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(New page: {{BioPsy}} {{Chembox new |ImageFile=Hexamethonium.png |ImageSize=200px |IUPACName=trimethyl-(6-trimethylammoniohexyl)ammonium |OtherNames= |Section1= {{Chembox Identifiers | CASNo= | Pub...)
 
 
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The use of hexamethonium, an unapproved drug, in a normal volunteer during a medical study is believed to have caused her death.<ref name="urlJohns Hopkins’ Tragedy: Could Librarians Have Prevented a Death?">{{cite web |url=http://newsbreaks.infotoday.com/nbreader.asp?ArticleID=17534 |title=Johns Hopkins’ Tragedy: Could Librarians Have Prevented a Death? |format= |work= |accessdate=2008-10-06}}</ref><ref name="pmid11834748">{{cite journal |author=Savulescu J, Spriggs M |title=The hexamethonium asthma study and the death of a normal volunteer in research |journal=Journal of medical ethics |volume=28 |issue=1 |pages=3–4 |year=2002 |month=February |pmid=11834748 |pmc=1733509 |doi= |url=http://jme.bmj.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=11834748}}</ref>
 
The use of hexamethonium, an unapproved drug, in a normal volunteer during a medical study is believed to have caused her death.<ref name="urlJohns Hopkins’ Tragedy: Could Librarians Have Prevented a Death?">{{cite web |url=http://newsbreaks.infotoday.com/nbreader.asp?ArticleID=17534 |title=Johns Hopkins’ Tragedy: Could Librarians Have Prevented a Death? |format= |work= |accessdate=2008-10-06}}</ref><ref name="pmid11834748">{{cite journal |author=Savulescu J, Spriggs M |title=The hexamethonium asthma study and the death of a normal volunteer in research |journal=Journal of medical ethics |volume=28 |issue=1 |pages=3–4 |year=2002 |month=February |pmid=11834748 |pmc=1733509 |doi= |url=http://jme.bmj.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=11834748}}</ref>
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==See also==
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* [[Decamethonium]]
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* [[Ganglion blocking drugs]]
   
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
{{reflist}}
 
{{reflist}}
   
==See also==
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{{Anticholinergics}}
* [[Decamethonium]]
 
   
[[Category:Quaternary ammonium compounds]]
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[[Category:Antihypertensive drugs]]
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[[category:Ganglion blocking drugs]]
   
   
{{Anticholinergics}}
 
   
 
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Latest revision as of 00:44, March 21, 2009

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style="background: #F8EABA; text-align: center;" colspan="2" Hexamethonium
200px
Identifiers
CAS number
PubChem 3604
SMILES C[N+](C)(C)CCCCCC[N+](C)(C)C
Properties
Molecular formula C12H30N22+
Molar mass 202.38
Hazards
style="background: #F8EABA; text-align: center;" colspan="2" Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references


Hexamethonium is a ganglionic blocker,[1] a neuronal nAch (NN) receptor antagonist which acts in autonomic ganglia by binding mostly in or on the NN receptor, and not the acetylcholine binding site itself. It has no effect on the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) located on target organs of the parasympathetic nervous system, nor the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction (NM) that are responsible for skeletal muscle motor response.

PharmacologyEdit

It can act on receptors at pre-ganglionic sites in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system, which are both regulated (again, only pre-ganglionically) by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Postganglionic sympathetic systems are usually regulated by norepinephrine or adrenaline (adrenergic receptors), while parasympathetic systems are still acetylcholine based, but instead rely on muscarinic receptors (some post-ganglionic sympathetic neurons, such as those stimulating sweating, release acetylcholine).

The organ system and adverse effects of ganglion blockers are because both the parasympathetic and sympathetic stimuli are blocked at the preganglionic sites. Side effects include combined sympatholytic (e.g. orthostatic hypotension and sexual dysfunction) and parasympatholytic effects (e.g. constipation, urinary retention, glaucoma, blurry vision, decreased lacrymal secretion, dry mouth (xerostomia) effects.

UsesEdit

It was formerly used to treat disorders of the peripheral nervous system, such as chronic hypertension, which is innervated only by the sympathetic nervous system. The non-specificity of this treatment led to discontinuing its use.[2]

The use of hexamethonium, an unapproved drug, in a normal volunteer during a medical study is believed to have caused her death.[3][4]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Sonoyama K, Tajima K, Fujiwara R, Kasai T (March 2000). Intravenous infusion of hexamethonium and atropine but not propranolol diminishes apolipoprotein A-IV gene expression in rat ileum. The Journal of nutrition 130 (3): 637–41.
  2. Hardman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 10th edition, 2001, pp 210-211.
  3. Johns Hopkins’ Tragedy: Could Librarians Have Prevented a Death?. URL accessed on 2008-10-06.
  4. Savulescu J, Spriggs M (February 2002). The hexamethonium asthma study and the death of a normal volunteer in research. Journal of medical ethics 28 (1): 3–4.



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