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A manual system consists of hand tools and other aids which are coupled by a human operator who controls the operation. Operators of such systems use their own physical energy as the power source.
 
A manual system consists of hand tools and other aids which are coupled by a human operator who controls the operation. Operators of such systems use their own physical energy as the power source.
   
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==Cognitive systems engineering==
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:Cognitive systems engineering (CSE) is a specific approach to the description and analysis of human-machine systems or [[sociotechnical systems]].<ref>Hollnagel E. & Woods D. D. (1983). Cognitive systems engineering: New wine in new bottles. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 18, 583-600.</ref> The three main themes of CSE are how humans cope with complexity, how work is accomplished by the use of artefacts, and how human-machine systems and socio-technical systems can be described as joint cognitive systems. CSE has since its beginning become a recognised scientific discipline, sometimes also referred to as Cognitive Engineering. The concept of a Joint Cognitive System (JCS) has in particular become widely used as a way of understanding how complex socio-technical systems can be described with varying degrees of resolution. The experience with CSE has been described in two books that summarises the field after more than 20 years of work, namely<ref>Hollnagel, E. & Woods, D. D. (2005) Joint cognitive systems: The foundations of cognitive systems engineering. Taylor & Francis</ref> and <ref>Woods, D. D. & Hollnagel, E. (2006). Joint cognitive systems: Patterns in cognitive systems engineering. Taylor & Francis.</ref>.
 
==[[Human machine systems design]]==
 
==[[Human machine systems design]]==
   

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Human-machine system is a system in which the functions of a human operator (or a group of operators) and a machine are integrated. This term can also be used to emphasize the view of such a system as a single entity that interacts with external environment.

A manual system consists of hand tools and other aids which are coupled by a human operator who controls the operation. Operators of such systems use their own physical energy as the power source.

Cognitive systems engineering

Cognitive systems engineering (CSE) is a specific approach to the description and analysis of human-machine systems or sociotechnical systems.[1] The three main themes of CSE are how humans cope with complexity, how work is accomplished by the use of artefacts, and how human-machine systems and socio-technical systems can be described as joint cognitive systems. CSE has since its beginning become a recognised scientific discipline, sometimes also referred to as Cognitive Engineering. The concept of a Joint Cognitive System (JCS) has in particular become widely used as a way of understanding how complex socio-technical systems can be described with varying degrees of resolution. The experience with CSE has been described in two books that summarises the field after more than 20 years of work, namely[2] and [3].

Human machine systems design

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