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Howard Gardener

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Howard Gardener is an American psychologist who developed the idea of multiple intelligences. His most famous work is probably Frames of Mind, which details seven dimensions of intelligence (Visual / Spatial Intelligence, Musical Intelligence, Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence, Logical/Mathematical Intelligence, Interpersonal Intelligence, Intrapersonal Intelligence, and Bodily / Kinesthetic Intelligence). Gardner's claim that pencil and paper IQ tests do not capture the full range of human intelligences. He has garnered much praise within the field of education but has also met criticism, largely from psychometricians. Since the publication of Frames of Mind, Gardner has additionally identified the 8th dimension of intelligence: Naturalist Intelligence, and is still considering a possible ninth: Existentialist Intelligence. (See Intelligence Reframed).

Biographical information

He was born in 1963, in Cheyenne, Wyoming



He is currently John H. and Elisabeth A. Hobbs Professor of Cognition and Education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education.

Main areas of interest

Aside from his work on multiple intelligences Gardener has been interested in evaluating leaders in various fields through the collaborative Goodwork Project.

Funded grants


Editorial board/consulting editor

Association affiliations

See also



  • Gardner, H. (1979). Developmental Psychology: An introduction.
  • Gardner, H. (1980). Artful Scribbles: The significance of childrens drawings
  • Gardner, H. (1982). Art, Mind & Brain: A cognitive approach to creativity
  • Gardner, H. (1985). The Minds New Science: Ahistory of the cognitive revolution
  • Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. New York: Basic Books ISBN 000686290X
  • Gardner, H. (1993). Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-02510-2
  • Gardner, H. (1991). The Unschooled Mind: How Children Think and How Schools Should Teach ISBN 0-465-08896-1 (1993 ed.)
  • Gardner, H. (1994). Creating Minds: An Anatomy of Creativity. ISBN 0-465-01454-2
  • Gardner, H. (1997).Leading Minds: An Anatomy of Leadership. Harper Collins.ISBN 0006381235
  • Gardner, H. (1998).Extraordinary Minds. Basic Books ISBN 0465021255
  • Gardner, H. (2000). Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century. ISBN: 0465026117

Book Chapters


External links

[ Gardner's personal website. [ Goodwork project website.

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