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Hungary - Demographic data

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File:Population of Hungary.png
Population change of Hungary (present-day territory, 1870-2008)

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Hungary, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populous, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

HistoricalEdit

900-1910Edit

Time Population Percentage rate of Hungarians Notes
c. 900 AD 450,000–700,000 55-71%[1][2] According to various sources between 25,000[3] and 500,000[2] Hungarian people settled in the Pannonian plain and Transylvania, inhabited by about 200,000 Slavs.[4]
1222 2,000,000 70-80%[2] The time of the Golden Bull.
1242 1,200,000[2] ? After the Mongol-Tatar's invasion.
1370 2,500,000 60-70%[2] At the time of the Angevin kings.
1490 4,000,000 80%[2] Before the Ottoman conquest (3.2 million Magyars)
1699 3,300,000 50-55%[2] At the time of Treaty of Karlowitz. (less than 2 million Magyars)
1711 3,000,000 53%[2] At the end of Kuruc War. (1.6 million Magyars)
1790 8,000,000 37.7%
1828 11,495,536 40-45%
1846 12,033,399 40-45%
1880 13,749,603 46%
1900 16,838,255 51.4%
1910 18,264,533 54.5% 5% Jews

Note: The data refer to the territory of the Kingdom of Hungary, not of present-day Hungary.

1920 – todayEdit

Nationality 1920 1930 1941[5] 1949 1960 1970 1980
Hungarians 7 155 973
89.6 %
8 000 335
92.1 %
11 881 455
80.9 %
9 076 041
98.6 %
9 786 038
98.2 %
10 166 237
98.5 %
10 638 974
99.3 %
Germans 550 062
6.9 %
477 153
5.5, %
533 045
3.6 %
22 455
0.2 %
50 765
0.5 %
35 594
0.4 %
11 310
0.1 %
Slovaks 141 877
1.8 %
104 786
1.2 %
175 550
1.2 %
25 988
0.3 %
30 630
0.3 %
21 176
0.2 %
9 101
0.1 %
Romanians 23 695
0.3 %
16 221
0.2 %
1 051 026
7.2 %
14 713
0.2 %
15 787
0.2 %
12 624
0.1 %
8 874
0.1 %
Ruthenians - - 547 770
3.7 %
- - - -
Croats 58 931
0.7 %
47 337
0.5 %
12 346
0.1 %
20 423
0.2 %
33 014
0.3 %
17 609
0.2 %
13 895
0.1 %
Serbs 17 132
0.2 %
7 031
0.1 %
213 585
1.5 %
5 158
0.1 %
4 583
0.1 %
12 235
0.1 %
2 805
0.0%
Slovenes 6 087
0.1 %
5 464
0.1 %
94 000
0.1 %
4 473
0.1 %
- 4 205
0.0 %
1 731
0.0 %
Roma 6 989
0.1 %
7 841
0.1 %
76 209
0.5 %
21 387
0.2 %
25 633
0.3 %
34 957
0.3 %
6 404
0.1 %
Others 26 123
0.3 %
18 946
0.2 %
29 210
0.2 %
14 161
0.1 %
14 534
0.1 %
17 462
0.2 %
16 369
0.2 %
Jewish[6] - - 139 041
0.9 %
- - - -
Total 7 986 875 8 685 109 14 679 573 9 204 799 9 961 044 10 322 099 10 709 463

PresentEdit

File:COB data Hungary.PNG
400px
File:Hungary, minorities, all, as of 2001.png
Graph comparing the share of Hungarians and other minorities
File:Hungary, minorities, in the remainder, as of 2001.png
94.4% of the country's inhabitants are Hungarians. The graph shows the share of specific national and ethnic minorities of Hungary in the remainder 5.6%

Census 2001 recognised along with Hungarians 16 ethnic groups. Ethnic structure according to 2001 census: [9]

According to census data, the largest religion in Hungary is Catholicism (54.5% - Roman Catholicism 51.9%; Greek Catholicism 2.6% [10]). There is a significant Calvinist minority (16% of the population) and smaller Lutheran (3%), and Jewish (0.1%) minorities. However, these census figures are representative of religious affiliation rather than practice; fewer than 12% of Hungarians attend religious services at least once a week and fewer than 50% at least once a year, while 30% of Hungarians do not believe in God. [11]

For historical reasons, significant Hungarian minority populations can be found in the surrounding countries, notably in Ukraine (in Transcarpathia), Slovakia, Romania (in Transylvania), and Serbia (in Vojvodina). Austria (in Burgenland), Croatia, and Slovenia (Prekmurje) are also host to a number of ethnic Magyars.

The Roma minorityEdit

The real number of Roma in Hungary is a disputed question. In the 2001 census only 190,000 people called themselves Roma, but experts and Roma organisations estimate that there are between 450,000 and 600,000 Roma living in Hungary [12]. During World War II, 50,000 Roma were killed in Hungary.[13] Since then, the size of the Roma population has increased rapidly. Today every fifth or sixth newborn Hungarian child belongs to the Roma minority[7]. Based on current demographic trends, a 2006 estimate by Central European Management Intelligence claims that the proportion of the roma population will double by 2050.[8]

File:Hungarians in subregions.png
Hungarians in subregions

There are problems related to the Roma minority in Hungary, and the very subject is a heated and disputed topic.

Objective problems:

  • Education/bad chances for work: slightly more than 80% of Roma children complete primary education, but only one third continue studies into the intermediate (secondary) level. This is far lower than the more than 90% proportion of children of non-Roma families who continue studies at an intermediate level. Less than 1% of Roma hold higher educational certificates.[9]
  • Poverty: most of the Roma people live in significantly worse conditions than others.[10]
  • Bad health conditions: life expectancy is about 10 years less compared to non-Romas
  • Lack of debate regarding the subject: academic researchers and members of the mainstream press disregard any critics and study the subject in the canonical viewpoint. Critics don't have the funds necessary to perform alternative studies.

Please note that this list below consists disputed issues.

  • Natural repugnance: there are differences is the social behavior of the host nation and the Roma people leading to a disinclination towards each other. This is slowly decaying on the Hungarian side (36-38%[11]); as of 2007, there is no research made regarding the Roma side.
  • Integration problems on the host side: there's a significant prejudice towards Roma people in Hungary affecting the motivation for integration. Exact numbers are unknown as the research material available mixes prejudice with "post-judice".
  • Integration problems on the Roma side: some Roma people have apparent trouble adjusting to the European standards of social behavior regarding loud-mouthing, littering and being non-violent, law-abiding and working citizens. As of 2007, there is no research available on this issue.
  • Problems with motivation for work: as of 2007, what can be earned with work can be obtained having many children[12], which does not move Roma people towards work as they usually have more children anyway.
  • Crime: "gipsy crime" ("cigánybűnözés" in Hungarian) is a phenomenon well disputed and often misunderstood. Although originally it refers to some crimes (eg. stealing of items made of copper, lynch, some robbery types, scuffle between families) often committed by Roma offenders, critics say it stigmatizes all Roma people. As a result (as of 2007), Hungarian authorities don't collect any data that could be used to study the issue, therefore no research is available regarding this topic. It's believed that there is a pattern in the crimes committed by Roma criminals and that the ratio of Roma inmates are much higher compared to non-Romas, a phenomenon common in other countries too[13].
  • School segregation: likely due to repugnance, non-Roma people tend to choose schools with less problematic Roma children. It's also believed that there were cases where healthy Roma children were assigned to classes for pupils with learning disabilities (although this might have been a financial issue).

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics Edit

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook.

Population: 10,198,315 (2001)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 17% (male 878,661; female 834,607)
15-64 years: 68% (male 3,407,368; female 3,535,818)
65 years and over: 15% (male 548,672; female 933,718) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.25% (2006 est.)[14]

Birth rate: 9.90 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)[14]

Death rate: 13.11 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.83 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.59 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2001)

Infant mortality rate: 9.15 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.66 years[14]
male: 68.45 years
female: 77.14 years (2006 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.32 children born/woman (2005 est.)[14]

Ethnic groups: Hungarian 94.4%, Roma 2.02%, German 1.18%, Slovak 0.38%, Croats 0.25%, Romanian 0.14%, Ukrainian 0.07%, Serbs 0.07%, Greeks 0.07%, Poles 0.05%, Slovenes 0.05%. [14]

Religion: According to census data, the largest religion in Hungary is Catholicism (54.5% - Roman Catholicism 51.9%; Greek Catholicism 2.6% [15]). There is a significant Calvinist minority (16% of the population) and smaller Lutheran (3%), and Jewish (0.1%) minorities. However, these census figures are representative of religious affiliation rather than practice; fewer than 12% of Hungarians attend religious services at least once a week and fewer than 50% at least once a year, while 30% of Hungarians do not believe in God. [16]

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.4%
male: 99.5%
female: 99.3% (2003 est.)

See also : Hungary

NotesEdit

  1. These numbers are disputed. Those who support that the Hungarians were semi-nomadic peoples, believe their number was between 100,000-500,000. Others, who believe that they were nomadic, suggest a considerably lower value, as low as 25,000. Also note that before the conquest, Byzantine sources mention Hungarians were able to send off 20,000 soldiers [How to reference and link to summary or text]. This, of course, does not include women, children, convalescents, and elderlies. Thus, with an estimation of that 20,000 is one fifth of the total population, one may get a number of 100,000 Magyars for the year AD 800. After the coquest of the territory (896), and the formation of the Principality of Hungary, according to certain sources, 55-71% Magyars lived in the territory. According to other sources (such as Lazar Stipić, Istina o Mađarima, Novi Sad - Serbia, 2004), the number of Magyars in the area was negligible compared with the number of Slavs until the 13th century. Anyhow, the latter theory does not give an accurate answer on the question how Magyars were not assimilated by Slavs.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 Historical World Atlas. With the commendation of the Royal Geographical Society. Carthographia, Budapest, Hungary, 2005. ISBN 963-352-002-9CM
  3. 'Milan Tutorov: Banatska Rapsodija, istorika Zrenjanina i Banata. Novi Sad, 2001.
  4. Country Studies, Hungary
  5. The 1941 data refer to the Greater Hungary of the Miklós Horthy era: the Vienna Awards granted several territories to Hungary, all of which had been part of the Kingdom of Hungary until 1920.
  6. Except in the year 1941, Jewish people were not recognized as a minority, but only as a religion – assuredly, many Jews considered themselves as belonging to one of the recognized minorities.
  7. [1] "Ma minden ötödik-hatodik születendő gyermek cigány."
  8. [2] "A CEMI kalkulációja szerint a romák száma a mai 700 ezerről 2050-re 1,2 millióra nőhet. Ezen idő alatt a nem roma népesség száma 9,5 millióról 7,6 millióra csökken. Így a romák mai mintegy 7 százalékos aránya megduplázódhat és elérheti a 14-15 százalékot."
  9. [3] "Az érettségit megszerzők aránya azonban 0,5%-ról csupán 1,5%-ra nőtt, felsőfokú végzettséget pedig elenyésző számban szereztek.", "A felsőoktatásban tanulók aránya az 1993-as kutatás adatai szerint mindössze 0,22 ezrelék."
  10. Index - Romák a szegénység csapdájában
  11. [4] 'Az 1993-1995 közötti három évet jellemző 40-42 százalékos szintről a 2001-2003 közötti három éves időszakban 36-38 százalékra csökkent azok aránya, kik magikra nézve igaznak tartották azt a kijelentést, hogy "idegenkedem a cigányoktól"' (sic).
  12. Minimal monthly wage: 65,500 HUF [5] ("2007.01.01-jétől 65.500,-Ft"), monthly family allowance for a family of 5: 74,500 HUF [6] ("3 és több gyermekes család 14.900/hó/gyermek").
  13. [7], [8] (Finnish only)
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 Population decline is abating. Some interesting figures in 2000: population growth rate was -0.33%; there were 9.62 births/1,000 population (death rate: 13.34 deaths/1000 population); fertility rate - 1.25 children born/woman. Life expectancy increased by approximately 1.3 years under the same time.


Template:Demographics of Europe


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