cid=2 'Define terms minorities, indigenous']. bdnews24.com (2011-05-27). Retrieved on 2011-10-11.</ref> This move by the [[Bangladesh]] Government is seen by the [[Indigenous Peoples]] of [[Bangladesh]] as another step by the Government to further erode their already limited rights.<ref name="shams">[http://www.himalmag.com/component/content/article/4511-disregarding-the-jumma.html Disregarding the Jumma]. Himalmag.com. Retrieved on 2011-10-11.</ref>
#Does the individual routinely participate authentically with the specific native community they are claiming to be a part of?
 
#Does the individual have obvious family ties identifiable in the community?
 
#Does the land enclosed by reservation boundaries hold a special significance to the individual as a place of national origin or homeland?
 
#How often does the individual visit the homeland throughout the year and for what purpose?
 
#Does the community of the nation recognize the individual’s cultural competency?
 
   
To pro-[[assimilation]]ists, the integration [[social]]ly, [[political]]ly and [[economic]]ally of ethnic Native Americans would hopefully result in an intense and immediate exposure of the indigenous population to the colonizing populace. The intended result is a transmission of cultural values and behaviors of the colonizer to the colonized. Such a policy was considered "liberal", as advocates on the other end of the spectrum clamored for conquest in the spirit of [[Alexander the Great]]. While this may be perceived as a benevolent gesture on behalf of the colonizer, the lasting affects of such "alternative" policies were engineered to pursue the same end result of termination and assimilation. Rather than finance a physical conquest of death, the powerful were determined to cultivate the raw labor power of the indigenous population. The motivation behind this concentrated effort is traced to the Western Imperial basic tenet of harvesting and profiting from the natural fauna, in this case the indigenous workforce itself, of the newly acquired lands.
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==Historical cultures==
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[[File:Kutia kondh woman.JPG|thumb|An [[Adivasi]] woman from the Kutia [[Khonds|Kondh]] tribal group in [[Orissa]], India.]]
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The [[Human migration|migration]], expansion and settlement of societies throughout different territories is a universal, almost defining thread which runs through the entire course of [[History of the world|human history]]. Many of the cross-cultural interactions which arose as a result of these historical encounters involved societies which might properly be considered as indigenous, either from their own viewpoint or that of external societies.
   
In an effort to organize the population for economic integration, colonial powers assume the right of naming the colonized. Reducing the subjugated communities to the depths of poverty and depravation, the colonizing agents act in unison as they present [[imperial]]ist [[capitalism]] based on [[western culture|western]] notions of [[individualism]]. As a result of political marginalization, there is a structural inability of national native communities to properly signify themselves, encouraging the colonizer to assume the right of organization and signification, culturally and politically. The power of the colonizer depends on the colonizing agents continued assumption of the right to politically and culturally dominate national indigenous populations.
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Most often, these past encounters between indigenous and "non-indigenous" groups lack contemporary account or description. Any assessment or understanding of impact, result and relation can at best only be surmised, using [[Archaeology|archaeological]], [[Historical linguistics|linguistic]] or other reconstructive means. Where accounts do exist, they frequently originate from the viewpoint of the colonizing, expansionary or nascent state or from rather scarce and fragmented ethnographic sources compiled by those more congenial with indigenous communities and/or representatives thereof.
   
==Definitions==
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=== Classical antiquity ===
The [[adjective]] ''indigenous'' has the common meaning of "having originated in and being produced, growing, living, or occurring naturally in a particular region or environment".<ref>{{cite encyclopedia|title=indigenous|url=http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/indigenous |encyclopedia=Merriam Webster's Online Dictionary|year=2006—07 |publisher=Merriam Webster |accessdate=2007-04-05}}</ref> Therefore, in a purely adjectival sense any given people, ethnic group or community may be described as being ''indigenous'' in reference to some particular region or location.
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Greek sources of the [[Ancient Greece|Classical]] period acknowledge the prior existence of indigenous people(s), whom they referred to as "[[Pelasgian]]s". These peoples inhabited lands surrounding the [[Aegean Sea]] before the subsequent migrations of the [[Ancient Greece|Hellenic]] ancestors claimed by these authors. The disposition and precise identity of this former group is elusive, and sources such as [[Homer]], [[Hesiod]] and [[Herodotus]] give varying, partially [[mythology|mythological]] accounts. However, it is clear that cultures existed whose indigenous characteristics were distinguished by the subsequent Hellenic cultures (and distinct from non-Greek speaking "foreigners", termed "[[barbarian]]s" by the historical Greeks). [[Greco-Roman]] society flourished between 250&nbsp;BC and 480&nbsp;AD and commanded successive waves of conquests that gripped more than half of the globe. But because already existent populations within other parts of Europe at the time of [[classical antiquity]] had more in common culturally speaking with the Greco-Roman world, the intricacies involved in expansion across the European frontier were not so contentious relative to indigenous issues. But when it came to expansion in other parts of the world, namely Asia, Africa, and the Middle East, then totally new cultural dynamics had entered into the equation, so to speak, and one sees here of what was to take the Americas, South East Asia, and the Pacific by storm a few hundred years later. The idea that peoples who possessed cultural customs and racial appearances strikingly different to that of the colonizing power is no new idea borne out of the [[Medieval]] period or the [[Age of Reason]].
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[[File:AlonsoFernandezdeLugo2.JPG|thumb|right|[[Alonso Fernández de Lugo]] presenting the captured [[Guanches|Guanche]] kings of [[Tenerife]] to [[Ferdinand and Isabella]].]]
   
Key to a contemporary understanding of 'indigenousness' is the political role an ethnic group plays, for all other criteria usually taken to denote indigenous groups (territory, poverty, race, history, dependency on natural resources, etc.) can to a greater or lesser extent also be applied to majority cultures. Therefore, the distinction applied to indigenous ethnic groups can be formulated as: ''“a politically underprivileged group, who share a similar ethnic identity different to the nation in power, and who have been an ethnic entity in the locality before the present ruling nation took over power”'' (Greller, 1997).
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=== European expansion and colonialism ===
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The rapid and extensive spread of the various European powers from the early 15th century onwards had a profound impact upon many of the indigenous cultures with whom they came into contact. The [[Age of Discovery|exploratory]] and colonial ventures in the Americas, Africa, Asia and the Pacific often resulted in territorial and cultural conflict, and the intentional or unintentional displacement and devastation of the indigenous populations.
   
However, the specific term ''indigenous peoples'' has a much more restrictive interpretation when it used in more formalised, legalistic and academic settings, associated with the [[collective rights]] of human populations. In these contexts, the term is used to denote particular peoples and groups around the world who, as well as being native to or associated with some given territory, meet certain other criteria (such as those expressed in the definitions detailed below). This article is concerned with the latter, and not the former, sense of the term.
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The [[Canary Islands]] had an indigenous population called the [[Guanches]] whose origin is still the subject of discussion among historians and linguists.<ref>[http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/oldwrld/colonists/canary.html Old World Contacts/Colonists/Canary Islands]. Ucalgary.ca (1999-06-22). Retrieved on 2011-10-11.</ref>
   
There are various formulations of these defining characteristics in existence. Most are commonly drawn from a few widely-acknowledged authorities, in particular the Martinez Cobo - WGIP statement. These several definitions are nonetheless widely recognised and employed by [[International organization|international]] and [[right]]s-based [[non-governmental organization]]s, as well as among national/sub-national governments themselves —although this is decidedly not universal or free from dispute. The degree to which indigenous peoples' rights and issues are accepted and recognised in practical instruments such as treaties and other binding and non-binding agreements varies, sometimes considerably.
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== Contemporary distribution and survey ==
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{{See also|List of indigenous peoples|Indigenous peoples by geographic regions}}
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Indigenous populations are distributed in regions throughout the globe. The numbers, condition and experience of indigenous groups may vary widely within a given region. A comprehensive survey is further complicated by sometimes contentious membership and identification.
   
The identification of an indigenous peoples under these terms can be refined by examining the nature and status of their interactions with other communities. These other, external communities or nation-states are those having some degree of association, claim or control over the same territory inhabited (or formerly inhabited) by the indigenous group.
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=== Arab Tribal Societies ===
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{{See also|Arab tribes}}
The status of the indigenous group in this relationship can be characterized in most instances as an effectively marginalized, isolated or [[minority group|minoritised]] one, in comparison to other groups or the nation-state as a whole. Their ability to influence and participate in the external policies that may exercise [[jurisdiction]] over their traditional lands and practices is very frequently limited.
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[[File:Fahd.jpg|thumb|A [[Bedouin]] hunter from [[Shammar]] tribe with a shot Asiatic Cheetah and cub from Southwestern [[Iraq]] poses with his new [[Lee-Enfield]] rifle in 1925.]]
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The Arabian peninsula and adjacent areas are home to numerous indigenous [[Arab]] tribes.
This situation can persist even in the case where the indigenous population outnumbers that of the other inhabitants of the region or state; the defining notion here is one of separation from decision and regulatory processes that have some, at least titular, influence over aspects of their community and lands.
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Both the far eastern seaboard of the Mediterranean and the Arabian Peninsula are home to a vast number of Bedouin tribes that lived in the area since pre-historical times. Many Arab tribes have moved into Africa, South Asia and South East Asia in which case they are not considered indigenous. Remnants of old South Arabian indigenous people are found in Oman and Yemen.
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[[File:Bedoin warrier.jpg|thumb|left|A northern Arab tribal warrior (ca. 1914) carrying a large Beduine hunting [[Assegai|az-zaġāyah]] on horseback during the [[Ottoman Empire|Ottoman]] era of [[Transjordan#Ottoman rule|Transjordan]]. ]]
The presence of external laws, claims and cultural mores either potentially or actually act to variously constrain the practices and observances of an indigenous society. These constraints can be observed even when the indigenous society is regulated largely by its own tradition and custom. They may be purposefully imposed, or arise as unintended consequence of trans-cultural interaction; and have a measurable effect even where countered by other external influences and actions deemed to be beneficial or which serve to promote indigenous rights and interests within the wider community.
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Amongst Arabs, a distinction is often made between Adnani Arabs (Arabic: العرب المستعربة) ([[Arabized Arabs]]) and [[Qahtanite|Qathani Arabs]] (Arabic: قحطان‎ ).
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Since Islam forbade discrimination on racial grounds and ruled that the offspring of a slave and a free person was to inherit the family name, be an heir and also be set free, there has been a strong foreign impact on the Arab population. Because of historic intercultural intermingling there are now certain tribes that are almost entirely referred to as [[Black People|black]] and some tribes on the Mediterranean's far eastern seaboard that look similar to what are referred to as [[white people]]. In the [[Arab states of the Persian Gulf|Gulf]] countries, in recent times there has been a large number of [[Pakistan]]i, [[India]]n, [[Bangladesh]]i and [[Persian people|Persians]] immigrants that actually outnumber indigenous communities in many smaller states. Many have acquired citizenship trough naturalization. It is believed that these foreign groups will impose a strong future pressure on indigenous populations who are by comparison, relatively small in number. As a general rule tribes in this geographical vicinity do not practice [[Native American recognition in the United States#Recognition for individuals|tribal enrollment]] based on [[blood quantum]] as some [[Indigenous peoples of the Americas|Native American]] tribal governments do. It is a mistake to assume that only [[Bedouin]] Arabs are members of indigenous tribes. However, there are indigenous tribes who can trace their heritage to one of the many ancient Arabian tribes and there are indigenous groups who, for some reason or other, have lost their tribal names or affiliation due to [[sedentary]] live style or other factors.If the latter are to be considered indigenous in the narrow sense, remains subject of debate.
Thus many organizations advocating for indigenous rights, and the indigenous communities themselves, seek to particularly and explicitly identify peoples in this position as indigenous. This identification may also be made or acknowledged by the surrounding communities and nation-state, although there are some instances where the identity claim is the subject of some dispute, particularly with regard to recognizing assertions made over territorial rights<ref>''Ibid.''</ref>
 
 
In contrast, the term '''non-indigenous''' might well be applied to describe these other communities; however, its application may be inaccurate or contested in some circumstances where the cultural group has or lays claim to lengthy prior association with the territory.
 
 
Some formal contemporary definitions which have been offered and widely accepted for certain purposes are described below.
 
 
In 1972 the '''United Nations''' Working Group on Indigenous Populations (WGIP) accepted as a preliminary definition a formulation put forward by Mr. [[José Martínez Cobo]], [[Special Rapporteur (UN)|Special Rapporteur]] on Discrimination against Indigenous Populations:
 
 
:''Indigenous populations are composed of the existing descendants of the peoples who inhabited the present territory of a country wholly or partially at the time when persons of a different culture or ethnic origin arrived there from other parts of the world, overcame them, by conquest, settlement or other means, reduced them to a non-dominant or colonial condition; who today live more in conformity with their particular social, economic and cultural customs and traditions than with the institutions of the country of which they now form part, under a state structure which incorporates mainly national, social and cultural characteristics of other segments of the population which are predominant.''
 
 
This definition has some limitations which were subsequently noted by the organization. The definition applies mainly to pre-colonial populations, and would likely exclude other isolated or marginal societies. In 1983 the WGIP enlarged this definition (FICN. 41Sub.211983121 Adds. para. 3 79) to include the following criteria:
 
 
:*''(a) they are the descendants of groups, which were in the territory at the time when other groups of different cultures or ethnic origin arrived there;''
 
:*''(b) precisely because of their isolation from other segments of the country's population they have almost preserved intact the customs and traditions of their ancestors which are similar to those characterised as indigenous;''
 
:*''(c) they are, even if only formally, placed under a state structure which incorporates national, social and cultural characteristics alien to their own.''
 
 
In 1986 it was further added that any individual who identified himself or herself as indigenous and was accepted by the group or the community as one of its members was to be regarded as an indigenous person (E/CN.4/Sub.2/1986/7/Add.4. para.381).
 
 
The draft ''Universal Declaration on the Rights of the Indigenous Peoples'' prepared by the DWIG does not provide a specific definition of indigenous peoples or populations. According to the Chairperson, Ms. Erica Irene Daes, Rapporteur of the Working Group, this was because "historically, indigenous peoples have suffered, from definitions imposed by others" (E/CN.4/Stib.2/AC.4/1995/3, page 3).
 
 
A definition as used by the '''International Labour Organisation''' (Convention No. 169, concerning the working rights of Indigenous and Tribal Peoples, 1989) applies to:
 
 
:''both tribal peoples whose social, cultural and economic conditions distinguish them from other sections of the national community and whose status is regulated wholly or partially by their own customs or traditions or by special laws or regulations, and to peoples who are regarded as indigenous on account of their descent from the populations which inhabit the country at the time of conquest or colonisation.''
 
 
A description of Indigenous Peoples given by the '''World Bank''' (operational directive 4.20, 1991) reads as follows:
 
 
:''Indigenous Peoples can be identified in particular geographical areas by the presence in varying degrees of the following characteristics: a) close attachment to ancestral territories and to the natural resources in these areas; b) self-identification and identification by others as members of a distinct cultural group; c) an indigenous language, often different from the national language; d) presence of customary social and political institutions; and e) primarily subsistence-oriented production.''
 
 
==Historical indigenous cultures==
 
The [[Human migration|migration]], expansion and settlement of societies throughout different territories is a universal, almost defining thread which runs through the entire course of [[History of the world|human history]]. Many of the cross-cultural interactions which arose as a result of these historical encounters involved societies which might properly be considered as indigenous, either from their own viewpoint or that of external societies.
 
 
Most often, these past encounters between indigenous and "non-indigenous" groups lack contemporary account or description. Any assessment or understanding of impact, result and relation can at best only be surmised, using [[Archaeology|archaeological]], [[Historical linguistics|linguistic]] or other reconstructive means. Where accounts do exist, they frequently originate from the viewpoint of the colonizing, expansionary or nascent state.
 
 
===Classical antiquity===
 
Greek sources of the [[Ancient Greece|Classical]] period acknowledge the prior existence of indigenous people(s), whom they referred to as "[[Pelasgian]]s." These peoples inhabited lands surrounding the [[Aegean Sea]] before the subsequent migrations of the [[Ancient Greece|Hellenic]] ancestors claimed by these authors. The disposition and precise identity of this former group is elusive, and sources such as [[Homer]], [[Hesiod]] and [[Herodotus]] give varying, partially [[mythology|mythological]] accounts. However, it is clear that cultures existed whose indigenous characteristics were distinguished by the subsequent Hellenic cultures (and distinct from non-Greek speaking "foreigners", termed "[[barbarian]]s" by the historical Greeks).
 
 
===European expansion and colonialism===
 
The rapid and extensive spread of the various [[Europe]]an powers from the early 18th Century onwards had a profound impact upon many of the indigenous cultures with whom they came into contact. The [[Age of Discovery|exploratory]] and colonial ventures in the [[Americas]], [[Africa]], [[Asia]] and the [[Pacific]] often resulted in territorial and cultural conflict, and the intentional or unintentional displacement and devastation of the indigenous populations.
 
 
==Contemporary distribution and survey==
 
Indigenous populations are distributed in regions throughout the globe. The numbers, condition and experience of indigenous groups may vary widely within a given region. A comprehensive survey is further complicated by sometimes contentious membership and identification.
 
   
 
=== Africa ===
 
=== Africa ===
 
{{Main|Indigenous peoples of Africa}}
 
{{Main|Indigenous peoples of Africa}}
:''See also: [[:Category:Indigenous peoples of Africa]]''
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{{See also|:Category:Indigenous peoples of Africa}}
 
In the post-colonial period, the concept of specific indigenous peoples within the [[Africa]]n continent has gained wider acceptance, although not without controversy. The highly-diverse and numerous ethnic groups which comprise most modern, independent African states contain within them various peoples whose situation, cultures and [[pastoralism|pastoralist]] or [[hunter-gatherer]] lifestyles are generally marginalised and set apart from the dominant political and economic structures of the nation. Since the late 20th century these peoples have increasingly sought recognition of their rights as distinct indigenous peoples, in both national and international contexts.
 
 
Although the vast majority of African peoples can be considered to be indigenous in the sense that they have originated from that continent and nowhere else, in practice identity as an "indigenous people" as per the term's modern application is more restrictive, and certainly not every African ethnic group claims identification under these terms. Groups and communities who do claim this recognition are those who by a variety of historical and environmental circumstances have been placed outside of the dominant state systems, and whose traditional practices and land claims often come into conflict with the objectives and policies promulgated by governments, companies and surrounding dominant societies.
 
 
Given the extensive and complicated history of [[human migration]] within Africa, being the "first peoples in a land" is not a necessary pre-condition for acceptance as an indigenous people. Rather, indigenous identity relates more to a set of characteristics and practices than priority of arrival. For example, several populations of [[nomad]]ic peoples such as the [[Tuareg]] of the [[Sahara]] and [[Sahel]] regions now inhabit areas in which they arrived comparatively recently; their claim to indigenous status (endorsed by the [[African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights]]) is based on their marginalisation as nomadic peoples in states and territories dominated by sedentary agricultural peoples.
 
   
The [[Indigenous Peoples of Africa Co-ordinating Committee|Indigenous Peoples of Africa Co-ordinating Committee (IPACC)]] is one of the main trans-national network organizations recognised as a representative of African indigenous peoples in dialogues with governments and bodies such as the UN. IPACC identifies several key characteristics associated with indigenous claims in Africa:
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In the post-colonial period, the concept of specific indigenous peoples within the African continent has gained wider acceptance, although not without controversy. The highly diverse and numerous ethnic groups which comprise most modern, independent African states contain within them various peoples whose situation, cultures and [[pastoralism|pastoralist]] or [[hunter-gatherer]] lifestyles are generally marginalized and set apart from the dominant political and economic structures of the nation. Since the late 20th century these peoples have increasingly sought recognition of their rights as distinct indigenous peoples, in both national and international contexts.
* ''political and economic marginalisation rooted in colonialism;''
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[[File:San tribesman.jpg|thumb|upright|A [[Bushmen|San]] man from [[Namibia]].]]
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Although the vast majority of African peoples can be considered to be indigenous in the sense that they have originated from that continent and middle and south east Asia, in practice identity as an "indigenous people" as per the term's modern application is more restrictive, and certainly not every African ethnic group claims identification under these terms. Groups and communities who do claim this recognition are those who by a variety of historical and environmental circumstances have been placed outside of the dominant state systems, and whose traditional practices and land claims often come into conflict with the objectives and policies promulgated by governments, companies and surrounding dominant societies.
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[[File:Niqab on Tuareg.jpg|thumb|left|upright|A [[Taureg people|Tuareg]] wearing the [[Tagelmust|Tajelmust]].]]
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Given the extensive and complicated history of [[human migration]] within Africa, being the "first peoples in a land" is not a necessary precondition for acceptance as an indigenous people. Rather, indigenous identity relates more to a set of characteristics and practices than priority of arrival. For example, several populations of [[nomad]]ic peoples such as the [[Taureg people|Tuareg]] of the [[Sahara]] and [[Sahel]] regions now inhabit areas in which they arrived comparatively recently; their claim to indigenous status (endorsed by the [[African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights]]) is based on their marginalization as nomadic peoples in states and territories dominated by sedentary agricultural peoples.
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[[File:Batwa2.jpg|thumb|Batwa [[Pygmy]] with traditional bow and arrow.]]
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The [[Indigenous Peoples of Africa Co-ordinating Committee]] (IPACC) is one of the main trans-national network organizations recognized as a representative of African indigenous peoples in dialogues with governments and bodies such as the UN. IPACC identifies several key characteristics associated with indigenous claims in Africa:
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* ''political and economic marginalization rooted in colonialism;''
 
* ''de facto discrimination based often on the dominance of agricultural peoples in the State system (e.g. lack of access to education and health care by hunters and herders);''
 
* ''de facto discrimination based often on the dominance of agricultural peoples in the State system (e.g. lack of access to education and health care by hunters and herders);''
 
* ''the particularities of culture, identity, economy and territoriality that link hunting and herding peoples to their home environments in deserts and forests (e.g. nomadism, diet, knowledge systems);''
 
* ''the particularities of culture, identity, economy and territoriality that link hunting and herding peoples to their home environments in deserts and forests (e.g. nomadism, diet, knowledge systems);''
 
* ''some indigenous peoples, such as the [[Bushmen|San]] and [[Pygmy]] peoples are physically distinct, which makes them subject to specific forms of discrimination.''
 
* ''some indigenous peoples, such as the [[Bushmen|San]] and [[Pygmy]] peoples are physically distinct, which makes them subject to specific forms of discrimination.''
 
With respect to concerns expressed that identifying some groups and not others as indigenous is in itself [[discrimination|discriminatory]], IPACC states that it:
 
With respect to concerns expressed that identifying some groups and not others as indigenous is in itself [[discrimination|discriminatory]], IPACC states that it:
* ''"...recognises that all Africans should enjoy equal rights and respect. All of Africa’s diversity is to be valued. Particular communities, due to historical and environmental circumstances, have found themselves outside the state-system and underrepresented in governance...This is not to deny other Africans their status; it is to emphasise that affirmative recognition is necessary for hunter-gatherers and herding peoples to ensure their survival."''
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* ''"...recognises that all Africans should enjoy equal rights and respect. All of Africa's diversity is to be valued. Particular communities, due to historical and environmental circumstances, have found themselves outside the state-system and underrepresented in governance...This is not to deny other Africans their status; it is to emphasise that affirmative recognition is necessary for hunter-gatherers and herding peoples to ensure their survival."''
   
[[Image:ST-berberfamily.jpg|thumb|right|200px|A [[Berber people|Berber]] family crossing a ford - scene in [[Algeria]]]]
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[[File:ST-berberfamily.jpg|thumb|right|A [[Berber people|Berber]] family crossing a ford scene in [[Algeria]]. Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley.]]
At an African inter-governmental level, the examination of indigenous rights and concerns is pursued by a sub-commission established under the [[African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights|African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights (ACHPR)]], sponsored by the [[African Union|African Union (AU)]] (successor body to the [[Organisation of African Unity|Organisation of African Unity (OAU)]]). In late 2003 the 53 signatory states of the ACHPR adopted the ''Report of the African Commission's Working Group on Indigenous Populations/Communities'' and its recommendations. This report says in part (p. 62):
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At an African inter-governmental level, the examination of indigenous rights and concerns is pursued by a sub-commission established under the [[African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights|African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights (ACHPR)]], sponsored by the [[African Union|African Union (AU)]] (successor body to the [[Organisation of African Unity|Organization of African Unity (OAU)]]). In late 2003 the 53 signatory states of the ACHPR adopted the ''Report of the African Commission's Working Group on Indigenous Populations/Communities'' and its recommendations. This report says in part (p.&nbsp;62):
 
* ''...certain marginalized groups are discriminated in particular ways because of their particular culture, mode of production and marginalized position within the state[; a] form of discrimination that other groups within the state do not suffer from. The call of these marginalized groups to protection of their rights is a legitimate call to alleviate this particular form of discrimination.''
 
* ''...certain marginalized groups are discriminated in particular ways because of their particular culture, mode of production and marginalized position within the state[; a] form of discrimination that other groups within the state do not suffer from. The call of these marginalized groups to protection of their rights is a legitimate call to alleviate this particular form of discrimination.''
The adoption of this report at least notionally subscribed the signatories to the concepts and aims of furthering the identity and rights of African indigenous peoples. The extent to which individual states are mobilising to put these recommendations into practice varies enormously, however, and most indigenous groups continue to agitate for improvements in the areas of land rights, use of natural resources, protection of environment and culture, political recognition and freedom from discrimination.
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The adoption of this report at least notionally subscribed the signatories to the concepts and aims of furthering the identity and rights of African Indigenous peoples. The extent to which individual states are mobilizing to put these recommendations into practice varies enormously, however, and most Indigenous groups continue to agitate for improvements in the areas of land rights, use of natural resources, protection of environment and culture, political recognition and freedom from discrimination.
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[[File:Qichwa conchucos 01.jpg|thumb|right|Peruvian indigenous people, learning to read.<ref>[http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/N28384270.htm Little-known Indian tribe spotted in Peru's Amazon]. Alertnet.org. Retrieved on 2011-10-11.</ref>]]
   
=== The Americas ===
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===Americas===
 
{{Main|Indigenous peoples of the Americas}}
 
{{Main|Indigenous peoples of the Americas}}
:''See also: [[:Category:Indigenous peoples of the Americas]]''
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{{See also|:Category:Indigenous peoples of the Americas}}
[[Image:Qichwa_conchucos_01.jpg|thumb|300px|right|Peruvian indigenous people, learning to read.]]
 
Indigenous peoples of [[The Americas|the American]] continents are broadly recognised as being those groups and their descendants who inhabited the region before the arrival of European colonizers and settlers (i.e., [[Pre-Columbian]]). Indigenous peoples who maintain, or seek to maintain, traditional ways of life are found from the high [[Arctic]] north to the southern extremities of [[Tierra del Fuego]].
 
   
The impact of [[European colonization of the Americas]] on the indigenous communities was in general quite severe, with many authorities estimating ranges of significant [[Population history of American indigenous peoples|population decline]] due to the ravages of various [[epidemic]] [[disease]]s ([[smallpox]], [[measles]], etc), displacement, conflict and exploitation. The extent of this impact is the subject of much continuing debate. Several peoples shortly thereafter became [[extinct]], or very nearly so.
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Indigenous peoples of the [[Americas|American]] continents are broadly recognized as being those groups and their descendants who inhabited the region before the arrival of European colonizers and settlers (i.e., [[Pre-Columbian]]). Indigenous peoples who maintain, or seek to maintain, traditional ways of life are found from the high [[Arctic]] north to the southern extremities of [[Tierra del Fuego]].
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[[File:ChoctawBelle.jpg|thumb|left|upright|''A [[Choctaw]] Belle'' (1850)]]
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The impact of [[European colonization of the Americas]] on the indigenous communities has been in general quite severe, with many authorities estimating ranges of significant [[Population history of American indigenous peoples|population decline]] due to the ravages of various genocide campaigns, epidemic diseases ([[smallpox]], [[measles]], etc.), displacement, conflict, compulsory boarding schools, massacres and exploitation. The extent of this impact is the subject of much continuing debate. Several peoples shortly thereafter became [[extinct]], or very nearly so.
   
All [[nations]] in North and South America have ''populations'' of indigenous peoples within their borders. In some countries (particularly [[Latin America]]n), indigenous peoples form a sizeable component of the overall national population--in [[Bolivia]] they account for an estimated 56%-70% of the total [[nation]], and at least half of the ''population'' in [[Guatemala]] and the Andean and Amazonian ''nations'' of [[Peru]]. In English, indigenous peoples are collectively referred to by several different terms which vary by region and include such ethnoynms as [[Native Americans (Americas)|Native Americans]], [[Amerindians]], [[Indigenous peoples of the Americas|Indians]]. In Spanish or Portuguese speaking countries one finds the use of terms such as ''pueblos [[indígena]]s'', ''povos'', ''nativos'', ''indígenas'', and in Peru, ''Comunidades Nativas'', particularly among Amazonian societies like the [[Urarina]] and [[Matsés]].
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All [[nations]] in North and South America have ''populations'' of indigenous peoples within their borders. In some countries (particularly Latin American), indigenous peoples form a sizable component of the overall national population—in [[Bolivia]] they account for an estimated 56%–70% of the total [[nation]], and at least half of the ''population'' in [[Guatemala]] and the Andean and Amazonian ''nations'' of [[Peru]]. In English, indigenous peoples are collectively referred to by several different terms which vary by region and include such ethnonyms as [[Native Americans (Americas)|Native Americans]], [[Amerindians]], [[Indigenous peoples of the Americas|Indians]]. In Spanish or Portuguese speaking countries one finds the use of terms such as ''pueblos [[wikt:indígena|indígena]]s'', ''amerindios'', ''povos nativos'', ''povos indígenas'', and in Peru, ''Comunidades Nativas'', particularly among Amazonian societies like the [[Urarina]]<ref>Dean, Bartholomew 2009 ''Urarina Society, Cosmology, and History in Peruvian Amazonia'', Gainesville: University Press of Florida ISBN 978-081303378 [http://www.upf.com/book.asp?id=DEANXS07]</ref> and [[Matsés]].
The [[Aboriginal peoples in Canada]] include the [[Inuit]], [[Métis]] and other peoples designated as members of [[First Nations]]. The combined indigenous population is an estimated in almost a million (976,305). This means they represented 3,3% of the Canadian population. Their status is recognized by [[Canada]]'s [[Constitution Act, 1982]]. The Inuit have achieved a degree of administrative autonomy with the creation in 1999 of the territory of [[Nunavut]].
 
   
The self-administering [[Denmark|Danish]] territory of [[Greenland]] is also home to a majority population of indigenous Inuit (about 85%).
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In [[Brazil]], the term ''índio'' ({{IPA-pt|ˈĩdʒi.u}} or {{IPA|ˈĩdʒju}}) is used by most of the population, the media, the indigenous peoples themselves and even the government ([[FUNAI]] is acronym for Fundação Nacional do '''Índio'''), although its Hispanic equivalent ''indio'' is widely not considered politically correct and falling into desuse. Nevertheless, Portuguese for Amerindian and ''amerindio'', ''ameríndio'' ({{IPA|ameˈɾĩdʒi.u}} or {{IPA|ameˈɾĩdʒju}} in the standard South American dialects) is gaining some popularity, still, it seems odd for many. The widespread completely politically correct term of which Brazilians are used to is ''indígena'' {{IPA|ĩˈdʒiʒenɐ}} (although its literal translation is "indigenous person or peoples from anywhere", it is colloquially intended as synonym for Amerindian, without need for specifications in reference to the indigenous peoples of what continent; South American Portuguese for Inuit is either ''esquimó'' {{IPA|eskiˈmɔ}} or the much less common ''inuíte'' {{IPA|ĩnuˈitʃi}}, and they are not considered ''ameríndios'' or ''índios'' but ''indígenas do Ártico'', or even far more colloquially ''povo do Polo Norte'', "the people from the North Pole"). It has more [[ethnicity|ethnic]] meanings than [[Race (classification of human beings)|racial]] ones, and a "Westerner" in Brazil can be an acculturated ''ameríndio/índio'' but not an ''indígena'', which officially means indigenous in the narrow sense; when somebody in the former acknowledges it, will usually choose the racial group of [[Pardo]]s (colored and multiracial people i.e. everyone who does not fall into White, East Asian, Indigenous or African Brazilian) and very seldom [[Asian Brazilian]]s (''brasileiros de cor amarela'', lit. yellow skin color but actually "[[Mongoloid|yellow race]]") in censuses, since there is no category that groups Amerindians together by race in [[IBGE]].
   
In the [[United States]], the combined populations of [[Native Americans in the United States|Native Americans]], Inuit and other indigenous designations totalled 2,786,652 (constituting about 1.5% of 2003 US census figures). Some 563 scheduled tribes are recognized at the Federal level, and a number of others recognized at the State level.
+
[[Aboriginal peoples in Canada]] comprise the [[First Nations]],<ref name="First Nations Culture Areas Index">{{cite web
  +
| title = Civilization.ca-Gateway to Aboriginal Heritage-Culture
  +
| work = Canadian Museum of Civilization Corporation
  +
| publisher = Government of Canada
  +
| date = May 12, 2006
  +
| url = http://www.civilization.ca/cmc/exhibitions/tresors/ethno/etb0170e.shtml
  +
| accessdate =2009-09-18 }}</ref> [[Inuit]]<ref name="ICCcharter">{{cite web
  +
| title = Inuit Circumpolar Council (Canada)-ICC Charter
  +
| work = Inuit Circumpolar Council > ICC Charter and By-laws > ICC Charter
  +
| publisher =
  +
| year = 2007
  +
| url = http://inuitcircumpolar.com/index.php?auto_slide=&ID=374&Lang=En&Parent_ID=&current_slide_num=
  +
| accessdate =2009-09-18 }}
  +
</ref> and [[Métis people (Canada)|Métis]].<ref>{{cite web
  +
| title = In the Kawaskimhon Aboriginal Moot Court Factum of the Federal Crown Canada
  +
| work = Faculty of Law
  +
| publisher =[[University of Manitoba]]
  +
| year = 2007
  +
| url = http://www.umanitoba.ca/law/newsite/kawaskimhon_factums/FINALWrittenSubmissionsofFederalCrown_windsor.pdf
  +
| format = PDF
  +
|page=2
  +
| accessdate =2009-09-18 }}
  +
</ref> The descriptors "Indian" and "[[Eskimo]]" are falling into disuse in Canada.<ref>{{cite web|title=Words First An Evolving Terminology Relating to Aboriginal Peoples in Canada|url=http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/webarchives/20071114225541/http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/pr/pub/wf/trmrslt_e.asp?term=12|publisher=Communications Branch of Indian and Northern Affairs Canada|year=2004|accessdate=2010-06-26}}</ref><ref name=indian>{{cite web|title=Terminology of First Nations, Native, Aboriginal and Metis|url=http://www.aidp.bc.ca/terminology_of_native_aboriginal_metis.pdf|format=PDF|publisher=Aboriginal Infant Development Programs of BC|year=2009|accessdate=2010-06-26}}</ref> There are currently over 600 recognized [[List of First Nations peoples|First Nations governments or bands]] encompassing 1,172,790 <sup>2006</sup> peoples spread across Canada with distinctive Aboriginal cultures, languages, art, and music.<ref name="Aboriginal Identity 2006 Census">{{cite web
  +
| title = Aboriginal Identity (8), Sex (3) and Age Groups (12) for the Population of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census – 20% Sample Data
  +
| work = Census > 2006 Census: Data products > Topic-based tabulations >
  +
| publisher = Statistics Canada, Government of Canada
  +
| date = 06/12/2008
  +
| url = http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census06/data/topics/RetrieveProductTable.cfm?ALEVEL=3&APATH=3&CATNO=&DETAIL=0&DIM=&DS=99&FL=0&FREE=0&GAL=0&GC=99&GK=NA&GRP=1&IPS=&METH=0&ORDER=1&PID=89122&PTYPE=88971&RL=0&S=1&ShowAll=No&StartRow=1&SUB=0&Temporal=2006&Theme=73&VID=0&VNAMEE=&VNAMEF=&GID=837928
  +
| accessdate = 2009-09-18}}
  +
</ref><ref name="one">{{cite web
  +
| title = Assembly of First Nations&nbsp;-&nbsp;Assembly of First Nations-The Story
  +
| publisher = Assembly of First Nations
  +
| url = http://www.afn.ca/article.asp?id=59
  +
| accessdate = 2009-10-02}}
  +
</ref><ref name="three">{{cite web
  +
| title = Civilization.ca-Gateway to Aboriginal Heritage-object
  +
| publisher = Canadian Museum of Civilization Corporation
  +
| date = May 12, 2006
  +
| url = http://www.civilization.ca/cmc/exhibitions/tresors/ethno/etb0000e.shtml
  +
| accessdate = 2009-10-02}}
  +
</ref> [[National Aboriginal Day]] recognises the cultures and contributions of Aboriginals to the [[history of Canada]]
   
In [[Mexico]], approximately 6,011,202 (constituting about 6.7% of 2005 Mexican census figures) identify as ''indígenas'' (Spanish for natives or indigenous peoples). In the southern states of [[Chiapas]], [[Yucatan]] and [[Oaxaca]] they constitute the 26.1%, 33.5% and 35.3%, respectively, of the population. In these states several conflicts and episodes of civil war have been conducted, in which the situation and participation of indigenous societies were notable factors (see for example [[Zapatista Army of National Liberation|EZLN]]).
+
[[File:Social housing in Ilulissat, Greenland.jpg|left|thumb|The indigenous people of [[Greenland]], previously a Danish colony, achieved self rule in 2009.]]
  +
The [[Inuit]] have achieved a degree of administrative autonomy with the creation in 1999 of the territories of [[Nunavik]] (in Northern Quebec), [[Nunatsiavut]] (in Northern Labrador) and [[Nunavut]], which was until 1999 a part of the Northwest Territories. The self-ruling[[Denmark|Danish]] territory of [[Greenland]] is also home to a majority population of indigenous Inuit (about 85%).
  +
[[File:ShabanoYanomami.jpg|thumb|right|[[Yanomami]] village of the [[Amazon Rainforest]].]]
  +
In the United States, the combined populations of Native Americans, Inuit and other indigenous designations totalled 2,786,652 (constituting about 1.5% of 2003 US census figures). Some 563 scheduled tribes are recognized at the Federal level, and a number of others recognized at the State level.
  +
  +
In Mexico, approximately 6,011,202 (constituting about 6.7% of 2005 Mexican census figures) identify as ''Indígenas'' (Spanish for natives or indigenous peoples). In the southern states of [[Chiapas]], [[Yucatán]] and [[Oaxaca]] they constitute 26.1%, 33.5% and 35.3%, respectively, of the population. In these states several conflicts and episodes of civil war have been conducted, in which the situation and participation of indigenous societies were notable factors (see for example [[Zapatista Army of National Liberation|EZLN]]).
  +
  +
The Amerindians make up 0.4% of Brazil's population, or about 700,000 people.<ref>[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4392805.stm Brazil urged to protect Indians]. BBC News (2005-03-30). Retrieved on 2011-10-11.</ref> Indigenous peoples are found in the entire territory of Brazil, although the majority of them live in Indian reservations in the North and Center-Western part of the country. On 18 January 2007, [[Fundação Nacional do Índio|FUNAI]] reported that it had confirmed the presence of 67 different [[uncontacted peoples|uncontacted tribes]] in Brazil, up from 40 in 2005. With this addition Brazil has now overtaken the island of [[New Guinea]] as the country having the largest number of uncontacted tribes.<ref>[http://www.reuters.com/article/latestCrisis/idUSN17285256 Brazil sees traces of more isolated Amazon tribes]. Reuters.com. Retrieved on 2011-10-11.</ref>
  +
  +
Guatemala is 50 to 80% indigenous, depending on whose statistics are used (Nelson, Finger in the Wound 1999)
   
 
=== Asia ===
 
=== Asia ===
 
{{Main|Indigenous peoples of Asia}}
 
{{Main|Indigenous peoples of Asia}}
:''See also: [[:Category:Indigenous peoples of Asia]]''
 
   
The vast regions of [[Asia]] contain the majority of the world's present-day indigenous populations, about 70% according to IGWIA figures.
+
: ''See also: [[:Category:Indigenous peoples of Asia]]''
   
The most substantial populations are in [[India]], which constitutionally recognises a range of "[[List of Scheduled Tribes in India|Scheduled Tribes]]" within its borders. These various peoples (collectively referred to as [[Adivasi]]s, or tribal peoples) number about 68 million (1991 census figures, approximately 8% of the total national population).
+
[[File:One Ainu man and bear.JPG|thumb|A man of Japanese indigenous people [[Ainu people|Ainu]] with a bear around 1930]]
  +
The vast regions of Asia contain the majority of the world's present-day Indigenous populations, about 70% according to IWGIA figures.
   
The languages of [[Taiwanese aborigines]] have significance in [[historical linguistics]], since in all likelihood Taiwan was the place of origin of the entire [[Austronesian language]] family, which is spread across the whole of [[Oceania]].<ref>Blust, R. (1999), "Subgrouping, circularity and extinction: some issues in Austronesian comparative linguistics" in E. Zeitoun & P.J.K Li, ed., ''Selected papers from the Eighth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics.'' Taipei: Academia Sinica</ref>
+
The most substantial populations are in India, which constitutionally recognizes a range of "[[List of Scheduled Tribes in India|Scheduled Tribes]]" within its borders. These various peoples (collectively referred to as [[Adivasi]]s, or tribal peoples) number about 68 million (1991 census figures, approximately 8% of the total national population).
<ref>Fox, James J.''{{PDFlink|[http://dspace.anu.edu.au/bitstream/1885/43158/1/Comparative_Austronesian_Studies.pdf "Current Developments in Comparative Austronesian Studies"]|105&nbsp;[[Kibibyte|KiB]]<!-- application/pdf, 108482 bytes -->}}''. Paper prepared for Symposium Austronesia Pascasarjana Linguististik dan Kajian Budaya. Universitas Udayana, Bali 19-20 August 2004.</ref>
 
<ref>Diamond, Jared M. ''{{PDFlink|[http://faculty.washington.edu/plape/pacificarchwin06/readings/Diamond%20nature%202000.pdf "Taiwan's gift to the world"]|107&nbsp;[[Kibibyte|KiB]]<!-- application/pdf, 110221 bytes -->}}''. Nature, Volume 403, February 2000, pp. 709-710</ref>
 
   
Indigenous peoples of [[Iran]] include the [[Bakhtiari]], [[Laks (Iran)|Laks]], [[Lurs]], and [[Qashqai]]. The Assyrians and [[Marsh Arabs]] are also indigenous to areas of the geocultural region of [[Mesopotamia]] which includes parts of [[Iraq]], [[Syria]], and [[Turkey]]. The Lurs also inhabit parts of Iraq close to the Iranian border with the provinces of [[Lorestan]] and [[Ilam Province|Ilam]].
+
[[Image:Nivkh village.jpg|thumb|left|A summer village of Nivkh people in the beginning of the 20th century]]
  +
[[Nivkh people]] are an ethnic group indigenous to [[Sakhalin]], having a few speakers of the [[Nivkh language]], but their fisher culture has been endangered due to the development of oil field of Sakhalin from 1990s.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/environment/flora--fauna/natives-in-russias-far-east-worry-about-vanishing-fish/articleshow/4203839.cms|title=Natives in Russia's far east worry about vanishing fish|agency=[[Agence France-Presse]]|publisher=[[The Economic Times]]|date=February 25, 2009|accessdate=March 5, 2011}}</ref>
  +
  +
[[Ainu people]] are an ethnic group indigenous to [[Hokkaidō]], the [[Kuril Islands]], and much of Sakhalin. As Japanese settlement expanded, the Ainu were pushed northward, until by the [[Meiji period]] they were confined by the government to a small area in Hokkaidō, in a manner similar to the placing of Native Americans on reservations.<ref>[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7437244.stm Recognition at last for Japan's Ainu], BBC NEWS</ref>
  +
  +
The languages of [[Taiwanese aborigines]] have significance in [[historical linguistics]], since in all likelihood [[Taiwan]] was the place of origin of the entire [[Austronesian language]] family, which spread across Oceania.<ref>[[Robert Blust|Blust, R.]] (1999), "Subgrouping, circularity and extinction: some issues in Austronesian comparative linguistics" in E. Zeitoun & P.J.K Li, ed., ''Selected papers from the Eighth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics.'' Taipei: Academia Sinica</ref><ref>Fox, James J.''{{PDFlink|[http://dspace.anu.edu.au/bitstream/1885/43158/1/Comparative_Austronesian_Studies.pdf "Current Developments in Comparative Austronesian Studies"]|105&nbsp;KB}}''. Paper prepared for Symposium Austronesia Pascasarjana Linguististik dan Kajian Budaya. Universitas Udayana, Bali 19–20 August 2004.</ref><ref>Diamond, Jared M. ''{{PDFlink|[http://faculty.washington.edu/plape/pacificarchwin06/readings/Diamond%20nature%202000.pdf "Taiwan's gift to the world"]|107&nbsp;KB}}''. Nature, Volume 403, February 2000, pp. 709–710</ref>
  +
  +
There are [[indigenous peoples of the Philippines]], which Spain and the United States colonized.
  +
  +
The [[Assyrian people|Assyrians]] and [[Marsh Arabs]] are indigenous to areas of the geocultural region of [[Mesopotamia]] which includes parts of [[Iraq]], [[Syria]], and [[Turkey]]. The Lurs also inhabit parts of Iraq close to the Iranian border with the provinces of [[Lorestan]] and [[Ilam Province|Ilam]].
  +
  +
The [[Bahrani people|Bahrani]] are the indigenous people of the archipelago of [[Bahrain]] and the oasis of [[Qatif]] on the [[Persian Gulf]] coast of Saudi Arabia (see [[Bahrain (historical region)|historical region of Bahrain]]).
   
 
=== Europe ===
 
=== Europe ===
[[Image:Saami Family 1900.jpg|right|thumb|250px|A Sami family in northern Scandinavia around 1900]]
 
 
{{Main|Indigenous peoples of Europe}}
 
{{Main|Indigenous peoples of Europe}}
:''See also: [[:Category:Indigenous peoples of Europe]]''
+
:''See also: [[:Category:Indigenous peoples of Europe]] and [[European ethnic groups]]''
  +
[[File:Adiga pshasha.png|right|thumb|A Circassian ([[Adyghe people|Adyghe]]) girl (North Caucasus)]]
  +
[[File:Suleyman khinalugian.jpg|thumb|The [[Khinalug language|Khinalug people]] are one of the [[Peoples of the Caucasus|indigenous inhabitants of the North Caucasus]].]]
  +
Since most of Europe in historical times was never colonized by non-European powers with lasting effect (arguably except for Hungary and Romania, [[Turkish Thrace]], [[Tatarstan]], [[Kalmykia]] and islands such as [[Malta]] or [[Cyprus]]<ref>temporary rules over parts of Europe by non-European powers include [[Eurasian Avars|Avar Khaganate]] (c.560s–800), [[Al-Andalus]] (711–1492), [[Emirate of Sicily]] (831–1072), the [[Mongol invasion of Europe|Mongol]]/[[Tatar invasions]] (1223–1480), and [[Ottoman Empire|Ottoman]] control of the Balkans (1389–1878)</ref>), the vast majority of Europeans can be considered indigenous. However several widely accepted formulations, which define the term ''"Indigenous peoples"'' in stricter terms, have been put forward by internationally recognized organizations, such as the United Nations, the [[International Labour Organization]] and the [[World Bank]]. Indigenous peoples in this article is used in such a narrower sense.
  +
  +
In Europe, present-day recognized indigenous populations are relatively few, mainly confined to northern and far-eastern reaches of this [[Eurasia]]n peninsula. Whilst there are various [[ethnic minority|ethnic minorities]] distributed within European countries, few of these still maintain traditional subsistence cultures and are recognized as indigenous peoples, ''per se''. Notable indigenous populations include the [[Sami people]] of northern [[Scandinavia]], the [[Nenets people|Nenets]] and other [[Samoyedic peoples]] of the northern [[Russian Federation]], and the [[Komi peoples]] of the western [[Ural mountains|Urals]].
  +
  +
The [[Basque people]], inhabiting northern Spain and southwestern France, are one of the oldest indigenous groups in Europe. It is widely held that most likely the Basques are the last surviving ethno-linguistic group descended from populations of [[Neolithic Europe]] before the intrusion of [[Indo-European]] languages and peoples. Another theory about [[Origin of the Basques|Basque origins]] suggests that they are a remnant of [[Paleolithic]] Europeans inhabiting continuously the [[Franco-Cantabrian region]] since at least [[Magdalenian]] times. The only archaeological evidence for an invasion of the Basque Country dates to some 40,000 years ago when [[Cro-Magnon]] people first arrived in Europe and superseded [[Neanderthal|Homo neanderthalensis]].<ref>{{cite book|author=Mark Kurlansky|title=The Basque History of the World|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=ZGs-PgAACAAJ|accessdate=11 October 2011|date=9 January 2001|publisher=Knopf Canada|isbn=978-0-676-97366-2}}</ref>
   
In Europe, present-day recognized indigenous populations are relatively few, mainly confined to northern and far-eastern reaches of this [[Eurasia]]n peninsula. Whilst there are various [[ethnic minority|ethnic minorities]] distributed within European countries, few of these still maintain traditional subsistence cultures and are recognized as indigenous peoples, ''per se''. Notable indigenous populations include the [[Sami people]] of northern [[Scandinavia]], the [[Basque people|Basques]] {{Fact|date=March 2007}}, the [[Nenets people|Nenets]] and other [[Samoyedic peoples]] of the northern [[Russian Federation]], and the [[Komi peoples]] of the western [[Ural mountains|Urals]].
+
[[North Caucasus]] is unique in its diversity, with a greater variety of [[Languages of the Caucasus|languages]] spoken there than in any region of similar size in the world. Caucasus region is the home of over 50 cultural minorities like the [[Circassians]].<ref>[http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9021862/Caucasian-peoples Caucasian peoples]. Britannica.com. Retrieved on 2011-10-11.</ref><ref>{{cite journal|doi=10.1146/annurev.an.06.100177.001435 |title=Mountain of Tongues: The Languages of the Caucasus|year=1977|last1=Catford|first1=J C|journal=Annual Review of Anthropology|volume=6|pages=283}}</ref> See also: [[Peoples of the Caucasus]].
   
 
=== Oceania ===
 
=== Oceania ===
  +
[[File:Huli wigman.jpg|thumb|right|upright|[[Huli people|Huli]] man from the [[Southern Highlands, Papua New Guinea]]. New Guinea has more than 1,000 indigenous languages.]]
 
{{Main|Indigenous peoples of Oceania}}
 
{{Main|Indigenous peoples of Oceania}}
:''See also: [[:Category:Indigenous peoples of Oceania]]''
+
{{See also|Category:Indigenous peoples of Oceania}}
   
Many of the present-day [[Pacific Island]] nations in the [[Oceania]] region were originally populated by [[Polynesia]]n, [[Melanesia]]n and [[Micronesia]]n peoples over the course of thousands of years. European colonial expansion in the [[Pacific Ocean|Pacific]] brought many of these under non-indigenous administration. During the 20th century several of these former colonies gained independence and nation-states were formed under local control. However, various peoples have put forward claims for indigenous recognition where their islands are still under external administration; examples include the [[Chamorros]] of [[Guam]] and the [[Northern Marianas]], and the [[Marshallese people|Marshallese]] of the [[Marshall Islands]].
+
Many of the present-day [[Pacific Island]] nations in the Oceania region were originally populated by [[Polynesia]]n, [[Melanesia]]n and [[Micronesia]]n peoples over the course of thousands of years. European colonial expansion in the Pacific brought many of these under non-indigenous administration. During the 20th century several of these former colonies gained independence and nation-states were formed under local control. However, various peoples have put forward claims for Indigenous recognition where their islands are still under external administration; examples include the [[Chamorros]] of [[Guam]] and the [[Northern Marianas]], and the [[Marshallese people|Marshallese]] of the [[Marshall Islands]].
   
In [[New Zealand]], the indigenous [[Māori]] (see also [[Iwi]]) constitute nearly 15% of the total population.
+
The remains of at least 25 miniature humans, who lived between 1,000 and 3,000 years ago, were recently found on the islands of [[Palau]] in [[Micronesia]].<ref>[http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2008/mar/12/fossils Pygmy human remains found on rock islands], Science | The Guardian</ref>
   
[[Indigenous Australians]], including [[Aboriginal Australians]] and [[Torres Strait Islanders]], account for 2.4% of the total population of [[Australia]] (2001 census figures).
+
In most parts of Oceania, indigenous peoples outnumber the descendants of colonists. Exceptions include Australia, New Zealand and Hawaii. According to the 2001 Australian census, [[indigenous Australians]] make up 2.4% of the total population, while in New Zealand 14.6% of the population identify at least partially as indigenous Māori, with slightly more than half (53%) of all Māori residents identifying solely as Māori. The Māori are indigenous to Polynesia and settled New Zealand relatively recently, the migrations were thought to have occurred between 1000–1200 CE. In New Zealand pre-contact Māori tribes were not a single people, thus the more recent grouping into tribal (iwi) arrangements has become a more formal arrangement in more recent times. Many Māori tribal leaders signed a treaty with the British, [[Treaty of Waitangi]], so that the modern geo-political entity that is New Zealand was established by partial consent. However, the Māori language translation of the [[Treaty of Waitangi]] which they signed is worded ambiguously and does not fully match the English version. The treaty process gave British citizenship to the 'native' population. However, some of the British settlers ignored the Treaty of Waitangi and through some illegal acts of colonisation and war (though there were legitimate land sales between Maori and the settlers) Maori lost 95% of their land and resources from the 1850s through to the 1970s which resulted in the large scale socio-economic marginalization of the vast majority of Maori. Since the 1970s there has been a cultural renaissance by Maori, and a political drive to assert their Treaty rights to their land, resources and culture through the Waitangi Tribunal [http://www.waitangi-tribunal.govt.nz/] process. This has resulted in the legal recognition of the Maori language and culture and has resulted in the return of some land, resources and money so that today Māori businesses have an estimated value of over NZD$14 billion. Māori have also formed an important political party.
   
The independent state of [[Papua New Guinea|Papua New Guinea (PNG)]] has a majority population of indigenous societies, with some 700+ different tribal groups recognised out of a total population of just over 5 million. The PNG Constitution and other Acts identify traditional or custom-based practices and land tenure, and explicitly sets out to promote the viability of these traditional societies within the modern state. However, several conflicts and disputes concerning land use and resource rights continue to be observed between indigenous groups, the government and corporate entities.
+
The independent state of [[Papua New Guinea|Papua New Guinea (PNG)]] has a majority population of indigenous societies, with some 700+ different tribal groups recognized out of a total population of just over 5 million. The PNG Constitution and other Acts identify traditional or custom-based practices and land tenure, and explicitly sets out to promote the viability of these traditional societies within the modern state. However, several conflicts and disputes concerning land use and resource rights continue to be observed between indigenous groups, the government and corporate entities.
   
==Viewpoints on indigenous societies==
+
==Rights, issues and concerns==
A range of differing viewpoints and attitudes have arisen from the experience and history of contact between indigenous and "non-indigenous" communities. The cultural, regional and historical contexts in which these viewpoints have developed are complex, and many competing viewpoints exist simultaneously in any given society, albeit promulgated with greater or lesser force depending on the extent of cross-cultural exposure and internal societal change. These views may be noted from both sides of the relationship.
+
{{Indigenous rights}}
  +
Wherever indigenous cultural identity is asserted, some particular set of societal issues and concerns may be voiced which either arise from (at least in part), or have a particular dimension associated with, their indigenous status. These concerns will often be commonly held or affect other societies also, and are not necessarily experienced uniquely by indigenous groups.
   
===Indigenous viewpoints===
+
Despite the diversity of Indigenous peoples, it may be noted that they share common problems and issues in dealing with the prevailing, or invading, society. They are generally concerned that the cultures of Indigenous peoples are being lost and that indigenous peoples suffer both discrimination and pressure to assimilate into their surrounding societies. This is borne out by the fact that the lands and cultures of nearly all of the peoples listed at the end of this article are under threat. Notable exceptions are the [[Yakuts|Sakha]] and [[Komi peoples]] (two of the northern indigenous peoples of [[Russia]]), who now control their own autonomous republics within the Russian state, and the Canadian [[Inuit]], who form a majority of the territory of [[Nunavut]] (created in 1999).
{{sect-stub}}
 
   
==="Non-indigenous" viewpoints===
+
It is also sometimes argued that it is important for the human species as a whole to preserve a wide range of [[cultural diversity]] as possible, and that the protection of indigenous cultures is vital to this enterprise.
Indigenous peoples have variously been identified as ''primitives,'' ''savages,'' or ''uncivilized.'' These terms were common during the heyday of European colonial expansion. By the 17th century, indigenous peoples were commonly labeled "uncivilized". Proponents of [[civilization]], like [[Thomas Hobbes]], considered them merely savages; critics of civilization, such as [[Jean Jacques Rousseau]], considered them to be "[[noble savage]]s". Those who were close to the Hobbesian view tended to believe themselves to have a duty to [[civilize]] and modernize indigenes. Although anthropologists, especially from Europe, used to apply these terms to all tribal cultures, it has fallen into disfavor as demeaning and, according to anthropologists, inaccurate (see [[tribe]], [[cultural evolution]]).
 
   
After World War I, however, many Europeans came to doubt the value of civilization. At the same time, the anti-colonial movement, and advocates of indigenous peoples, argued that words such as "[[civilize]]d" and "savage" were products and tools of [[colonialism]], and argued that colonialism itself was savagely destructive.
+
An example of this occurred in 2002 when the Government of [[Botswana]] expelled all the [[Kalahari Desert|Kalahari]] Bushmen known as the San from their lands<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.afrol.com/News2002/bot002_san_supplies.htm |title=afrol News – Botswana govt gets tougher on San tribesmen |publisher=Afrol.com |date= |accessdate=2010-06-30}}</ref> on which they had lived for at least twenty thousand years. President Festus Mogai has described the [[Bushmen]] as "stone age creatures"<ref>{{cite news|last=Simpson |first=John |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/4480883.stm |title=Africa &#124; Bushmen fight for homeland |publisher=BBC News |date=2005-05-02 |accessdate=2010-06-30}}</ref> and a minister for local government, [[Margaret Nasha]], likened public criticism of their eviction to criticism of the culling of elephants.<ref>{{cite news| url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/Columnists/Column/0,,1735617,00.html | work=The Guardian | location=London | title=Who really belongs to another age – bushmen or the House of Lords? | first=George | last=Monbiot | date=21 March 2006 | accessdate=5 May 2010}}</ref> In 2006, the Botswanan High Court ruled that the Bushmen had a right to return to their land in the [[Central Kalahari Game Reserve]].<ref>{{cite news| url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/6191185.stm | work=BBC News | title=Botswana bushmen ruling accepted | date=18 December 2006 | accessdate=5 May 2010}}</ref><ref>[http://www.namibian.com.na/2006/December/national/0664B6623B.html ]{{Dead link|date=June 2010}}</ref>
   
In the mid 20th century, Europeans began to recognize that indigenous and tribal peoples should have the right to decide for themselves what should happen to their ancient [[culture]]s and their ancestral lands.
+
=== Health Issues ===
   
Several criticisms of the concept of indigenous peoples are:
+
In December 1993, the [[United Nations General Assembly]] proclaimed the International Decade of the World's Indigenous People, and requested UN specialized agencies to consider with governments and indigenous people how they can contribute to the success of the Decade of Indigenous People, commencing in December 1994. As a consequence, the [[World Health Organization]], at its Forty-seventh World Health Assembly established a core advisory group of indigenous representatives with special knowledge of the health needs and resources of their communities, thus beginning a long-term commitment to the issue of the health of indigenous peoples.<ref name="WHO">{{cite web |url=http://www.who.int/ethics/activities/WHA47.27.pdf |title=RESOLUTIONS AND DECISIONS. WHA47.27 International Decade of the World's Indigenous People. The Forty-seventh World Health Assembly, |work=World Health Organization |format=PDF |accessdate =2011-04-17}}</ref>
* In many cases, such as with some [[Native American (Americas)|Native American]] tribes, some people claim that the people termed indigenous arrived in an area ''after'' the people termed non-indigenous.
 
* Peoples have invaded or colonised each other's lands since before recorded history and so the division into indigenous and non-indigenous is a matter of judgement. Even in recent centuries there are difficulties: for example, are the [[Zulu]] people indigenous to [[South Africa]]?
 
* Lumping indigenous peoples into one group ignores the vast amounts of diversity among them and at the same time imposes a uniform identity on them, which may not be historically accurate.
 
   
Some feel that those who argue that indigenous peoples should have the right of self-determination often are simply replacing the [[stereotype]] of the [[barbaric]] savage with another stereotype, that of the noble savage possessing mystic truths and at peace with nature, and that this second stereotype ignores some of the real issues of indigenous peoples such as economic development.
+
The WHO notes, that "[[Statistical data]] on the health status of indigenous peoples is scarce. This is especially notable for indigenous peoples in Africa, Asia and eastern Europe", but snapshots from various countries, where such statistics are available, show that indigenous people are in worse health than the general population, in advanced and [[developing countries]] alike: higher incidence of [[diabetes]] in some regions of Australia;<ref>Diabetes in Indigenous Populations, Anthony J. Hanley, Medscape Today</ref> higher prevalence of poor [[sanitation]] and lack of safe water among Twa households in Rwanda;<ref>Health of Indigenous Peoples in Africa, Lancet Series on Indigenous Health, Vol. 367, June 2006, p. 194</ref> a greater prevalence of childbirths without [[prenatal care]] among ethnic [[minorities]] in Vietman;<ref>Health and Ethnic Minorities in Viet Nam, Technical Series No. 1, June 2003, WHO, p. 10</ref> suicide rates among Inuit youth in Canada are eleven times higher than the national average;<ref>Facts on Suicide Rates, First Nations and Inuit Health, Health Canada</ref> [[infant mortality]] rates are higher for indigenous peoples everywhere.<ref name="WHO2">{{cite web |url=http://allcountries.org/health/health_of_indigenous_peoples.html |title=Health of indigenous peoples |work=Health Topics A to Z |accessdate =2011-04-17}}</ref>
   
==Indigenous rights, issues and concerns==
+
=== Accredited organizations ===
Wherever indigenous cultural identity is asserted, some particular set of societal issues and concerns may be voiced which either arise from (at least in part), or have a particular dimension associated with, their indigenous status. These concerns will often be commonly held or affect other societies also, and are not necessarily experienced uniquely by indigenous groups.
 
   
Despite the diversity of indigenous peoples, it may be noted that they share common problems and issues in dealing with the prevailing, or invading, society. They are generally concerned that the cultures of indigenous peoples are being lost and that indigenous peoples suffer both discrimination and pressure to assimilate into their surrounding societies. This is borne out by the fact that the lands and cultures of nearly all of the peoples listed at the end of this article are under threat. Notable exceptions are the [[Sakha]] and [[Komi peoples]] (two of the Northern Indigenous Peoples of [[Siberia]]), who now control their own autonomous republics within the Russian state.
+
{{See also|List of indigenous rights organizations}}
  +
Various organizations are devoted to the preservation or study of indigenous peoples. Of these, several have widely recognized credentials to act as an intermediary or representative on behalf of indigenous peoples' groups, in negotiations on indigenous issues with governments and international organizations. These include:
  +
* [[African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights|African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights (ACHPR)]]
  +
* [[Center for World Indigenous Studies]]
  +
* [[Cultural Survival]]
  +
* [[Friends of Peoples Close to Nature|Friends of Peoples Close to Nature (fPcN)]]
  +
* [[Incomindios Switzerland]]
  +
* [[Indigenous Dialogues]]
  +
* [[Indigenous Peoples of Africa Co-ordinating Committee|Indigenous Peoples of Africa Co-ordinating Committee (IPACC)]]
  +
* [[International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs|International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA)]]
  +
* [[Survival International]]
  +
* [[Society for Threatened Peoples|Society for Threatened Peoples (GfbV)]]
   
It is also sometimes argued that it is important for the human species as a whole to preserve a wide range of [[cultural diversity]] as possible, and that the protection of indigenous cultures is vital to this enterprise.
+
=== International Day of the World's Indigenous People ===
  +
{{Main|International Day of the World’s Indigenous People}}
  +
The International Day of the World's Indigenous People falls on August 9 as this was the date of the first meeting in 1982 of the United Nations Working Group of Indigenous Populations of the Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities of the Commission on Human Rights.
   
An example of this occurred in 2002 when the Government of [[Botswana]] expelled all the [[Kalahari Desert|Kalahari]] Bushmen from the lands they had lived off for at least twenty thousand years. Government ministers described the [[Bushmen]] as "stone age creatures" and likened their forced eviction to a cull of [[elephants]].{{Fact|date=February 2007}} These events passed almost without comment in the world's media {{Fact|date=February 2007}}, at a time when the eviction of a number of white people from land in nearby [[Zimbabwe]] was headline news.
+
The UN General Assembly decided on 23 December 1994, that the International Day of the World's Indigenous People should be observed on August 9 every year during the International Decade of the World's Indigenous People (resolution 49/214). Later on 20 December 2004 the assembly decided to continue observing the International Day of Indigenous People every year during the Second International Decade of the World's Indigenous People (2005–2014) (resolution 59/174).<ref>[http://web.archive.org/web/20050715091038/http://www.un.org/depts/dhl/indigenous/ International Day of the World's Indigenous People 9 August]</ref>
   
In response, many have pointed out that in many cases the indigenous peoples often haven't been living self-sufficiently in an area for centuries, and that economic development was not an issue before because it was not an option. They point out that when given a choice, indigenous peoples themselves often want economic development, and that this has indeed caused conflicts with environmental groups when indigenous peoples have been given title to land and then proceed to develop just like non-indigenous people. Furthermore, it has been pointed out that indigenous peoples are not necessarily any more self-sufficient or in tune with nature, and that indigenous peoples have themselves perhaps adversely affected the environment, examples given (but not necessarily universally accepted) including catastrophic [[deforestation]] on [[Easter Island]], or the disappearance of [[Australia]]n and North American [[megafauna]], believed by some to have been caused by hunting activities.
+
==Knowledge and culture==
  +
{{Main|Traditional knowledge}}
   
==Indigenous knowledge and culture==
+
The preservation and investigation of specialized [[Traditional knowledge|Indigenous knowledge]], particularly in relation to the resources of the natural environment with which the society is associated, is a goal of both the Indigenous and the societies who thereby seek to identify new resources and benefits (example: partnerships established to research biological extracts from vegetation in the [[Amazon Rainforest|Amazon rainforests]]).
{{main|Traditional knowledge}}
 
   
Indigenous societies possess an often unique body of cultural and environmental [[knowledge]]. The preservation and investigation of specialised [[Traditional knowledge|indigenous knowledge]], particularly in relation to the resources of the natural environment with which the society is associated, is an increasingly sought-after goal of both the indigenous and the societies who thereby seek to identify new resources and benefits (example: partnerships established to research useful biological extracts from vegetation in the [[Amazon Rainforest|Amazon rainforests]]).
+
For some people (e.g. Indigenous communities from India, Brazil, and [[Malaysia]] and some NGOs such as [[GRAIN]] and [[Third World Network]]),{{clarify|date=June 2011}} Indigenous peoples have often been victims of [[biopiracy]] when they are subjected to unauthorized use of their [[natural resource]]s,{{Citation needed|date=February 2010}} of their traditional knowledge on these biological resources, of unequal share of benefits between them and a [[patent]] holder.
   
For some people (e.g. indigenous communities from [[India]], [[Brazil]], and [[Malaysia]] and some NGOs such as [[GRAIN]] and [[Third World Network]]), indigenous peoples may be victims of [[biopiracy]] when they are subjected to unauthorised use of their [[biological resource]]s, of their traditional knowledge on these biological resources, of unequal share of benefits between them and a [[patent]] holder. A controversial case of biopiracy was reported on human genes of a tribal community reported to be resistant to [[malaria]] and [[leprosy]] {{Fact|date=February 2007}}.
+
==Viewpoints==
  +
{{Refimprove section|date=January 2009}}
  +
A range of differing viewpoints and attitudes have arisen from the experience and history of contact between Indigenous and "non-indigenous" communities. The cultural, regional and historical contexts in which these viewpoints have developed are complex, and many competing viewpoints exist simultaneously in any given society, albeit promulgated with greater or lesser force depending on the extent of cross-cultural exposure and internal societal change. These views may be noted from both sides of the relationship.
   
==Representation==
+
=== Indigenous viewpoints ===
The [[Human rights|rights]], claims and even identity of indigenous peoples are apprehended, acknowledged and observed quite differently from government to government. Various organizations exist with charters to in one way or another promote (or at least acknowledge) indigenous aspirations, and indigenous societies have often banded together to form bodies which jointly seek to further their communal interests.
+
Indigenous peoples are increasingly faced with threats to their sovereignty, environment, and access to natural resources. Examples of this can be the deforestation of tropical rainforests where many native tribe's subsistence lifestyles are threatened. Assimilative colonial policies resulted in ongoing issues related to [[aboriginal child protection]].
   
In cooperation, representants of indigenous peoples have met in The [[World Council of Indigenous Peoples]] (WCIP), which held its first conference in British Columbia in 1975. Cooperation has continued in the research and education organization The [[Center for World Indigenous Studies]] (CWIS), founded in 1984, in Olympia, Washington, USA.
+
=== Non-indigenous viewpoints ===
  +
[[File:Mokka and their house.jpg|thumb|"Savages of Mokka and Their House in Formosa", pre-1945, [[Taiwan under Japanese rule]].]]
  +
Indigenous peoples have been denoted ''primitives,'' ''savages,'' or ''uncivilized.'' These terms were common during the heights of European colonial expansion, but still continue in modern times.<ref>''See'' ''Oliphant v. Suquamish Indian Tribe'', 435 U.S. 191 (1978); also see Robert Williams, ''Like a Loaded Weapon''</ref> During the 17th century, indigenous peoples were commonly labeled "uncivilized". Whilst there was a swell in bringing back creative elements of classical antiquity in artistic pursuits, there was also the not so creative side of regurgitating [[xenophobic]] ideas from that period. Some philosophers such as [[Thomas Hobbes]] considered indigenous people to be merely 'savages', while others are purported to have considered them to be "[[noble savage]]s". Those who were close to the Hobbesian view tended to believe themselves to have a duty to civilize and [[modernize]] indigenes. Although anthropologists, especially from Europe, used to apply these terms to all tribal cultures, it has fallen into disfavor as demeaning and, according to anthropologists, inaccurate (see [[tribe]], [[cultural evolution]]). [[Survival International]] runs a campaign to stamp out media portrayal of indigenous peoples as 'primitive' or 'savages'.<ref name=survivalinternationalfaq>[http://www.survivalinternational.org/info Survival International website – About Us/FAQ]</ref> [[Friends of Peoples Close to Nature]] considers not only that indigenous culture should be respected as not being inferior, but also sees their way of life as a lesson of sustainability and a part of the struggle within the "corrupted" western world, from which the threat stems.<ref name=fpcn>[https://www.fpcn-global.org/content/Our-Ethos friends of Peoples close to Nature website – Our Ethos and statement of principles]{{dead link|date=October 2011}}</ref>
   
===United Nations===
+
After World War I, however, many Europeans came to doubt the value of civilization. At the same time, the anti-colonial movement, and advocates of indigenous peoples, argued that words such as "[[civilize]]d" and "savage" were products and tools of [[colonialism]], and argued that colonialism itself was savagely destructive.
Indigenous peoples and their interests are represented in the United Nations primarily through the mechanisms of the [[Working Group on Indigenous Populations]] (WGIP). In April 2000 the [[United Nations Commission on Human Rights]] adopted a resolution to establish the [[United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues]] (PFII) as an advisory body to the [[United Nations Economic and Social Council|Economic and Social Council]] with a mandate to review indigenous issues.
 
   
In late December 2004, the [[United Nations General Assembly]] proclaimed 2005-2014 to be the [[Second International Decade of the World's Indigenous People]]. The main goal of the new decade will be to strengthen international cooperation around resolving the problems faced by indigenous people in areas such as culture, education, health, human rights, the environment, and social and economic development.
+
In the mid 20th century, European attitudes began to shift to the view that indigenous and tribal peoples should have the right to decide for themselves what should happen to their ancient cultures and ancestral lands.
   
===Other accredited organizations===
+
Some criticisms of the concept of indigenous peoples are:
Various organizations are devoted to the preservation or study of indigenous peoples. Of these, several have widely-recognized credentials to act as an intermediary or representative on behalf of indigenous peoples' groups, in negotiations on indigenous issues with governments and international organizations. These include:
+
* Peoples have invaded or colonized each other's lands since before recorded history and so the division into indigenous and non-indigenous is a matter of judgment. Even in recent centuries there are difficulties: for example, are the [[Zulu people|Zulu]] people indigenous to South Africa?{{citation needed|date=November 2011}}
* [[Society for Threatened Peoples International (STP)]]
+
* Lumping indigenous peoples into one group ignores the vast amounts of diversity among them and at the same time imposes a uniform identity on them, which may not be historically accurate.{{citation needed|date=November 2011}}
* [[International Working Group on Indigenous Affairs|International Working Group on Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA)]]
 
* [[Indigenous Peoples of Africa Co-ordinating Committee|Indigenous Peoples of Africa Co-ordinating Committee (IPACC)]]
 
* [[MATSES|Movement in the Amazon for Tribal Subsistence and Economic Sustainability]]
 
* [[Survival International]]
 
* [[Indigenous Dialogues]]
 
* [[Cultural Survival]]
 
* [[Asia Pacific Indigenous Youth Network]]
 
   
== List of indigenous peoples ==
+
== See also ==
''Main article: [[List of indigenous peoples]]''
+
{{colbegin}}
  +
* [[Collective rights]]
  +
* [[Colonialism]]
  +
* [[Ethnic minority]]
  +
* [[Human rights]]
  +
* [[The Image Expedition]]
  +
* [[Indigenous intellectual property]]
  +
* [[Intangible Cultural Heritage]]
  +
* [[Isuma]]
  +
* [[Uncontacted peoples]]
  +
* [[United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues]]
  +
* [[Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization]]
  +
* [[List of ethnic groups]]
  +
* [[Indigenous Peoples Climate Change Assessment Initiative]]
  +
{{colend}}
   
;Other (external) lists:
+
==References==
* [http://www.elandnet.org For a further list]
+
{{Reflist|colwidth=30em}}
   
==References==
+
==Further reading==
<references />
+
{{Refbegin}}
 
* United Nations Working Group on Indigenous Populations, from ''Study of the Problem of Discrimination Against Indigenous Populations'', J. Martinez Cobo, United Nations Special Rapporteur (1987)
 
* United Nations Working Group on Indigenous Populations, from ''Study of the Problem of Discrimination Against Indigenous Populations'', J. Martinez Cobo, United Nations Special Rapporteur (1987)
* [http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean-Claude_Fritz FRITZ Jean-Claude], ''La nouvelle question indigène. Peuples autochthones et ordre mondial'' (en co-direction avec Frédéric Déroche, Gérard Fritz et Raphaël Porteilla), Paris, L'Harmattan, 2006.
+
* [http://www.achpr.org/english/Special%20Mechanisms/Indegenous/ACHPR%20Report%20ENG.pdf Report of the African Commission's Working Group of Experts on Indigenous Populations/Communities] November 2003
* [http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean-Claude_Fritz FRITZ Jean-Claude], ''L'humanité face à la mondialisation. Droit des peuples et environnement'' (en co-direction avec Charalambos Apostolidis et Gérard Fritz), Paris, L'Harmattan, 1997.
+
* [[:fr:Jean-Claude Fritz|FRITZ Jean-Claude]], ''La nouvelle question indigène. Peuples autochthones et ordre mondial'' (en co-direction avec Frédéric Déroche, Gérard Fritz et Raphaël Porteilla), Paris, L'Harmattan, 2006.
* ''Indigenous Peoples and Environmental Issues: An Encyclopedia'', by Bruce E. Johansen. Westport, CT, Greenwood Press, 2003. 506p., ISBN 0-313-32398-4
+
* [[:fr:Jean-Claude Fritz|FRITZ Jean-Claude]], ''L'humanité face à la mondialisation. Droit des peuples et environnement'' (en co-direction avec Charalambos Apostolidis et Gérard Fritz), Paris, L'Harmattan, 1997.
  +
* ''Indigenous Peoples and Environmental Issues: An Encyclopedia'', by Bruce E. Johansen. Westport, Connecticut, Greenwood Press, 2003. 506p., ISBN 978-0-313-32398-0
  +
* {{Cite news |last=Henriksen |first=John B. |year=2001 |title=Implementation of the Right of Self-Determination of Indigenous Peoples |url=http://www.iwgia.org/graphics/Synkron-Library/Documents/publications/Downloadpublications/IndigenousAffairs/selfdetermination.pdf |format=PDF|edition=[[PDF]] |periodical=Indigenous Affairs |publication-place=Copenhagen |publisher=International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs |pages=6–21 |volume=3/2001 |issn=1024-3283 |oclc=30685615 |accessdate=2007-09-01 |postscript=<!--None-->}}
  +
{{Refend}}
   
==See also==
+
== External links ==
{{wiktionarypar|indigenous}}
+
{{Commons category|Indigenous people}}
* [[Collective rights]]
 
* [[Human rights]]
 
* [[Ethnic minority]]
 
* [[Colonialism]]
 
   
==External links==
+
=== Institutions ===
===Institutions===
+
* [http://www.unep.org/Indigenous/ UNEP Indigenous People's Website]
* [http://www.survival-international.org/ Survival International]
 
* [http://www.cs.org/ Cultural Survival]
 
* [http://www.ruralpovertyportal.org/english/topics/indigenous/index.htm Rural poverty and indigenous peoples on Rural Poverty Portal, powered by IFAD)]
 
* [http://www.bauuinstitute.com Bauu Institute and Press]
 
 
* [http://www.ifad.org/english/indigenous/index.htm IFAD and indigenous peoples (International Fund for Agricultural Development, IFAD)]
 
* [http://www.ifad.org/english/indigenous/index.htm IFAD and indigenous peoples (International Fund for Agricultural Development, IFAD)]
* [http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/ UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UN PFII)]
 
* [http://www.ohchr.org/english/issues/indigenous/groups/groups-01.htm Working Group on Indigenous Populations (WGIP)]
 
* [http://www.unhchr.ch/indigenous/main.html Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)- Indigenous peoples]
 
* [http://portal.unesco.org/culture/admin/ev.php?URL_ID=2946&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201 UNESCO Actions in favour of Indigenous Peoples]
 
* [http://www.iwgia.org/sw155.asp International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA)]
 
* [http://www.apiyn.org/ Asia Pacific Indigenous Youth Network (APIYN)]
 
* [http://developmentgateway.org/indigenous Development Gateway Indigenous Issues Topic Page]
 
* [http://www.hri.ca/fortherecord2002/engtext/vol1eng/indigenous.htm Human Rights Internet- Indigenous issues]
 
* [http://www.unpo.org/index.php Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation]
 
* [http://www.eniar.org/ European Network for Indigenous Australian Rights (ENIAR)]
 
* [http://www.docip.org/ Indigenous Peoples' Center for Documentation, Research and Information (docip)]
 
* [http://diplomacymonitor.com/stu/dm.nsf/issued?openform&cat=Indigenous_Peoples Diplomacy Monitor - Indigenous Peoples]
 
 
* [http://www.ipsnews.net/new_focus/indigenous_peoples/index.asp IPS Inter Press Service] News on indigenous peoples from around the world
 
* [http://www.ipsnews.net/new_focus/indigenous_peoples/index.asp IPS Inter Press Service] News on indigenous peoples from around the world
   
===Indigenous studies===
+
=== Indigenous studies ===
* [http://www.u-bourgogne.fr/peuples-autochtones/index.html University of Burgundy (France) Indigenous Studies (Formation Peuples Autochtones)]
+
* [http://pib.socioambiental.org/en Indigenous Peoples in Brazil. Instituto Socioambiental (ISA)]
* [http://www.cwis.org/wwwvl/indig-vl.html WWW Virtual Library- Indigenous studies resources]
+
* [http://indigenouspeoplesissues.com Indigenous Peoples Issues & Resources]
* [http://www.cwis.org/ Center for World Indigenous Studies (CWIS)]
+
* Janssen, D. F., [http://www2.hu-berlin.de/sexology/GESUND/ARCHIV/GUS/INDEXATLAS.HTM ''Growing Up Sexually. Volume I. World Reference Atlas''] [full text]
* [http://indigenousissuestoday.blogspot.com Indigenous Issues Today]
+
* [http://www.pygmies.info/ African Pygmies studies] Anthropological fieldwork about Pygmies
+
{{Indigenous peoples by continent}}
* [http://www.canadiana.org/citm/themes/aboriginals_e.html A History of Aboriginal Treaties and Relations in Canada] This site includes contextual materials, links to digitized primary sources and summaries of primary source documents.
+
{{Indigenous rights footer}}
* [http://answers.google.com/answers/threadview?id=739680 Articles on Theory of Property Rights and the Environment]
+
{{Ethnicity}}
   
[[Category:Indigenous populations| Indigenous populations]]
+
[[Category:Indigenous peoples| ]]
  +
[[Category:Ethnic groups]]
   
 
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Kaiapos

Brazilian indigenous chiefs of the Kayapo tribe.

Saami Family 1900

A Sami family in Norway around 1900.

Indigenous peoples are ethnic groups that are defined as indigenous according to one of the various definitions of the term, there is no universally accepted definition[1] but most of which carry connotations of being the "original inhabitants" of a territory.

In the late twentieth century the term became a political term used to refer to ethnic groups have historical ties to groups that existed in a territory prior to colonization or formation of a nation state, and which normally preserve a degree of cultural and political separation from the mainstream culture and political system of the nation state within the border of which the indigenous group is located. The political sense of the term indigenous people, defines these groups as particularly vulnerable to exploitation and oppression by nation states, and as a result a special set of political rights in accordance with international law have been set forth by International Organizations such as the United Nations, the International Labour Organization and the World Bank.[2] The United Nations have issued a Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, the purpose of which it is to protect the collective rights of indigenous peoples to their culture, identity, language, employment, health, education and natural resources.

Different states designate the groups within their boundaries that are recognized as indigenous peoples according to international legislation by different terms, for example "Native Americans" "Pacific Islander" (USA), "Inuit", Métis "First Nations" (Canada),[3] Aborigines (Australia), Hill tribes (South East Asia), indigenous ethnic minorities, scheduled tribes or Adivasi (India), tribal groups, or autochtonous groups.[4]

Origins of phraseEdit

During the late twentieth century the term Indigenous peoples evolved into a legal category that refers to culturally distinct groups that in various ways had been affected by the processes of colonization. These are usually collectives that have preserved some degree of cultural and political separation from the mainstream culture and political system that has grown to surround or dominate them economically, politically, culturally, or geographically. "'Indigenous peoples' ... is a term that internationalizes the experiences, the issues and the struggles of some of the world's colonized peoples," writes Maori educator Linda Thuwai Smith. "The final 's' in 'indigenous peoples' ... [is] a way of recognizing that there are real differences between different indigenous peoples."[5]

Used politically, the term defines these groups as particularly vulnerable to exploitation and oppression by nation states, and as a result a special set of political rights in accordance with international law have been set forth by international organizations such as the United Nations, the International Labour Organization and the World Bank.[6] The United Nations issued a Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, with the intent to protect the collective rights of indigenous peoples to their culture, identity, language, employment, health, education and natural resources.

However, the phrase is not applied consistently in all cultures. The notion of an indigenous group depends on context and other issues. The World Bank's policy for indigenous people states:

Because of the varied and changing contexts in which Indigenous Peoples live and because there is no universally accepted definition of “Indigenous Peoples,” this policy does not define the term. Indigenous Peoples may be referred to in different countries by such terms as "indigenous ethnic minorities," "aboriginals," "hill tribes," "minority nationalities," "scheduled tribes," or "tribal groups."[7]

Different states designate the groups within their boundaries that are recognized as indigenous peoples according to international legislation by different terms. These include, for example "Native Americans" and "Pacific Islander" in the United States; "Aboriginals (Inuit", "Métis" and "First Nations)" in Canada;[8] Aborigines in Australia; Hill tribes in Southeast Asia; indigenous ethnic minorities, scheduled tribes or Adivasi in India; tribal groups, or autochthonous groups.[7]

Definition Edit

Main article: Definitions and identity of indigenous peoples
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The adjective indigenous has the common meaning of "from" or "of the original origin". Therefore, in a purely adjectival sense any given people, ethnic group or community may be described as being indigenous in reference to some particular region or location.[11]

Key to a contemporary understanding of "indigenousness" is the political role a cultural group plays, for all other criteria usually taken to denote indigenous groups (territory, race, history, subsistence lifestyle, etc.) can, to a greater or lesser extent, also be applied to majority cultures.[12] Therefore, the distinction applied to indigenous groups can be formulated as "a politically underprivileged group, who share a similar... identity different to the nation in power",[11] and who share territorial rights to a particular area governed by a colonial power. However, the specific term indigenous peoples has a more restrictive interpretation when it used in the more formalized, legalistic, and academic sense, associated with the collective rights of human populations.[11] In these contexts, the term is used to denote particular peoples and groups around the world who, as well as being native to or associated with some given territory,[12] meet certain other criteria (such as having reached a social and technological plateau thousands of years ago).

Criteria Edit

Drawing on these, a contemporary working definition of "indigenous people" for certain purposes has criteria which would seek to include cultural groups (and their continuity or association with a given region, or parts of a region, and who formerly or currently inhabit the region) either:[12]

  • before or its subsequent colonisation or annexation; or
  • alongside other cultural groups during the formation or reign of a colony or nation-state; or
  • independently or largely isolated from the influence of the claimed governance by a nation-state,

and who furthermore:[11]

  • have maintained at least in part their distinct cultural, social/organisational, or linguistic characteristics, and in doing so remain differentiated in some degree from the surrounding populations and dominant culture of the nation-state.

To the above, a criterion is usually added to also include:[11]

  • peoples who are self-identified as indigenous, or those recognized as such by other groups.

Note that even if all the above criteria are fulfilled, some people may either not consider themselves as indigenous or may not be considered as indigenous by governments, organizations or scholars. The discourse of indigenous / non-indigenous may also be viewed within the context of postcolonialism and the evolution of post-colonial societies.

CharacteristicsEdit

Population and distribution Edit

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Indigenous societies range from those who have been significantly exposed to the colonizing or expansionary activities of other societies (such as the Maya peoples of Mexico and Central America) through to those who as yet remain in comparative isolation from any external influence (such as the Sentinelese and Jarawa of the Andaman Islands).

Precise estimates for the total population of the world's Indigenous peoples are very difficult to compile, given the difficulties in identification and the variances and inadequacies of available census data. Recent source estimates range from 300 million[13] to 350 million[14] as of the start of the 21st century. This would equate to just fewer than 6% of the total world population. This includes at least 5000 distinct peoples[14] in over 72 countries.

Contemporary distinct indigenous groups survive in populations ranging from only a few dozen to hundreds of thousands and more. Many indigenous populations have undergone a dramatic decline and even extinction, and remain threatened in many parts of the world. Some have also been assimilated by other populations or have undergone many other changes. In other cases, indigenous populations are undergoing a recovery or expansion in numbers.

Certain indigenous societies survive even though they may no longer inhabit their "traditional" lands, owing to migration, relocation, forced resettlement or having been supplanted by other cultural groups. In many other respects, the transformation of culture of indigenous groups is ongoing, and includes permanent loss of language, loss of lands, encroachment on traditional territories, and disruption in traditional lifeways due to contamination and pollution of waters and lands.

Common characteristics Edit

Characteristics common across many Indigenous groups include present or historical reliance upon subsistence-based production (based on pastoral, horticultural and/or hunting and gathering techniques), and a predominantly non-urbanized society. Not all indigenous groups share these characteristics. Indigenous societies may be either settled in a given locale/region or exhibit a nomadic lifestyle across a large territory, but are generally historically associated with a specific territory on which they are dependent. Indigenous societies are found in every inhabited climate zone and continent of the world.[6][15]

Common concerns Edit

Indigenous peoples confront a diverse range of concerns associated with their status and interaction with other cultural groups, as well as changes in their inhabited environment. Some challenges are specific to particular groups; however, other challenges are commonly experienced. Bartholomew Dean and Jerome Levi (2003) explore why and how the circumstances of indigenous peoples are improving in some places of the world, while their human rights continue to be abused in others.[16] These issues include cultural and linguistic preservation, land rights, ownership and exploitation of natural resources, political determination and autonomy, environmental degradation and incursion, poverty, health, and discrimination.

The interaction between indigenous and non-indigenous societies throughout history has been complex, ranging from outright conflict and subjugation to some degree of mutual benefit and cultural transfer. A particular aspect of anthropological study involves investigation into the ramifications of what is termed first contact, the study of what occurs when two cultures first encounter one another. The situation can be further confused when there is a complicated or contested history of migration and population of a given region, which can give rise to disputes about primacy and ownership of the land and resources.

In further evidence of how vulnerable some of the Indigenous Peoples are, the Bangladesh Government has stated that there are "no Indigenous Peoples in Bangladesh".[17] This has angered the Indigenous Peoples of Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh, collectively known as the Jumma (whichs include the Chakma, Marma, Tripura, Tenchungya, Chak, Pankho, Mru, Murung, Bawm, Lushai, Khyang, Gurkha, Assamese, Santal and Khumi).[18] Experts have protested against this move of the Bangladesh Government and have questioned the Government's definition of the term "Indigenous Peoples".[19][20] This move by the Bangladesh Government is seen by the Indigenous Peoples of Bangladesh as another step by the Government to further erode their already limited rights.[21]

Historical culturesEdit

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The migration, expansion and settlement of societies throughout different territories is a universal, almost defining thread which runs through the entire course of human history. Many of the cross-cultural interactions which arose as a result of these historical encounters involved societies which might properly be considered as indigenous, either from their own viewpoint or that of external societies.

Most often, these past encounters between indigenous and "non-indigenous" groups lack contemporary account or description. Any assessment or understanding of impact, result and relation can at best only be surmised, using archaeological, linguistic or other reconstructive means. Where accounts do exist, they frequently originate from the viewpoint of the colonizing, expansionary or nascent state or from rather scarce and fragmented ethnographic sources compiled by those more congenial with indigenous communities and/or representatives thereof.

Classical antiquity Edit

Greek sources of the Classical period acknowledge the prior existence of indigenous people(s), whom they referred to as "Pelasgians". These peoples inhabited lands surrounding the Aegean Sea before the subsequent migrations of the Hellenic ancestors claimed by these authors. The disposition and precise identity of this former group is elusive, and sources such as Homer, Hesiod and Herodotus give varying, partially mythological accounts. However, it is clear that cultures existed whose indigenous characteristics were distinguished by the subsequent Hellenic cultures (and distinct from non-Greek speaking "foreigners", termed "barbarians" by the historical Greeks). Greco-Roman society flourished between 250 BC and 480 AD and commanded successive waves of conquests that gripped more than half of the globe. But because already existent populations within other parts of Europe at the time of classical antiquity had more in common culturally speaking with the Greco-Roman world, the intricacies involved in expansion across the European frontier were not so contentious relative to indigenous issues. But when it came to expansion in other parts of the world, namely Asia, Africa, and the Middle East, then totally new cultural dynamics had entered into the equation, so to speak, and one sees here of what was to take the Americas, South East Asia, and the Pacific by storm a few hundred years later. The idea that peoples who possessed cultural customs and racial appearances strikingly different to that of the colonizing power is no new idea borne out of the Medieval period or the Age of Reason.

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European expansion and colonialism Edit

The rapid and extensive spread of the various European powers from the early 15th century onwards had a profound impact upon many of the indigenous cultures with whom they came into contact. The exploratory and colonial ventures in the Americas, Africa, Asia and the Pacific often resulted in territorial and cultural conflict, and the intentional or unintentional displacement and devastation of the indigenous populations.

The Canary Islands had an indigenous population called the Guanches whose origin is still the subject of discussion among historians and linguists.[22]

Contemporary distribution and survey Edit

Indigenous populations are distributed in regions throughout the globe. The numbers, condition and experience of indigenous groups may vary widely within a given region. A comprehensive survey is further complicated by sometimes contentious membership and identification.

Arab Tribal Societies Edit

See also: Arab tribes
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The Arabian peninsula and adjacent areas are home to numerous indigenous Arab tribes. Both the far eastern seaboard of the Mediterranean and the Arabian Peninsula are home to a vast number of Bedouin tribes that lived in the area since pre-historical times. Many Arab tribes have moved into Africa, South Asia and South East Asia in which case they are not considered indigenous. Remnants of old South Arabian indigenous people are found in Oman and Yemen.

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Amongst Arabs, a distinction is often made between Adnani Arabs (Arabic: العرب المستعربة) – (Arabized Arabs) and Qathani Arabs (Arabic: قحطان‎ ). Since Islam forbade discrimination on racial grounds and ruled that the offspring of a slave and a free person was to inherit the family name, be an heir and also be set free, there has been a strong foreign impact on the Arab population. Because of historic intercultural intermingling there are now certain tribes that are almost entirely referred to as black and some tribes on the Mediterranean's far eastern seaboard that look similar to what are referred to as white people. In the Gulf countries, in recent times there has been a large number of Pakistani, Indian, Bangladeshi and Persians immigrants that actually outnumber indigenous communities in many smaller states. Many have acquired citizenship trough naturalization. It is believed that these foreign groups will impose a strong future pressure on indigenous populations who are by comparison, relatively small in number. As a general rule tribes in this geographical vicinity do not practice tribal enrollment based on blood quantum as some Native American tribal governments do. It is a mistake to assume that only Bedouin Arabs are members of indigenous tribes. However, there are indigenous tribes who can trace their heritage to one of the many ancient Arabian tribes and there are indigenous groups who, for some reason or other, have lost their tribal names or affiliation due to sedentary live style or other factors.If the latter are to be considered indigenous in the narrow sense, remains subject of debate.

Africa Edit

Main article: Indigenous peoples of Africa

In the post-colonial period, the concept of specific indigenous peoples within the African continent has gained wider acceptance, although not without controversy. The highly diverse and numerous ethnic groups which comprise most modern, independent African states contain within them various peoples whose situation, cultures and pastoralist or hunter-gatherer lifestyles are generally marginalized and set apart from the dominant political and economic structures of the nation. Since the late 20th century these peoples have increasingly sought recognition of their rights as distinct indigenous peoples, in both national and international contexts.

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Although the vast majority of African peoples can be considered to be indigenous in the sense that they have originated from that continent and middle and south east Asia, in practice identity as an "indigenous people" as per the term's modern application is more restrictive, and certainly not every African ethnic group claims identification under these terms. Groups and communities who do claim this recognition are those who by a variety of historical and environmental circumstances have been placed outside of the dominant state systems, and whose traditional practices and land claims often come into conflict with the objectives and policies promulgated by governments, companies and surrounding dominant societies.

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Given the extensive and complicated history of human migration within Africa, being the "first peoples in a land" is not a necessary precondition for acceptance as an indigenous people. Rather, indigenous identity relates more to a set of characteristics and practices than priority of arrival. For example, several populations of nomadic peoples such as the Tuareg of the Sahara and Sahel regions now inhabit areas in which they arrived comparatively recently; their claim to indigenous status (endorsed by the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights) is based on their marginalization as nomadic peoples in states and territories dominated by sedentary agricultural peoples.

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The Indigenous Peoples of Africa Co-ordinating Committee (IPACC) is one of the main trans-national network organizations recognized as a representative of African indigenous peoples in dialogues with governments and bodies such as the UN. IPACC identifies several key characteristics associated with indigenous claims in Africa:

  • political and economic marginalization rooted in colonialism;
  • de facto discrimination based often on the dominance of agricultural peoples in the State system (e.g. lack of access to education and health care by hunters and herders);
  • the particularities of culture, identity, economy and territoriality that link hunting and herding peoples to their home environments in deserts and forests (e.g. nomadism, diet, knowledge systems);
  • some indigenous peoples, such as the San and Pygmy peoples are physically distinct, which makes them subject to specific forms of discrimination.

With respect to concerns expressed that identifying some groups and not others as indigenous is in itself discriminatory, IPACC states that it:

  • "...recognises that all Africans should enjoy equal rights and respect. All of Africa's diversity is to be valued. Particular communities, due to historical and environmental circumstances, have found themselves outside the state-system and underrepresented in governance...This is not to deny other Africans their status; it is to emphasise that affirmative recognition is necessary for hunter-gatherers and herding peoples to ensure their survival."
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A Berber family crossing a ford – scene in Algeria. Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley.

At an African inter-governmental level, the examination of indigenous rights and concerns is pursued by a sub-commission established under the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights (ACHPR), sponsored by the African Union (AU) (successor body to the Organization of African Unity (OAU)). In late 2003 the 53 signatory states of the ACHPR adopted the Report of the African Commission's Working Group on Indigenous Populations/Communities and its recommendations. This report says in part (p. 62):

  • ...certain marginalized groups are discriminated in particular ways because of their particular culture, mode of production and marginalized position within the state[; a] form of discrimination that other groups within the state do not suffer from. The call of these marginalized groups to protection of their rights is a legitimate call to alleviate this particular form of discrimination.

The adoption of this report at least notionally subscribed the signatories to the concepts and aims of furthering the identity and rights of African Indigenous peoples. The extent to which individual states are mobilizing to put these recommendations into practice varies enormously, however, and most Indigenous groups continue to agitate for improvements in the areas of land rights, use of natural resources, protection of environment and culture, political recognition and freedom from discrimination.

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Peruvian indigenous people, learning to read.[23]

AmericasEdit

Main article: Indigenous peoples of the Americas

Indigenous peoples of the American continents are broadly recognized as being those groups and their descendants who inhabited the region before the arrival of European colonizers and settlers (i.e., Pre-Columbian). Indigenous peoples who maintain, or seek to maintain, traditional ways of life are found from the high Arctic north to the southern extremities of Tierra del Fuego.

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The impact of European colonization of the Americas on the indigenous communities has been in general quite severe, with many authorities estimating ranges of significant population decline due to the ravages of various genocide campaigns, epidemic diseases (smallpox, measles, etc.), displacement, conflict, compulsory boarding schools, massacres and exploitation. The extent of this impact is the subject of much continuing debate. Several peoples shortly thereafter became extinct, or very nearly so.

All nations in North and South America have populations of indigenous peoples within their borders. In some countries (particularly Latin American), indigenous peoples form a sizable component of the overall national population—in Bolivia they account for an estimated 56%–70% of the total nation, and at least half of the population in Guatemala and the Andean and Amazonian nations of Peru. In English, indigenous peoples are collectively referred to by several different terms which vary by region and include such ethnonyms as Native Americans, Amerindians, Indians. In Spanish or Portuguese speaking countries one finds the use of terms such as pueblos indígenas, amerindios, povos nativos, povos indígenas, and in Peru, Comunidades Nativas, particularly among Amazonian societies like the Urarina[24] and Matsés.

In Brazil, the term índio (Template:IPA-pt or ˈĩdʒju) is used by most of the population, the media, the indigenous peoples themselves and even the government (FUNAI is acronym for Fundação Nacional do Índio), although its Hispanic equivalent indio is widely not considered politically correct and falling into desuse. Nevertheless, Portuguese for Amerindian and amerindio, ameríndio (ameˈɾĩdʒi.u or ameˈɾĩdʒju in the standard South American dialects) is gaining some popularity, still, it seems odd for many. The widespread completely politically correct term of which Brazilians are used to is indígena ĩˈdʒiʒenɐ (although its literal translation is "indigenous person or peoples from anywhere", it is colloquially intended as synonym for Amerindian, without need for specifications in reference to the indigenous peoples of what continent; South American Portuguese for Inuit is either esquimó eskiˈmɔ or the much less common inuíte ĩnuˈitʃi, and they are not considered ameríndios or índios but indígenas do Ártico, or even far more colloquially povo do Polo Norte, "the people from the North Pole"). It has more ethnic meanings than racial ones, and a "Westerner" in Brazil can be an acculturated ameríndio/índio but not an indígena, which officially means indigenous in the narrow sense; when somebody in the former acknowledges it, will usually choose the racial group of Pardos (colored and multiracial people i.e. everyone who does not fall into White, East Asian, Indigenous or African Brazilian) and very seldom Asian Brazilians (brasileiros de cor amarela, lit. yellow skin color but actually "yellow race") in censuses, since there is no category that groups Amerindians together by race in IBGE.

Aboriginal peoples in Canada comprise the First Nations,[25] Inuit[26] and Métis.[27] The descriptors "Indian" and "Eskimo" are falling into disuse in Canada.[28][29] There are currently over 600 recognized First Nations governments or bands encompassing 1,172,790 2006 peoples spread across Canada with distinctive Aboriginal cultures, languages, art, and music.[30][31][32] National Aboriginal Day recognises the cultures and contributions of Aboriginals to the history of Canada

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The Inuit have achieved a degree of administrative autonomy with the creation in 1999 of the territories of Nunavik (in Northern Quebec), Nunatsiavut (in Northern Labrador) and Nunavut, which was until 1999 a part of the Northwest Territories. The self-rulingDanish territory of Greenland is also home to a majority population of indigenous Inuit (about 85%).

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In the United States, the combined populations of Native Americans, Inuit and other indigenous designations totalled 2,786,652 (constituting about 1.5% of 2003 US census figures). Some 563 scheduled tribes are recognized at the Federal level, and a number of others recognized at the State level.

In Mexico, approximately 6,011,202 (constituting about 6.7% of 2005 Mexican census figures) identify as Indígenas (Spanish for natives or indigenous peoples). In the southern states of Chiapas, Yucatán and Oaxaca they constitute 26.1%, 33.5% and 35.3%, respectively, of the population. In these states several conflicts and episodes of civil war have been conducted, in which the situation and participation of indigenous societies were notable factors (see for example EZLN).

The Amerindians make up 0.4% of Brazil's population, or about 700,000 people.[33] Indigenous peoples are found in the entire territory of Brazil, although the majority of them live in Indian reservations in the North and Center-Western part of the country. On 18 January 2007, FUNAI reported that it had confirmed the presence of 67 different uncontacted tribes in Brazil, up from 40 in 2005. With this addition Brazil has now overtaken the island of New Guinea as the country having the largest number of uncontacted tribes.[34]

Guatemala is 50 to 80% indigenous, depending on whose statistics are used (Nelson, Finger in the Wound 1999)

Asia Edit

Main article: Indigenous peoples of Asia
See also: Category:Indigenous peoples of Asia
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The vast regions of Asia contain the majority of the world's present-day Indigenous populations, about 70% according to IWGIA figures.

The most substantial populations are in India, which constitutionally recognizes a range of "Scheduled Tribes" within its borders. These various peoples (collectively referred to as Adivasis, or tribal peoples) number about 68 million (1991 census figures, approximately 8% of the total national population).

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Nivkh people are an ethnic group indigenous to Sakhalin, having a few speakers of the Nivkh language, but their fisher culture has been endangered due to the development of oil field of Sakhalin from 1990s.[35]

Ainu people are an ethnic group indigenous to Hokkaidō, the Kuril Islands, and much of Sakhalin. As Japanese settlement expanded, the Ainu were pushed northward, until by the Meiji period they were confined by the government to a small area in Hokkaidō, in a manner similar to the placing of Native Americans on reservations.[36]

The languages of Taiwanese aborigines have significance in historical linguistics, since in all likelihood Taiwan was the place of origin of the entire Austronesian language family, which spread across Oceania.[37][38][39]

There are indigenous peoples of the Philippines, which Spain and the United States colonized.

The Assyrians and Marsh Arabs are indigenous to areas of the geocultural region of Mesopotamia which includes parts of Iraq, Syria, and Turkey. The Lurs also inhabit parts of Iraq close to the Iranian border with the provinces of Lorestan and Ilam.

The Bahrani are the indigenous people of the archipelago of Bahrain and the oasis of Qatif on the Persian Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia (see historical region of Bahrain).

Europe Edit

Main article: Indigenous peoples of Europe
See also: Category:Indigenous peoples of Europe and European ethnic groups
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Since most of Europe in historical times was never colonized by non-European powers with lasting effect (arguably except for Hungary and Romania, Turkish Thrace, Tatarstan, Kalmykia and islands such as Malta or Cyprus[40]), the vast majority of Europeans can be considered indigenous. However several widely accepted formulations, which define the term "Indigenous peoples" in stricter terms, have been put forward by internationally recognized organizations, such as the United Nations, the International Labour Organization and the World Bank. Indigenous peoples in this article is used in such a narrower sense.

In Europe, present-day recognized indigenous populations are relatively few, mainly confined to northern and far-eastern reaches of this Eurasian peninsula. Whilst there are various ethnic minorities distributed within European countries, few of these still maintain traditional subsistence cultures and are recognized as indigenous peoples, per se. Notable indigenous populations include the Sami people of northern Scandinavia, the Nenets and other Samoyedic peoples of the northern Russian Federation, and the Komi peoples of the western Urals.

The Basque people, inhabiting northern Spain and southwestern France, are one of the oldest indigenous groups in Europe. It is widely held that most likely the Basques are the last surviving ethno-linguistic group descended from populations of Neolithic Europe before the intrusion of Indo-European languages and peoples. Another theory about Basque origins suggests that they are a remnant of Paleolithic Europeans inhabiting continuously the Franco-Cantabrian region since at least Magdalenian times. The only archaeological evidence for an invasion of the Basque Country dates to some 40,000 years ago when Cro-Magnon people first arrived in Europe and superseded Homo neanderthalensis.[41]

North Caucasus is unique in its diversity, with a greater variety of languages spoken there than in any region of similar size in the world. Caucasus region is the home of over 50 cultural minorities like the Circassians.[42][43] See also: Peoples of the Caucasus.

Oceania Edit

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Main article: Indigenous peoples of Oceania
See also:

Many of the present-day Pacific Island nations in the Oceania region were originally populated by Polynesian, Melanesian and Micronesian peoples over the course of thousands of years. European colonial expansion in the Pacific brought many of these under non-indigenous administration. During the 20th century several of these former colonies gained independence and nation-states were formed under local control. However, various peoples have put forward claims for Indigenous recognition where their islands are still under external administration; examples include the Chamorros of Guam and the Northern Marianas, and the Marshallese of the Marshall Islands.

The remains of at least 25 miniature humans, who lived between 1,000 and 3,000 years ago, were recently found on the islands of Palau in Micronesia.[44]

In most parts of Oceania, indigenous peoples outnumber the descendants of colonists. Exceptions include Australia, New Zealand and Hawaii. According to the 2001 Australian census, indigenous Australians make up 2.4% of the total population, while in New Zealand 14.6% of the population identify at least partially as indigenous Māori, with slightly more than half (53%) of all Māori residents identifying solely as Māori. The Māori are indigenous to Polynesia and settled New Zealand relatively recently, the migrations were thought to have occurred between 1000–1200 CE. In New Zealand pre-contact Māori tribes were not a single people, thus the more recent grouping into tribal (iwi) arrangements has become a more formal arrangement in more recent times. Many Māori tribal leaders signed a treaty with the British, Treaty of Waitangi, so that the modern geo-political entity that is New Zealand was established by partial consent. However, the Māori language translation of the Treaty of Waitangi which they signed is worded ambiguously and does not fully match the English version. The treaty process gave British citizenship to the 'native' population. However, some of the British settlers ignored the Treaty of Waitangi and through some illegal acts of colonisation and war (though there were legitimate land sales between Maori and the settlers) Maori lost 95% of their land and resources from the 1850s through to the 1970s which resulted in the large scale socio-economic marginalization of the vast majority of Maori. Since the 1970s there has been a cultural renaissance by Maori, and a political drive to assert their Treaty rights to their land, resources and culture through the Waitangi Tribunal [6] process. This has resulted in the legal recognition of the Maori language and culture and has resulted in the return of some land, resources and money so that today Māori businesses have an estimated value of over NZD$14 billion. Māori have also formed an important political party.

The independent state of Papua New Guinea (PNG) has a majority population of indigenous societies, with some 700+ different tribal groups recognized out of a total population of just over 5 million. The PNG Constitution and other Acts identify traditional or custom-based practices and land tenure, and explicitly sets out to promote the viability of these traditional societies within the modern state. However, several conflicts and disputes concerning land use and resource rights continue to be observed between indigenous groups, the government and corporate entities.

Rights, issues and concernsEdit

Template:Indigenous rights Wherever indigenous cultural identity is asserted, some particular set of societal issues and concerns may be voiced which either arise from (at least in part), or have a particular dimension associated with, their indigenous status. These concerns will often be commonly held or affect other societies also, and are not necessarily experienced uniquely by indigenous groups.

Despite the diversity of Indigenous peoples, it may be noted that they share common problems and issues in dealing with the prevailing, or invading, society. They are generally concerned that the cultures of Indigenous peoples are being lost and that indigenous peoples suffer both discrimination and pressure to assimilate into their surrounding societies. This is borne out by the fact that the lands and cultures of nearly all of the peoples listed at the end of this article are under threat. Notable exceptions are the Sakha and Komi peoples (two of the northern indigenous peoples of Russia), who now control their own autonomous republics within the Russian state, and the Canadian Inuit, who form a majority of the territory of Nunavut (created in 1999).

It is also sometimes argued that it is important for the human species as a whole to preserve a wide range of cultural diversity as possible, and that the protection of indigenous cultures is vital to this enterprise.

An example of this occurred in 2002 when the Government of Botswana expelled all the Kalahari Bushmen known as the San from their lands[45] on which they had lived for at least twenty thousand years. President Festus Mogai has described the Bushmen as "stone age creatures"[46] and a minister for local government, Margaret Nasha, likened public criticism of their eviction to criticism of the culling of elephants.[47] In 2006, the Botswanan High Court ruled that the Bushmen had a right to return to their land in the Central Kalahari Game Reserve.[48][49]

Health Issues Edit

In December 1993, the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed the International Decade of the World's Indigenous People, and requested UN specialized agencies to consider with governments and indigenous people how they can contribute to the success of the Decade of Indigenous People, commencing in December 1994. As a consequence, the World Health Organization, at its Forty-seventh World Health Assembly established a core advisory group of indigenous representatives with special knowledge of the health needs and resources of their communities, thus beginning a long-term commitment to the issue of the health of indigenous peoples.[50]

The WHO notes, that "Statistical data on the health status of indigenous peoples is scarce. This is especially notable for indigenous peoples in Africa, Asia and eastern Europe", but snapshots from various countries, where such statistics are available, show that indigenous people are in worse health than the general population, in advanced and developing countries alike: higher incidence of diabetes in some regions of Australia;[51] higher prevalence of poor sanitation and lack of safe water among Twa households in Rwanda;[52] a greater prevalence of childbirths without prenatal care among ethnic minorities in Vietman;[53] suicide rates among Inuit youth in Canada are eleven times higher than the national average;[54] infant mortality rates are higher for indigenous peoples everywhere.[55]

Accredited organizations Edit

Various organizations are devoted to the preservation or study of indigenous peoples. Of these, several have widely recognized credentials to act as an intermediary or representative on behalf of indigenous peoples' groups, in negotiations on indigenous issues with governments and international organizations. These include:

International Day of the World's Indigenous People Edit

Main article: International Day of the World’s Indigenous People

The International Day of the World's Indigenous People falls on August 9 as this was the date of the first meeting in 1982 of the United Nations Working Group of Indigenous Populations of the Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities of the Commission on Human Rights.

The UN General Assembly decided on 23 December 1994, that the International Day of the World's Indigenous People should be observed on August 9 every year during the International Decade of the World's Indigenous People (resolution 49/214). Later on 20 December 2004 the assembly decided to continue observing the International Day of Indigenous People every year during the Second International Decade of the World's Indigenous People (2005–2014) (resolution 59/174).[56]

Knowledge and cultureEdit

Main article: Traditional knowledge

The preservation and investigation of specialized Indigenous knowledge, particularly in relation to the resources of the natural environment with which the society is associated, is a goal of both the Indigenous and the societies who thereby seek to identify new resources and benefits (example: partnerships established to research biological extracts from vegetation in the Amazon rainforests).

For some people (e.g. Indigenous communities from India, Brazil, and Malaysia and some NGOs such as GRAIN and Third World Network), Indigenous peoples have often been victims of biopiracy when they are subjected to unauthorized use of their natural resources,[citation needed] of their traditional knowledge on these biological resources, of unequal share of benefits between them and a patent holder.

ViewpointsEdit

Template:Refimprove section A range of differing viewpoints and attitudes have arisen from the experience and history of contact between Indigenous and "non-indigenous" communities. The cultural, regional and historical contexts in which these viewpoints have developed are complex, and many competing viewpoints exist simultaneously in any given society, albeit promulgated with greater or lesser force depending on the extent of cross-cultural exposure and internal societal change. These views may be noted from both sides of the relationship.

Indigenous viewpoints Edit

Indigenous peoples are increasingly faced with threats to their sovereignty, environment, and access to natural resources. Examples of this can be the deforestation of tropical rainforests where many native tribe's subsistence lifestyles are threatened. Assimilative colonial policies resulted in ongoing issues related to aboriginal child protection.

Non-indigenous viewpoints Edit

File:Mokka and their house.jpg

Indigenous peoples have been denoted primitives, savages, or uncivilized. These terms were common during the heights of European colonial expansion, but still continue in modern times.[57] During the 17th century, indigenous peoples were commonly labeled "uncivilized". Whilst there was a swell in bringing back creative elements of classical antiquity in artistic pursuits, there was also the not so creative side of regurgitating xenophobic ideas from that period. Some philosophers such as Thomas Hobbes considered indigenous people to be merely 'savages', while others are purported to have considered them to be "noble savages". Those who were close to the Hobbesian view tended to believe themselves to have a duty to civilize and modernize indigenes. Although anthropologists, especially from Europe, used to apply these terms to all tribal cultures, it has fallen into disfavor as demeaning and, according to anthropologists, inaccurate (see tribe, cultural evolution). Survival International runs a campaign to stamp out media portrayal of indigenous peoples as 'primitive' or 'savages'.[58] Friends of Peoples Close to Nature considers not only that indigenous culture should be respected as not being inferior, but also sees their way of life as a lesson of sustainability and a part of the struggle within the "corrupted" western world, from which the threat stems.[59]

After World War I, however, many Europeans came to doubt the value of civilization. At the same time, the anti-colonial movement, and advocates of indigenous peoples, argued that words such as "civilized" and "savage" were products and tools of colonialism, and argued that colonialism itself was savagely destructive.

In the mid 20th century, European attitudes began to shift to the view that indigenous and tribal peoples should have the right to decide for themselves what should happen to their ancient cultures and ancestral lands.

Some criticisms of the concept of indigenous peoples are:

  • Peoples have invaded or colonized each other's lands since before recorded history and so the division into indigenous and non-indigenous is a matter of judgment. Even in recent centuries there are difficulties: for example, are the Zulu people indigenous to South Africa?[citation needed]
  • Lumping indigenous peoples into one group ignores the vast amounts of diversity among them and at the same time imposes a uniform identity on them, which may not be historically accurate.[citation needed]

See also Edit

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ReferencesEdit

  1. "Because of the varied and changing contexts in which Indigenous Peoples live and because there is no universally accepted definition of “Indigenous Peoples,” this policy does not define the term. Indigenous Peoples may be referred to in different countries by such terms as "indigenous ethnic minorities," "aboriginals," "hill tribes," "minority nationalities," "scheduled tribes," or "tribal groups."[1]
  2. Sanders, Douglas. 1999. Indigenous peoples: Issues of definition. International Journal of Cultural Property. No. 8 pp. 4 - 13.
  3. http://www.aidp.bc.ca/terminology_of_native_aboriginal_metis.pdf
  4. "Because of the varied and changing contexts in which Indigenous Peoples live and because there is no universally accepted definition of “Indigenous Peoples,” this policy does not define the term. Indigenous Peoples may be referred to in different countries by such terms as "indigenous ethnic minorities," "aboriginals," "hill tribes," "minority nationalities," "scheduled tribes,(India)" or "tribal groups."[2]
  5. Smith, Linda Tuhiwai. Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples. London: Zed Books, 1999. ISBN 978-1-85649-624-7. p. 7
  6. 6.0 6.1 Sanders, Douglas. 1999. Indigenous peoples: Issues of definition. International Journal of Cultural Property. No. 8 pp. 4 – 13.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Operational Policy 4.10 – Indigenous Peoples.
  8. Terminlogy of Native Aboriginal.
  9. "World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Philippines: Overview, 2007", UNHCR | Refworld.
  10. Negritos, Australian Aborigines, and the proto-sundadont dental pattern: The basic populations in East Asia. Wiley InterScience. URL accessed on 2009-10-23. [dead link]
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 United NationsDeclaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (A/RES/61/295). United Nations. UNPFII. URL accessed on 2009-10-23.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 Frequently Asked Questions: Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. (PDF) United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues. URL accessed on 2009-10-23.
  13. WGIP (2001). Indigenous Peoples and the United Nations System. [dead link]
  14. 14.0 14.1 Indigenous issues. International Work Group on Indigenous Affairs. URL accessed on September 5, 2005.
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  16. Bartholomew Dean and Jerome Levi (eds.) At the Risk of Being Heard: Indigenous Rights, Identity and Postcolonial States University of Michigan Press (2003)[3]
  17. No 'indigenous', reiterates Shafique. bdnews24.com (2011-06-18). Retrieved on 2011-10-11.
  18. Ministry of Chittagong Hill Tracts Affairs
  19. INDIGENOUS PEOPLEChakma Raja decries non-recognition. bdnews24.com (2011-05-28). Retrieved on 2011-10-11.
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  34. Brazil sees traces of more isolated Amazon tribes. Reuters.com. Retrieved on 2011-10-11.
  35. includeonly>"Natives in Russia's far east worry about vanishing fish", The Economic Times, February 25, 2009. Retrieved on March 5, 2011.
  36. Recognition at last for Japan's Ainu, BBC NEWS
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  39. Diamond, Jared M. "Taiwan's gift to the world"PDF (107 KB). Nature, Volume 403, February 2000, pp. 709–710
  40. temporary rules over parts of Europe by non-European powers include Avar Khaganate (c.560s–800), Al-Andalus (711–1492), Emirate of Sicily (831–1072), the Mongol/Tatar invasions (1223–1480), and Ottoman control of the Balkans (1389–1878)
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  50. RESOLUTIONS AND DECISIONS. WHA47.27 International Decade of the World's Indigenous People. The Forty-seventh World Health Assembly,. (PDF) World Health Organization. URL accessed on 2011-04-17.
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  58. Survival International website – About Us/FAQ
  59. friends of Peoples close to Nature website – Our Ethos and statement of principles[dead link]

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