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The Impact of Event Scale (IES) – is a well established measure of stress reactions after traumatic events.
- Sundin, E., Horowitz, M. Impact of Event Scale: psychometric properties. British Journal of Psychiatry (2002) 180: 205-209 Full text
- Horowitz, M., Wilner, N., Alvarez, W. Impact of Event Scale: a measure of subjective stress. Psychosom Med. 1979 May; 41(3):209-18