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Spaceflight is undertaken by astronauts in spacecraft and poses a number of psychological challenges which have been investigated by psychologists.

Psychological effects of spaceflightEdit

File:Moonmir sts91 big.jpg

The psychological effects of living in space have not been clearly analyzed but analogies on Earth do exist, such as Arctic research stations and submarines. The enormous stress on the crew, coupled with the body adapting to other environmental changes, can result in anxiety, insomnia and depression. According to current data[citation needed], however, astronauts and cosmonauts seem extremely resilient to psychological stresses. Interpersonal issues can have an enormous influence on a human's well-being and yet little research has been undertaken to examine the relevant crew-selection procedures. The Mars Arctic Research Station and Mars Desert Research Station have examined the influence of different crew selection procedures for living in a completely isolated environment and may provide important data for planning future spaceflights.[citation needed]

There has been considerable evidence that psychosocial stressors are among the most important impediments to optimal crew morale and performance.[1] Cosmonaut Valery Ryumin, twice Hero of the Soviet Union, wrote in his journal during a particularly difficult period on board the Salyut 6 space station: “All the conditions necessary for murder are met if you shut two men in a cabin measuring 18 feet by 20 and leave them together for two months.”

NASA's interest in psychological stress caused by space travel, initially studied when their manned missions began, was rekindled when astronauts joined cosmonauts on the Russian space station Mir. Common sources of stress in early American missions included maintaining high performance while under public scrutiny, as well as isolation from peers and family. On the ISS, the latter is still often a cause of stress, such as when NASA Astronaut Daniel Tani's mother died in a car accident, and when Michael Fincke was forced to miss the birth of his second child.

The amount and quality of sleep experienced in space is poor due to highly variable light and dark cycles on flight decks and poor illumination during daytime hours in the space craft. Even the habit of looking out of the window before retiring can send the wrong messages to the brain, resulting in poor sleep patterns. These disturbances in circadian rhythm have profound effects on the neurobehavioural responses of crew and aggravate the psychological stresses they already experience (see Fatigue and sleep loss during spaceflight for more information). Sleep is disturbed on the ISS regularly due to mission demands, such as the scheduling of incoming or departing space vehicles. Sound levels in the station are unavoidably high because the atmosphere is unable to thermosyphon; fans are required at all times to allow processing of the atmosphere, which would stagnate in the freefall (zero-g) environment. Fifty percent of space shuttle astronauts take sleeping pills and still get two hours or less of sleep. NASA is researching two areas which may provide the keys to a better night’s sleep, as improved sleep decreases fatigue and increases daytime productivity. A variety of methods for combating this phenomenon are constantly under discussion.

A study of the longest spaceflight concluded that the first three weeks represent a critical period where attention is adversely affected because of the demand to adjust to the extreme change of environment.[2] While Skylab's three crews remained in space 1, 2, and 3 months respectively, long-term crews on Salyut 6, Salyut 7, and the ISS remain about 5–6 months, while MIR expeditions often lasted longer. The ISS working environment includes further stress caused by living and working in cramped conditions with people from very different cultures who speak different languages. First generation space stations had crews who spoke a single language, while 2nd and 3rd generation stations have a crew from many cultures who speak many languages. The ISS is unique because visitors are not classed automatically into 'host' or 'guest' categories as with previous stations and spacecraft, and may not suffer from feelings of isolation in the same way. Crew members with a military pilot background and those with an academic science background or teachers and politicians may have problems understanding each other’s jargon and worldview.

During long missions, astronauts are isolated and confined into small spaces. Depression, cabin fever and other psychological problems may impact the crew's safety and mission success.[citation needed] Astronauts may not be able to quickly return to Earth or receive medical supplies, equipment or personnel if a medical emergency occurs. The astronauts may have to rely for long periods on their limited existing resources and medical advice from the ground.



Cognitive effect of spaceflightEdit

Effects of microgravityEdit

Group dynamics and leadership in spaceflightEdit

SpacesicknessEdit

Animals in spaceEdit

Before humans went into space, several animals were launched into space, including numerous non-human primates, so that scientists could investigate the biological effects of space travel. The United States launched flights containing primate cargo primarily between 1948-1961 with one flight in 1969 and one in 1985. France launched two monkey-carrying flights in 1967. The Soviet Union and Russia launched monkeys between 1983 and 1996. Most primates were anesthetized before lift-off. Overall thirty-two monkeys flew in the space program; none flew more than once. Numerous back-up monkeys also went through the programs but never flew. Monkeys and apes from several species were used, including rhesus monkeys, cynomolgus monkeys, squirrel monkeys, pig-tailed macaques, and chimpanzees.


See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Flying with Strangers: Postmission Reflections of Multinational Space Crews.
  2. Dietrich Manzey, Bernd Lorenz & Valeri Poljakov (1998). Mental performance in extreme environments: results from a performance monitoring study during a 438-day spaceflight. Ergonomics 41 (4): 537–559.


Further readingEdit

BooksEdit

  • Bechtel, R. B. (2002). On to Mars! Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
  • Berenson, P. J., & Robertson, W. G. (1973). Temperature. Oxford, England: Nasa Scientific & Technical Informa.
  • Berry, C. A. (1973). Weightlessness. Oxford, England: Nasa Scientific & Technical Informa.
  • Billings, C. E. (1973). Atmosphere. Oxford, England: Nasa Scientific & Technical Informa.
  • Czerwinski, B. S. (1991). Feminine hygiene considerations for the space environment. Washington, DC: Hemisphere Publishing Corp.
  • Fischhoff, B. (1987). Decision making--aided and unaided. Washington, DC: National Research Council.
  • Graybiel, A. (1973). The vestibular system. Oxford, England: Nasa Scientific & Technical Informa.
  • Grusky, O. (1987). Discussion: Conflict and stress in the space station. Washington, DC: National Research Council.
  • Harrison, A. A. (2001). Spacefaring: The human dimension. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
  • Hayes, P. J. (1987). Change in human-computer interfaces on the space station: Why it needs to happen and how to plan for it. Washington, DC: National Research Council.
  • Hodge, D. C., & Garinther, G. R. (1973). Noise and blast. Oxford, England: Nasa Scientific & Technical Informa.
  • Hunt, S. R. (1987). Human engineering for space. Oxford, England: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Khrunov, E. V., Khatshaturjanz, L. S., Popov, V. A., & Ivanov, V. P. (1974). Human operator in cosmic flight: (1974) Human operator in cosmic flight Oxford, England: Mashinostroehie.
  • MacEwen, J. D. (1973). Toxicology. Oxford, England: Nasa Scientific & Technical Informa.
  • Michener, H. A. (1987). Control, conflict, and crisis management in the Space Station's social system (year 2000). Washington, DC: National Research Council.
  • Nickerson, R. S. (1987). Productivity in the space station. Washington, DC: National Research Council.
  • Parker, J. F., & Every, M. G. (1972). Habitability issues in long-duration undersea and space missions. Oxford, England: Biotechnology.
  • Parker, J. F., & West, V. R. (1973). Bioastronautics data book. (2nd ed.). Oxford, England: Nasa Scientific & Technical Informa.
  • Polson, P. G. (1987). Cognitive factors in the design and development of software in the Space Station. Washington, DC: National Research Council.
  • Stuster, J. (1996). Bold endeavors: Lessons from polar and space exploration. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press.
  • Taylor, J. H. (1973). Vision. Oxford, England: Nasa Scientific & Technical Informa.
  • Young, L. R. (1973). Human control capabilities. Oxford, England: Nasa Scientific & Technical Informa.

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