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Hypersomnia is excessive amount of sleepiness.

According to the U. S. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke:

"Hypersomnia is characterized by recurring episodes of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) or prolonged nighttime sleep. Different from feeling tired due to lack of or interrupted sleep at night, persons with hypersomnia are compelled to nap repeatedly during the day, often at inappropriate times such as at work, during a meal, or in conversation. These daytime naps usually provide no relief from symptoms. Patients often have difficulty waking from a long sleep, and may feel disoriented. Other symptoms may include anxiety, increased irritation, decreased energy, restlessness, slow thinking, slow speech, loss of appetite, hallucinations, and memory difficulty. Some patients lose the ability to function in family, social, occupational, or other settings. Hypersomnia may be caused by another sleep disorder (such as narcolepsy or sleep apnea), dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, or drug or alcohol abuse. In some cases it results from a physical problem, such as a tumor, head trauma, or injury to the central nervous system. Certain medications, or medicine withdrawal, may also cause hypersomnia. Medical conditions including multiple sclerosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, depression, encephalitis, epilepsy, or obesity may contribute to the disorder. Some people appear to have a genetic predisposition to hypersomnia; in others, there is no known cause. Hypersomnia typically affects adolescents and young adults, although the most common causes of the condition for the two age cohorts differ."[1]

Diagnosis

An adult is considered to have hypersomnia if he or she sleeps more than 10 hours per day on a regular basis for at least two weeks, or if he or she is compelled to nap repeatedly during the day.

Causes

Hypersomnia can be caused by genetics (heredity), brain damage, and disorders such as clinical depression, uremia and fibromyalgia. Hypersomnia can also be a symptom of other sleep disorders such as narcolepsy, sleep apnea, and restless leg syndrome.

People who are overweight may be more likely to suffer from hypersomnia. This can often exacerbate weight problems as excessive sleeping decreases metabolic energy consumption, making weight loss more difficult. However, it is also the case that sleep disorders of this nature provoke or initiate weight gain due to a tendency to attempt to manage low energy levels by eating non-complex carbohydrates.

Another possible cause is an infection of mononucleosis, as several instances of hypersomnia have been found to arise immediately after such an infection (Dr. Givan, MD, Riley Hospital).

In some instances, the cause of the hypersomnia cannot be determined; in these cases, it is considered to be idiopathic hypersomnia.

Hypersomnia may also occur as a side effect of taking certain medications (i.e some psychotropics for depression, anxiety, or bipolar disorder).

Treatment

From the website of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke:

"Treatment is symptomatic in nature. Stimulants, such as amphetamine, methylphenidate, and modafinil, may be prescribed. Other drugs used to treat hypersomnia include clonidine, levodopa, bromocriptine, antidepressants, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Changes in behavior (for example avoiding night work and social activities that delay bed time) and diet may offer some relief. Patients should avoid alcohol and caffeine."[1]

See also

External links


  1. REDIRECT Template:CNS diseases of the nervous system


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