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Individual differences |
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Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)
Hypocapnia or hypocapnea also known as hypocarbia, sometimes incorrectly called acapnia, is a state of reduced carbon dioxide in the blood. Hypocapnia usually results from deep or rapid breathing, known as hyperventilation.
Hypocapnia is the opposite of hypercapnia.
Even when severe, hypocapnia is normally well tolerated. However, hypocapnia causes cerebral vasoconstriction, leading to cerebral hypoxia and this can cause transient dizziness, visual disturbances, and anxiety. A low partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood also causes alkalosis (because CO2 is acidic in solution), leading to lowered plasma calcium ions and nerve and muscle excitability. This explains the other common symptoms of hyperventilation —pins and needles, muscle cramps and tetany in the extremities, especially hands and feet.
Because the brain stem regulates breathing by monitoring the level of blood CO2, hypocapnia can suppress breathing to the point of blackout from cerebral hypoxia.
Self-induced hypocapnia through hyperventilation is the basis for the deadly schoolyard fainting game. Deliberate hyperventilation has been unwisely used by underwater breath-hold divers to extend dive time but at the risk of shallow water blackout, which is a significant cause of drowning.
- Hypercapnia, increased level of carbon dioxide
- Hyperventilation syndrome, which is often associated with hypocapnia
- Shallow water blackout, where hyperventilation and the subsequent hypocapnia is a cause
- Buteyko, therapy treating asthma and other disorders by reducing hypocapnia
- ↑ Laffey JG, Kavanagh BP (2002). Hypocapnia. N. Engl. J. Med. 347 (1): 43–53.
Symptoms and signs: respiratory system (R04–R07, 786)
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