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The Human Development Index (HDI) is a comparative measure of life expectancy, literacy, education, and standard of living for countries worldwide. It is a standard means of measuring well-being, especially child welfare. It is used to determine and indicate whether a country is a developed, developing, or underdeveloped country and also to measure the impact of economic policies on quality of life.[1] The index was developed in 1990 by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq and has been used since 1993 by the United Nations Development Programme in its annual Human Development Report.

The HDI measures the average achievements in a country in three basic dimensions of human development:

Each year, UN member states are listed and ranked according to these measures. Those high on the list often advertise it (e.g., Jean Chrétien, Former Prime Minister of Canada [1]), as a means of attracting talented immigrants (economically, individual capital) or discouraging emigration.

An alternative measure, focusing on the amount of poverty in a country, is the Human Poverty Index.

## MethodologyEdit

In general to transform a raw variable, say $x$, into a unit-free index between 0 and 1 (which allows different indices to be added together), the following formula is used:

• $x$-index = $\frac{x - \min\left(x\right)} {\max\left(x\right)-\min\left(x\right)}$

where $\min\left(x\right)$ and $\max\left(x\right)$ are the lowest and highest values the variable $x$ can attain, respectively.

The Human Development Index (HDI) then represents the average of the following three general indices:

• Life Expectancy Index = $\frac{LE - 25} {85-25}$
• Education Index = $\frac{2} {3} \times ALI + \frac{1} {3} \times GEI$
• Adult Literacy Index (ALI) = $\frac{ALR - 0} {100 - 0}$
• Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) = $\frac{CGER - 0} {100 - 0}$
• GDP Index = $\frac{\log\left(GDPpc\right) - \log\left(100\right)} {\log\left(40000\right) - \log\left(100\right)}$

LE: Life expectancy
CGER: Combined gross enrollment ratio
GDPpc: GDP per capita at PPP in USD

UNDP has created a technical note on the definition of the HDI (see links below).

## 2006 reportEdit

The report for 2006 was launched in Cape Town, South Africa on November 9 2006. Its focus was on "power, poverty and the global water crisis." [2] Most of the data used for the report are derived largely from 2004 or earlier, thus indicating an HDI for 2004. Not all UN member states choose to or are able to provide the necessary statistics.

The report showed a stagnation in world HDI, as the continued improvement of developed countries was offset by a general decline of the developing world. Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia showed an important decline in HDI, in comparison with last year's report. Other developing regions showed little to no improvement.

A HDI below 0.5 is considered to represent low development and 29 of the 31 countries in that category are located in Africa, with the exceptions of Haiti and Yemen. The bottom ten countries are all in Africa. The highest-scoring Sub-Saharan countries, Equatorial Guinea and South Africa, are ranked 120th and 121st, respectively (with a shared HDI of 0.653).

A HDI of 0.8 or more is considered to represent high development. This includes all developed countries, such as those in North America, Europe, Oceania, and Eastern Asia, as well as some developing countries in Eastern Europe, Latin America, Southeast Asia, the Caribbean, and the oil-rich Arabian Peninsula.

### Top thirty countries (HDI range from 0.965 down to 0.885) Edit

 [[Image:Template:Country flag alias Norway|22x20px|Flag of Template:Country alias Norway]] [[Template:Country alias Norway|Template:Country shortname alias Norway]] 0.965 ( ) Template:Country data Iceland 0.960 ( ) Template:Country data Australia 0.957 ( ) Template:Country data Republic of Ireland 0.956 ( 4) Template:Country data Sweden 0.951 ( 1) Template:Country data Canada 0.950 ( 1) Template:Country data Japan 0.949 ( 4) Template:Country data United States 0.948 ( 2) Template:Country data Netherlands 0.947 ( 2) REDIRECT Template:CHE 0.947 ( ) Template:Country data Finland 0.947 ( 2) Template:Country data Luxembourg 0.945 ( 8) Template:Country data Belgium 0.945 ( 4) Template:Country flag2 0.944 ( 3) REDIRECT Template:DNK 0.943 ( 1) Template:Country data France 0.942 ( ) Template:Country flag2 0.940 ( 1) Template:Country data Italy 0.940 ( 3) Template:Country data Spain 0.938 ( 2) Template:Country data New Zealand 0.936 ( 1) REDIRECT Template:DEU 0.932 ( 1) Template:Country data Hong Kong 0.927 ( ) Template:Country data Israel 0.927 ( ) Template:Country data Greece 0.921 ( ) REDIRECT Template:SGP 0.916 ( ) Template:Country data South Korea 0.912 ( 2) Template:Country data Slovenia 0.910 ( 1) REDIRECT Template:PRT 0.904 ( 1) Template:Country data Cyprus 0.903 ( ) Template:Country data Czech Republic 0.885 ( 1)

### Top/bottom three countries by regionEdit

 Africa 047. REDIRECT Template:SYC 0.842 ( 4)  063. REDIRECT Template:MUS 0.800 ( 2)  064. REDIRECT Template:LBY 0.798 ( 6)  ... 175. Template:Country data Mali 0.338 ( 1)  0.335 (  ) 177. REDIRECT Template:NER 0.311 (  ) Asia 0.949 ( 4)  SAR 0.927 (  0.927 (  ) ... 138. REDIRECT Template:NPL 0.527 ( 2)  0.512 ( 2)  0.492 ( 1)  Europe 001. [[Image:Template:Country flag alias Norway|22x20px|Flag of Template:Country alias Norway]] [[Template:Country alias Norway|Template:Country shortname alias Norway]] 0.965 ( ) 002. Template:Country data Iceland 0.960 (  0.956 ( 4)  0.743 ( 3)  0.736 ( 2)  114. Template:MOL 0.694 ( 1)  North America 0.950 ( 1)  0.948 ( 2)  031. REDIRECT Template:BRB 0.879 ( 1)  ... 117. REDIRECT Template:HND 0.683 ( 1)  118. REDIRECT Template:GTM 0.673 ( 1)  154. REDIRECT Template:HTI 0.482 ( 1)  Oceania 0.957 (  0.936 ( 1)  055. REDIRECT Template:TON 0.815 ( 1)  ... 119. REDIRECT Template:VUT 0.670 ( 1)  128. REDIRECT Template:SLB 0.592 (  0.523 ( 2)  South America 0.863 ( 2)  038. REDIRECT Template:CHL 0.859 ( 1)  0.851 ( 3)  ... 091. REDIRECT Template:PRY 0.757 ( 3)  0.725 ( 4)  0.692 ( 2) 

### Countries not includedEdit

The following countries or territories are not ranked in the 2006 Human Development Index, for being unable or unwilling to provide the necessary data, or for not being recognised as states by the United Nations.

## Past top countriesEdit

The number one ranked country in each year of the index.