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Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)
|style="background: #F8EABA; text-align: center;" colspan="2"||Ibotenic acid|
|Molar mass||158.11 g/mol|
151-152° (anhydrous); 144-146° (monohydrate)
|style="background: #F8EABA; text-align: center;" colspan="2"|| Except where noted otherwise, data are given for|
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox disclaimer and references
Ibotenic acid is a chemical compound that is naturally occurring in the mushrooms Amanita muscaria and Amanita pantherina, among others. Ibotenic acid is a powerful neurotoxin that is used as a "brain-lesioning agent" and has shown to be highly neurotoxic when "injected directly into the brains of mice and rats."
When ibotenic acid is ingested, a small portion is decarboxylated into muscimol. Ibotenic acid evokes entheogenic effects in human beings at doses in range of 50-100mg. Peak intoxication is reached approximately 2-3 hours after oral ingestion, consisting of one or all of the following; visual distortions/hallucinations, loss of equilibrium, muscle twitching (commonly mislabeled as convulsions), and altered sensory perception. These effects generally last for 6-8 hours, varying with dose.
Role in shamanic ritualsEdit
The ibotenic acid (coupled with other substances such as muscimol found in Amanita muscaria and Amanita pantherina) is a common factor in shamanic rituals, used as a sacrament, of sorts. Muscimol is excreted unchanged in the urine in relatively large amounts, and there are stories of shamans "reusing" urine for intoxication purposes, or the rest of the tribe making use of the shaman's urine.
- ↑ Erowid -- Amanitas
- ↑ Chilton 1975; Theobald et al. 1968
- ↑ Chilton 1975
- ↑ Chilton 1975; Ott 1976a
- ↑ Erowid Psychoactive Amanitas Vault : Pharmacology of Amanita Muscaria
- ↑ Erowid Psychoactive Amanitas Vault : Traditional Uses
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