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IQ and Global Inequality is a controversial 2006 book by Dr. Richard Lynn, Professor Emeritus of Psychology at the University of Ulster, Northern Ireland, and Dr. Tatu Vanhanen, Professor Emeritus of Political Science at the University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.[1] IQ and Global Inequality is follow-up to their 2002 book IQ and the Wealth of Nations[2], an expansion of the argument that international differences in current economic development are due in part to differences in average national intelligence as measured by average national IQ, and a response to critics. Unlike IQ and the Wealth of Nations, the book was not published by an academic publisher but by Washington Summit Publishers.

Lynn and Vanhanen's research on IQ and economic development has attracted academic attention from several fields, some of it very enthusiastic, some dismissive.[3][4][5][6]

Summary Edit

  • Chapter 1 summarizes theories of economic growth.
  • Chapter 2 defines and describes intelligence.
  • Chapter 3 argues that the scientific literature indicates that intelligence is a determinant of incomes and related phenomena among individuals within a number of countries.
  • Chapter 4 describes the collection and determination of national IQ, presenting calculated IQs for 113 countries and estimated IQs for an additional 79 countries. This represents all countries with population greater than 40,000.
  • Chapter 5 introduces a new statistic, the quality of human condition index (QHC) and 12 alternative variables that measure human conditions.
  • Chapter 7 focuses on the relationship between national IQ and QHC, which Lynn and Vanhanen report to be strongly correlated.
  • Chapter 8 examines the relationship between national IQ and 12 alternative variables, which Lynn and Vanhanen report are also correlated with national IQ.
  • Chapter 9 discusses the genetic and environmental contributions to differences in national intelligence, and argues that racial composition of the population is a major factor.
  • Chapter 10 considers the causal relationship between national IQ and important variables related to global inequality.
  • Chapter 11 discusses and responds to criticisms made to Lynn and Vanhanen's theory by reviewers. *Chapter 12 summarizes the book and discusses policy recommendations.

National IQ and economic development Edit

Quality of human conditions index Edit

File:QHC Lynn Vanhanen 2006 IQ and Global Inequality.png

The quality of human conditions (QHC) index was computed from five variables.

  1. purchasing power parity Gross National Income (PPP-GNI) per capita 2002
  2. adult literacy rate 2002
  3. gross tertiary enrollment ratio
  4. life expectancy at birth 2002
  5. the level of democratization 2002 (Tatu Vanhanen's Index of Democratization)

Values of the index range from 10.7 (Burkina Faso) to 89 (Norway). Lynn and Vanhanen write that they would have preferred to include a sixth measure, an indicator of income inequality, but that statistical data for that variable was not available for all countries. They write that the QHC index differs significantly from other widely used indexes (such as the Human Development Index) in that QHC also measures democratization. Some of their claims have been received support in a 2007 study by Rindermann.[7]

All countries Estimate IQ
(79 countries)
Total
(192 countries)
QHC 0.805 0.725 0.791
PPP GNI per capita 2002 0.693 0.342 0.616
Adult literacy rate 2002 0.642 0.655 0.655
Tertiary enrollment ratio 0.746 0.699 0.745
Life expectancy at birth 2002 0.765 0.690 0.750
Index of Democratization 2002 0.569 0.322 0.530
Excluding smallest countries Calculated IQ
(98 countries)
Estimate IQ
(62 countries)
Total
(160 countries)
QHC 0.846 0.800 0.839
PPP GNI per capita 2002 0.739 0.266 0.649
Adult literacy rate 2002 0.710 0.746 0.733
Tertiary enrollment ratio 0.778 0.734 0.780
Life expectancy at birth 2002 0.833 0.753 0.817
Index of Democratization 2002 0.598 0.408 0.584

Other measures of global inequality Edit

The relationship of national IQ to twelve other measures of global inequality were examined.

  1. Human Development Index (HDI)
  2. Gender-related Development Index (GDI)
  3. Economic growth rate (EGR)
  4. Gini index of inequality in income or consumption (Gini)
  5. Population below $2 a day international poverty line (Poverty)
  6. Measures of undernourishment (PUN)
  7. Maternal mortality ratio (MMR) and infant mortality rate (IMR)
  8. Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI)
  9. Economic freedom ratings (EFR)
  10. the Index of Economic Freedom (IEF)
  11. Population pyramids (MU-index)
  12. Human happiness and life-satisfaction.

All twelve measures of global inequality are significantly correlated with the QHC index. According to the book, eleven of the twelve measures are significantly correlated with national IQ. The measures of human happiness and life satisfaction are not significantly correlated with national IQ.

Correlations IQ QHC
HDI 0.776 0.940
GDI 0.849 0.951
EGR 3 0.747 0.840
EGR 4 0.709 0.871
Gini -0.538 -0.464
Poverty -0.653 -0.799
PUN 1 -0.500 -0.648
MMR -0.730 -0.759
IMR -0.771 -0.861
CPI 0.591 0.762
EFR 0.606 0.674
IEF 0.418 0.620
MU-index 0.806 0.902
Happiness 0.029 0.315
Life satisfaction 0.033 0.396

Latitude and temperature Edit

Correlation Latitude Temperature
Degrees latitude 1 -0.885
Annual mean temperature -0.885 1
National IQ 0.677 -0.632
QHC 0.659 -0.562
PPP GNI per capita 2002 0.528 -0.407
Adult literacy rate 2002 0.482 -0.467
Tertiary enrollment ratio 0.718 -0.649
Life expectancy at birth 2002 0.505 -0.379
Index of Democratization 2002 0.512 -0.460

National IQ and QHC values Edit

File:National IQ Lynn Vanhanen 2006 IQ and Global Inequality.png


Lynn and Vanhanen base their analysis on a series of data points that they have gathered and estimated. They obtained IQ data from 113 nations. For another 79 nations, they estimated the mean IQs on the basis of the arithmetic means of the measured IQs of neighboring countries. They justify this method of estimation by pointing out that the correlation between the estimated national IQs they reported in IQ and the Wealth of Nations and the measured national IQs since obtained is very high (0.913). In the chart below, the estimates have been marked with an asterisk (*). The chart also includes the measured and estimated IQs from IQ and the Wealth of Nations.

Lynn and Vanhanen calculated the national IQs in relation to a British mean of 100, with a standard deviation of 15. They corrected all test results for the Flynn effect: adjustments were 2 points per decade for Raven's Progressive Matrices and 3 points per decade for all other types of tests. When two IQ studies were available from one country, their mean was calculated, whereas when three or more were available, the median was calculated.[1]

Country/Region IQ (2002)[2] IQ (2006)[1] PPP-GNI per capita 2002[1] QHC[1]
Template:Country data Hong Kong 107 108 27,490 60.8
Template:Country data Singapore 103 108 23,730 60.7
Template:Country data North Korea 105* 106* 1,000 38
Template:Country data South Korea 106 106 16,960 75.4
Template:Country data Japan 105 105 27,380 71.4
Template:Country data China 100 105 4,520 39.7
Template:Country data Taiwan 104 105 23,400 79.4
Template:Country data Italy 102 102 26,170 78.9
Template:Country data Iceland 98* 101 29,240 80
Template:Country data Mongolia 98* 101* 1,710 48.1
Template:Country data Switzerland 101 101 31,840 82.2
Template:Country flag2 102 100 28,910 80.7
Template:Country data Luxembourg 101* 100* 53,230 76.4
Template:Country data Netherlands 102 100 28,350 82.8
Template:Country data Norway 98 100 36,690 89
Template:Country flag2 100 100 26,580 76.7
Template:Country data Germany 102 99 26,980 78
Template:Country data Belgium 100 99 28,130 84.1
Template:Country data Canada 97 99 28,930 77.8
Template:Country data Estonia 97* 99 11,630 64.5
Template:Country data Finland 97 99 26,160 85.1
Template:Country data New Zealand 100 99 20,550 76.2
Template:Country data Poland 99 99 10,450 62.7
Template:Country data Sweden 101 99 25,820 82.9
Template:Country data Andorra N/A 98* 19,000 58.7
Template:Country data Australia 98 98 27,440 82.8
Template:Country data Czech Republic 97 98 14,920 64.5
Template:Country data Denmark 98 98 30,600 85.4
Template:Country data France 98 98 27,040 78.1
Template:Country data Hungary 99 98 13,070 64.1
Template:Country data Latvia 97* 98* 9,190 65.5
Template:Country data Spain 97 98 21,910 75.8
Template:Country data United States 98 98 36,120 86.6
Template:Country data Belarus 96* 97* 5,500 57.2
Template:Country data Malta 95* 97 17,710 66.4
Template:Country data Russia 96 97 8,080 64.5
Template:Country data Ukraine 96* 97* 4,800 61.8
Template:Country data Moldova 95* 96* 1,600 46.2
Template:Country data Slovakia 96 96 12,590 63.2
Template:Country data Uruguay 96 96 7,710 64
Template:Country data Israel 94 95 19,000 75.3
Template:Country data Portugal 95 95 17,820 67
Template:Country data Armenia 93* 94* 3,230 50.2
Template:Country data Georgia 93* 94* 2,270 51.2
Template:Country data Kazakhstan 93* 94* 5,630 49
Template:Country data Romania 94 94 6,490 53
Template:Country data Vietnam 96* 94 2,300 39.5
Template:Country data Argentina 96 93 10,190 64.7
Template:Country data Bulgaria 93 93 7,030 59.1
Template:Country data Greece 92 92 18,770 76.1
Template:Country data Malaysia 92 92 29,570 78.5
Template:Country data Ireland 93 92 8,500 52.1
Template:Country data Brunei 92* 91* 19,210 50.8
Template:Country data Cambodia 89* 91* 1,970 28.6
Template:Country data Cyprus 92* 91* 18,650 67.6
Template:Country data Lithuania 97* 91 10,190 65.4
Template:Country data Republic of Macedonia 93* 91* 6,420 54.4
Template:Country data Thailand 91 91 6,890 50.3
Template:Country data Albania 90* 90* 4,960 51.2
Template:Country data Bermuda N/A 90 36,000 75.8
Template:Country data Bosnia and Herzegovina N/A 90* 5,800 51.4
Template:Country data Chile 93* 90 9,420 59.5
Template:Country data Croatia 90 90 10,000 61.7
Template:Country data Kyrgyzstan 87* 90* 1,560 48.1
Template:Country data Turkey 90 90 6,300 50.2
Template:Country data Mexico 87 90 12,500 52.9
Template:Country data Cook Islands N/A 89 5,000 45.7
Template:Country data Costa Rica 91* 89* 8,650 53.7
Template:Country data Laos 89* 89 1,660 24.9
Template:Country data Mauritius 81* 89 10,820 52.2
Template:Country data Suriname 89 89 6,590 50.6
Template:Country data Ecuador 80 88 3,340 47.4
Template:Country data Samoa 87 88 5,570 49.7
Template:Country data Azerbaijan 87* 87* 3,010 47.2
Template:Country data Bolivia 85* 87 2,390 49.7
Template:Country data Brazil 87 87 7,450 51.1
Template:Country data East Timor N/A 87* 3,940 46.7
Template:Country data Guyana 84* 87* 3,070 40.2
Template:Country data Indonesia 89 87 1,600 28.1
Template:Country data Iraq 87 87 1,027 30.7
Template:Country data Myanmar 86* 87* 930 42.4
Template:Country data Tajikistan 87* 87* 1,640 27.5
Template:Country data Turkmenistan 87* 87* 4,780 41.7
Template:Country data Uzbekistan 87* 87* 1,640 39.4
Template:Country data Kuwait 83* 86 17,780 49.9
Template:Country data Philippines 86 86 4,450 51.6
Template:Country data Seychelles 81* 86* 18,232 60.6
Template:Country data Tonga 87 86 6,820 40.5
Template:Country data Cuba 85 85 5,259 46.2
Template:Country data Fiji 84 85 5,330 51.9
Template:Country data Kiribati 84* 85* 800 37.1
Template:Country data New Caledonia N/A 85 21,960 54.9
Template:Country data Peru 90 85 4,880 49.2
Template:Country data Trinidad and Tobago 80* 85* 9,000 52
Template:Country data Yemen 83* 85 800 24.5
Template:Country data Afghanistan 83* 84* 700 13.2
Template:Country data Belize 83* 84* 15,960 56.1
Template:Country data Colombia 88 84 5,490 44.2
Template:Country data Federated States of Micronesia 84* 84* 6,150 48.4
Template:Country data Iran 84 84 6,690 40.2
Template:Country data Jordan 87* 84 4,180 43.4
Template:Country data Marshall Islands 84 84 1,600 44.2
Template:Country data Morocco 85 84 2,000 39.9
Template:Country data Pakistan 81* 84 3,730 31.7
Template:Country data Panama 84* 84* 1,960 26.2
Template:Country data Paraguay 85* 84 6,060 56.6
Template:Country data Puerto Rico 84 84 4,590 45.2
Template:Country data Saudi Arabia 83* 84* 15,800 63.6
Template:Country data Solomon Islands 84* 84* 12,660 44.1
Template:Country data The Bahamas 78* 84* 1,590 41.5
Template:Country data United Arab Emirates 83* 84* 24,030 48.8
Template:Country data Vanuatu 84* 84* 2,850 31.4
Template:Country data Venezuela 88* 84 5,220 47.4
Template:Country data Algeria 84* 83* 5,530 39.9
Template:Country data Bahrain 83* 83* 16,190 49.3
Template:Country data Libya 84* 83* 7,570 49.3
Template:Country data Oman 83* 83* 13,000 40.6
Template:Country data Papua New Guinea 84* 83 2,180 38.4
Template:Country data Syria 87* 83 5,348 38.9
Template:Country data Tunisia 84* 83* 6,440 40.6
Template:Country data Bangladesh 81* 82* 1,720 29.8
Template:Country data Dominican Republic 84* 82 6,270 46.8
Template:Country data India 81 82 2,650 36.3
Template:Country data Lebanon 86 82 4,600 55.8
Template:Country data Madagascar 79* 82 730 28.6
Template:Country data Egypt 83 81 3,810 37.3
Template:Country data Honduras 84* 81 2,540 41.9
Template:Country data Maldives 81* 81* 4,798 38.5
Template:Country data Nicaragua 84* 81* 2,350 41.3
Template:Country data Northern Mariana Islands N/A 81 12,500 51.3
Template:Country data Barbados 78 80 14,660 60.9
Template:Country data Bhutan 78* 80* 1,969 24.1
Template:Country data El Salvador 84* 80* 4,790 42.6
Template:Country data Guatemala 79 79 4,040 34.6
Template:Country data Sri Lanka 81* 79 3,510 47.7
Template:Country data Nepal 78 78 1,370 26.9
Template:Country data Qatar 78 78 19,844 45.6
Template:Country data Comoros 79* 77* 1,640 24.6
Template:Country data Cape Verde 78* 76* 4,920 40.5
Template:Country data Mauritania 73* 76* 1,790 20.5
Template:Country data Uganda 73 73 1,360 25.4
Template:Country data Kenya 72 72 1,010 27.3
Template:Country data South Africa 72 72 9,810 38.3
Template:Country data Tanzania 72 72 580 23.2
Template:Country data Ghana 71 71 2,080 33.7
Template:Country data Grenada 75* 71* 6,600 45.3
Template:Country data Jamaica 72 71 3,680 46.5
Template:Country data Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 75* 71 5,190 48.4
Template:Country data Sudan 72 71 1,740 24.6
Template:Country data Zambia 77 71 800 21.8
Template:Country data Antigua and Barbuda 75* 70* 10,390 53.2
Template:Country data Benin 69* 70* 1,060 20.5
Template:Country data Botswana 72* 70* 7,740 29.4
Template:Country data Namibia 72* 70* 6,880 31.1
Template:Country data Rwanda 70* 70* 1,260 18.5
Template:Country data Togo 69* 70* 1,450 26
Template:Country data Burundi 70* 69* 630 15.2
Template:Country data Côte d'Ivoire 71* 69* 1,450 18.1
Template:Country data Malawi 71* 69* 570 24.3
Template:Country data Mali 68* 69* 840 13.4
Template:Country data Niger 67* 69* 800 13.5
Template:Country data Nigeria 67 69 800 27.3
Template:Country data Angola 69* 68* 1,840 13.7
Template:Country data Burkina Faso 66* 68* 1,090 10.7
Template:Country data Chad 72* 68* 1,010 20.4
Template:Country data Djibouti 68* 68* 2,040 22
Template:Country data Eritrea 68* 68* 1,040 21.4
Template:Country data Somalia 68* 68* 500 15.2
Template:Country data Swaziland 72* 68* 4,730 22.2
Template:Country data Dominica 75* 67 4,960 48.8
Template:Country data Guinea 63 67 2,060 22.5
Template:Country data Guinea-Bissau 63* 67* 680 20.3
Template:Country data Haiti 72* 67* 1,610 20.4
Template:Country data Lesotho 72* 67* 2,970 24.3
Template:Country data Liberia 64* 67* 1,000 21.2
Template:Country data Saint Kitts and Nevis 75* 67* 10,750 45.5
Template:Country data São Tomé and Príncipe 59* 67* 1,317 37.9
Template:Country data Senegal 64* 66* 1,660 20.7
Template:Country data The Gambia 64* 66* 1,540 21.3
Template:Country data Zimbabwe 66 66 2,180 25.2
Template:Country data Republic of the Congo 73 65 630 17.9
Template:Country data Cameroon 70* 64 1,910 23.1
Template:Country data Central African Republic 68* 64 1,170 19.1
Template:Country data Democratic Republic of the Congo 65 64 700 26.9
Template:Country data Ethiopia 63 64 780 16.7
Template:Country data Gabon 66* 64* 5,530 32.2
Template:Country data Mozambique 72* 64 990 18
Template:Country data Sierra Leone 64 64 500 13.8
Template:Country data Saint Lucia 75* 62 4,950 51.1
Template:Country data Equatorial Guinea 59 59 9,100 30.4
"*" Denotes estimated National IQ

PPP-GNI = purchasing power parity gross national income. QHC = is a composite index called quality of human conditions.

See alsoEdit

Book's Publisher

Theories of Race and Intelligence:

Publications of Race and Intelligence:

Theories of other Intelligence links:

External linksEdit

References Edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Richard Lynn and Tatu Vanhanen (2006). IQ and Global Inequality. Washington Summit Publishers: Augusta, GA. ISBN 1593680252
  2. 2.0 2.1 Lynn, R. and Vanhanen, T. (2002). IQ and the wealth of nations. Westport, CT: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-97510-X
  3. Relevance of education and intelligence at the national level for politics: Democracy, rule of law and political liberty. (PDF) Paper by Heiner Rindermann.
  4. Intelligence, Human Capital, and Economic Growth: A Bayesian Averaging of Classical Estimates (BACE) Approach. Paper by Garett Jones and W. Joel Schneider.
  5. Älykkyyden tabu murtuu? Review by J.P. Roos in Sosiologia 3/2007.
  6. Review by J.Philippe Rushton in Personality and Individual Differences, 2006, 41, 983-5.
  7. Rindermann, Heiner: The g-factor of international cognitive ability comparisons: the homogeneity of results in PISA, TIMSS, PIRLS and IQ-tests across nations. European Journal of Personality 21 (2007) 667-706 [1]

Template:Population country lists Template:Finance country lists Template:GDP country lists


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