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Numerous theoretical accounts of memory have differentiated memory for facts and memory for context. Psychologist Endel Tulving (1972; 1983) further defined these two declarative memory conceptions of explicit memory (in which information is consciously registered and recalled) into semantic memory wherein general world knowledge not tied to specific events is stored and episodic memory involving the storage of context-specific information about personal experiences (i.e. time, location, and surroundings of personal knowledge). Conversely, implicit memory (non declarative) involves perhaps unconscious registration (lack of awareness during encoding), yet definite unconscious recollection. Skills and habits, priming, and classical conditioning all utilize implicit memory.

An essential aspect of episodic memory includes date and time encoding in the subject's past. For such processing, the details surrounding the memory (where, when, and with whom the experience took place) must be preserved and are necessary for an episodic memory to form, otherwise the memory would be semantic. For instance, one may possess an episodic memory of John F. Kennedy's assassination, including the fact that he was watching Walter Cronkite announce that Kennedy had been murdered. However, if the contextual details of this event were lost, remaining would be a semantic memory that John F. Kennedy was assassinated. The ability to recall episodic information concerning a memory has been termed source monitoring, and is subject to distortion that may lead to source amnesia.

References Edit

  1. Johnson, Hashtroudi, & Lindsay (1993) Source monitoring.
  2. Lakhan, Shaheen Emmanuel (2003) Neuropsychological Generation of Source Amnesia: A Review of an Episodic Memory Disorder of the Frontal Brain. Cogprints - University of Southampton. 3103.

Memory
Types of memory
Articulatory suppression‎ | Auditory memory | Autobiographical memory | Collective memory | Early memories | Echoic Memory | Eidetic memory | Episodic memory | Episodic-like memory  | Explicit memory  |Exosomatic memory | False memory |Flashbulb memory | Iconic memory | Implicit memory | Institutional memory | Long term memory | Music-related memory | Procedural memory | Prospective memory | Repressed memory | Retrospective memory | Semantic memory | Sensory memory | Short term memory | Spatial memory | State-dependent memory | Tonal memory | Transactive memory | Transsaccadic memory | Verbal memory  | Visual memory  | Visuospatial memory  | Working memory  |
Aspects of memory
Childhood amnesia | Cryptomnesia |Cued recall | Eye-witness testimony | Memory and emotion | Forgetting |Forgetting curve | Free recall | Levels-of-processing effect | Memory consolidation |Memory decay | Memory distrust syndrome |Memory inhibition | Memory and smell | Memory for the future | Memory loss | Memory optimization | Memory trace | Mnemonic | Memory biases  | Modality effect | Tip of the tongue | Lethologica | Memory loss |Priming | Primacy effect | Reconstruction | Proactive interference | Prompting | Recency effect | Recall (learning) | Recognition (learning) | Reminiscence | Retention | Retroactive interference | Serial position effect | Serial recall | Source amnesia |
Memory theory
Atkinson-Shiffrin | Baddeley | CLARION | Decay theory | Dual-coding theory | Interference theory |Memory consolidation | Memory encoding | Memory-prediction framework | Forgetting | Recall | Recognition |
Mnemonics
Method of loci | Mnemonic room system | Mnemonic dominic system | Mnemonic learning | Mnemonic link system |Mnemonic major system | Mnemonic peg system | [[]] |[[]] |
Neuroanatomy of memory
Amygdala | Hippocampus | prefrontal cortex  | Neurobiology of working memory | Neurophysiology of memory | Rhinal cortex | Synapses |[[]] |
Neurochemistry of memory
Glutamatergic system  | of short term memory | [[]] |[[]] | [[]] | [[]] | [[]] | [[]] |[[]] |
Developmental aspects of memory
Prenatal memory | |Childhood memory | Memory and aging | [[]] | [[]] |
Memory in clinical settings
Alcohol amnestic disorder | Amnesia | Dissociative fugue | False memory syndrome | False memory | Hyperthymesia | Memory and aging | Memory disorders | Memory distrust syndrome  Repressed memory  Traumatic memory |
Retention measures
Benton | CAMPROMPT | Implicit memory testing | Indirect tests of memory | MAS | Memory tests for children | MERMER | Rey-15 | Rivermead | TOMM | Wechsler | WMT | WRAML2 |
Treating memory problems
CBT | EMDR | Psychotherapy | Recovered memory therapy |Reminiscence therapy | Memory clinic | Memory training | Rewind technique |
Prominant workers in memory|-
Baddeley | Broadbent |Ebbinghaus  | Kandel |McGaugh | Schacter  | Treisman | Tulving  |
Philosophy and historical views of memory
Aristotle | [[]] |[[]] |[[]] |[[]] | [[]] | [[]] | [[]] |
Miscellaneous
Journals | Learning, Memory, and Cognition |Journal of Memory and Language |Memory |Memory and Cognition | [[]] | [[]] | [[]] |

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