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Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Holtzman Inkblot Technique The Holtzman inkblot technique was developed in an attempt to minimize certain statistical difficulties that arise in the analysis of Rorschach results. In the Holtzman inkblot, the subject responds to each of a series of 45 ambiguous inkblots. These responses are scored to describe and to classify the personality of the subject.
The HIT is used to assess the personality structure of a test subject. It is sometimes used as a diagnostic tool in assessing schizophrenia, depression, addiction, and character disorders.
The HIT, developed by psychologist Wayne Holtzman and colleagues, was introduced in 1961. The test was designed to overcome some of the deficiencies of its famous predecessor, the Rorschach Inkblot Test.
Unlike the Rorschach, the Holtzman is a standardized measurement with clearly defined objective scoring criteria. The HIT consists of 45 inkblots. The test administrator, or examiner, has a stack of 47 cards with inkblots (45 test cards and 2 practice cards) face down in front of him or her. The examiner hands each card to the subject and asks the test subject what he or she sees in the inkblot. Only one response per inkblot is requested. Occasionally, the examiner may ask the test subject to clarify or elaborate on a response. The Administration of the HIT typically takes 50-80 minutes. The HIT is then scored against 22 personality-related characteristics.
The HIT can also be administered in a group setting. In group testing, 30-45 inkblots are projected onto a screen and test subjects provide written responses to each inkblot.
The 1997 Medicare reimbursement rate for psychological and neuropsychological testing is $58.35 an hour. Billing time typically includes test administration, scoring and interpretation, and reporting. Many insurance plans cover all or a portion of diagnostic psychological testing.
Differences with RorschachEdit
The main difference between the Holtzman inkblot and the Rorschach inkblot technique is that in the Holtzman technique, the subject is permitted to make only one response per inkblot. The empirical validity of the Holtzman inkblot technique, and other projective techniques, is disputed by some authorities.
- The Duess Test
- Bruno Klopfer
- Projective test
- Hermann Rorschach
- Picture Arrangement Test
- John E. Exner
- Exner system of scoring
- Rorschach inkblot test