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Handwriting legibility

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Handwriting legibility is the ease with which handwriting can be read. This is not a trivial task as the same letter can be written in a number of ways using different script styles and this calls for a great deal of pattern recognition processing by the brain.


See alsoEdit

References & BibliographyEdit

Key textsEdit

BooksEdit

PapersEdit

A. S, V., J, R., & Bhogle, S. (2002). Improving children's handwriting: An operant model approach: Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology Vol 28(1-2) Jan-Jul 2002, 25-30.

  • Atukorale, A. S., & Suganthan, P. N. (2000). Hierarchical overlapped neural gas network with application to pattern classification: Neurocomputing: An International Journal Vol 35 Nov 2000, 165-176.
  • Barnard, P., Wright, P., & Wilcox, P. (1978). The effects of spatial constraints on the legibility of handwritten alphanumeric codes: Ergonomics Vol 21(1) Jan 1978, 73-78.
  • Bene-Kabala, L. (1997). Left-handed and right-handed students: Comparison of the speed and quality of their handwriting: Bulletin de Psychologie Scolaire et d'Orientation Vol 46(4) 1997, 169-182.
  • Berent, S. (1974). Field-dependence and performance on a writing task: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 38(2) Apr 1974, 65l.
  • Burkhalter, B. B., & Wright, J. P. (1984). Handwriting performance with and without transparent overlays: Journal of Experimental Education Vol 52(3) Spr 1984, 132-135.
  • Burnhill, P., Hartley, J., & Davies, L. (1978). Lined paper, legibility and creativity: Educational Research Vol 21(1) Nov 1978, 62.
  • Chase, C. I. (1979). The impact of achievement expectations and handwriting quality on scoring essay tests: Journal of Educational Measurement Vol 16(1) Spr 1979, 39-42.
  • Chiang, J.-H. (1998). A hybrid neural network model in handwritten word recognition: Neural Networks Vol 11(2) Mar 1998, 337-346.
  • Cicci, R. (1980). Written language disorders: Bulletin of the Orton Society Vol 30 1980, 240-251.
  • Contreras-Vidal, J. L., Teulings, H.-L., & Stelmach, G. E. (1995). Micrographia in Parkinson's disease: Neuroreport: An International Journal for the Rapid Communication of Research in Neuroscience Vol 6(15) Oct 1995, 2089-2092.
  • Cornhill, H., & Case-Smith, J. (1996). Factors that relate to good and poor handwriting: American Journal of Occupational Therapy Vol 50(9) Oct 1996, 732-739.
  • Daly, C. J., Kelley, G. T., & Krauss, A. (2003). Relationship between visual-motor integration and handwriting skills of children in kindergarten: A modified replication study: American Journal of Occupational Therapy Vol 57(4) Jul-Aug 2003, 459-462.
  • Daniel, M. E., & Froude, E. H. (1998). Reliability of occupational therapist and teacher evaluations of the handwriting quality of grade 5 and 6 primary school children: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal Vol 45(2) Jun 1998, 48-58.
  • Dennis, J. L., & Swinth, Y. (2001). Pencil grasp and children's handwriting legibility during different-length writing tasks: American Journal of Occupational Therapy Vol 55(2) Mar-Apr 2001, 175-183.
  • Diekema, S. M., Deitz, J., & Amundson, S. J. (1998). Test-retest reliability of the Evaluation Tool of Children's Handwriting-Manuscript: American Journal of Occupational Therapy Vol 52(4) Apr 1998, 248-255.
  • du Pasquier, M.-A. (1992). Handwriting: Between language and trace: Psychologie Medicale Vol 24(14) 1992, 1572-1574.
  • Fukushima, K. (2003). Neocognition for handwritten digit recognition: Neurocomputing: An International Journal Vol 51 Apr 2003, 161-180.
  • Gates, A. I. (1921). Special review of Mrs. Burgess' monograph on silent reading: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 12(6) Sep 1921, 350-353.
  • Gillieron, C. (1987). The lost postcard technique: Formal aspects of the message as legibility indices of social perception: European Journal of Social Psychology Vol 17(3) Jul-Sep 1987, 367-371.
  • Glazer, S. M., & Curry, D. (1988). Word processing programs: Survival tools for children with writing problems: Journal of Reading, Writing, & Learning Disabilities International Vol 4(3) 1988-1989, 187-199.
  • Goldberg, E. R., & Simner, M. L. (1999). A comparison of children's handwriting under traditional vs. whole language instruction: Canadian Journal of School Psychology Vol 14(2) 1999, 11-30.
  • Goyen, T.-A., & Duff, S. (2007). Kinaesthetic training was no more effective than handwriting practice or no treatment in improving kinaesthesis or handwriting speed and legibility in grade-one students: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal Vol 54(3) Sep 2007, 240-242.
  • Graham, S. (1986). A review of handwriting scales and factors that contribute to variability in handwriting scores: Journal of School Psychology Vol 24(1) Spr 1986, 63-71.
  • Graham, S., Boyer-Shick, K., & Tippets, E. (1989). The validity of the Handwriting Scale from the Test of Written Language: Journal of Educational Research Vol 82(3) Jan-Feb 1989, 166-171.
  • Graham, S., Struck, M., Santoro, J., & Berninger, V. W. (2006). Dimensions of Good and Poor Handwriting Legibility in First and Second Graders: Motor Programs, Visual-Spatial Arrangement, and Letter Formation Parameter Setting: Developmental Neuropsychology Vol 29(1) 2006, 43-60.
  • Graham, S., Weintraub, N., & Berninger, V. W. (1998). The relationship between handwriting style and speed and legibility: Journal of Educational Research Vol 91(5) May-Jun 1998, 290-296.
  • Hartley, S. T., & Salzwedel, K. D. (1980). Behavioral writing for an autistic-like child: Academic Therapy Vol 16(1) Sep 1980, 101-110.
  • Huck, S. W., & Bounds, W. G. (1972). Essay grades: An interaction between graders' handwriting clarity and the neatness of examination papers: American Educational Research Journal Vol 9(2) Spr 1972, 279-283.
  • Hughes, D. C., Keeling, B., & Tuck, B. F. (1983). Are untidy essays marked down by graders with neat handwriting? : New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies Vol 18(2) Nov 1983, 184-186.
  • Hughes, D. C., Keeling, B., & Tuck, B. F. (1983). Effects of achievement expectations and handwriting quality on scoring essays: Journal of Educational Measurement Vol 20(1) Spr 1983, 65-70.
  • Hughes, H. H., Jackson, K., du Bois, K. E., & Erwin, R. (1979). Treatment of handwriting problems utilizing EMG biofeedback training: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 48(2) Apr 1979, 603-606.
  • Jackson, K., & Hughes, H. H. (1978). Effects of relaxation training on cursive handwriting of fourth grade students: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 47(3, Pt 1) Dec 1978, 707-712.
  • Jiayan, L., Quanquan, Z., & Kan, S. (2005). Recent Researches on the Analysis of Chinese Handwriting: Psychological Science (China) Vol 28(2) Mar 2005, 442-443.
  • Jongmans, M. J., Linthorst-Bakker, E., Westenberg, Y., & Smits-Engelsman, B. C. M. (2003). Use of a task-oriented self-instruction method to support children in primary school with poor handwriting quality and speed: Human Movement Science Vol 22(4-5) Nov 2003, 549-566.
  • Kapur, N., & Gordon, D. S. (1975). Retraining of dysgraphia: A case study: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry Vol 38(5) May 1975, 465-468.
  • Kosiewicz, M. M., Hallahan, D. P., & Lloyd, J. W. (1981). The effects of an LD student's treatment choice on handwriting performance: Learning Disability Quarterly Vol 4(3) Sum 1981, 281-286.
  • Lahey, B. B., Busemeyer, M. K., O'Hara, C., & Beggs, V. E. (1977). Treatment of severe perceptual-motor disorders in children diagnosed as learning disordered: Behavior Modification Vol 1(1) Jan 1977, 123-140.
  • Lindsay, G. A., & McLennan, D. (1983). Lined paper: Its effects on the legibility and creativity of young children's writing: British Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 53(3) Nov 1983, 364-368.
  • MacArthur, C. A. (1999). Word prediction for students with severe spelling problems: Learning Disability Quarterly Vol 22(3) Sum 1999, 158-172.
  • Macleod, A. D., & Whitehead, L. E. (1997). Dysgraphia and terminal delirium: Palliative Medicine Vol 11(2) Mar 1997, 127-132.
  • Massey, A. (1983). The effects of handwriting and other incidental variables on GCE "A" level marks in English literature: Educational Review Vol 35(1) Feb 1983, 45-50.
  • May, D. S., & Brannin, J. R. (1984). A possible relationship between handwriting speed and intelligence: Human Learning: Journal of Practical Research & Applications Vol 3(3) Jul-Sep 1984, 209-213.
  • McLaughlin, T. F. (1981). An analysis of token reinforcement: A control group comparison with special education youth employing measures of significance: Child Behavior Therapy Vol 3(1) Spr 1981, 43-50.
  • McLaughlin, T. F., Mabee, W. S., Byram, B. J., & Reiter, S. M. (1987). Effects of academic positive practice and response cost on writing legibility of behaviorally disordered and learning-disabled junior high school students: Journal of Child & Adolescent Psychotherapy Vol 4(3) 1987, 216-221.
  • Myles, B. S., Huggins, A., Rome-Lake, M., Hagiwara, T., Barnhill, G. P., & Griswold, D. E. (2003). Written language profile of children and youth with Asperger syndrome: From research to practice: Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities Vol 38(4) Dec 2003, 362-369.
  • Nikola-Lisa, W. J. (1987). Motor, perceptual-motor and cognitive factors responsible for differentiating between above- and below-average legibility scores of second grade students: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Park, C., Weber, K. P., & McLaughlin, T. F. (2007). The effects of fading, modeling, prompting, and direct instruction on letter legibility for two preschool students with physical and developmental delays: Child & Family Behavior Therapy Vol 29(3) 2007, 13-21.
  • Peeples, E. E., Searls, D. T., & Wellingham-Jones, P. (1995). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A longitudinal case study of handwriting characteristics: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 81(3, Pt 2) Dec 1995, 1243-1252.
  • Rosenblum, S. (2005). Using the Alphabet Task to Differentiate between Proficient and Nonproficient Handwriters: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 100(3) Jun 2005, 629-639.
  • Rosenblum, S., Chevion, D., & Weiss, P. L. (2006). Using data visualization and signal processing to characterize the handwriting process: Pediatric Rehabilitation Vol 9(4) Oct-Dec 2006, 404-417.
  • Rosenblum, S., Weiss, P. L., & Parush, S. (2003). Product and process evaluation of handwriting difficulties: Educational Psychology Review Vol 15(1) Mar 2003, 41-81.
  • Schilling, D. L., Washington, K., Billingsley, F. F., & Deitz, J. (2003). Classroom Seating for Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Therapy Balls Versus Chairs: American Journal of Occupational Therapy Vol 57(5) Sep-Oct 2003, 534-541.
  • Schneck, C. M. (1998). Clinical interpretation of "Test-retest reliability of the Evaluation Tool of Children's Handwriting-Manuscript." American Journal of Occupational Therapy Vol 52(4) Apr 1998, 256-258.
  • Sheffield, B. (1996). Handwriting: A neglected cornerstone of literacy: Annals of Dyslexia Vol 46 1996, 21-35.
  • Simpson, S., & Abromovitch, N. (1980). A diagnostic approach to writing disability: Academic Therapy Vol 16(1) Sep 1980, 83-92.
  • Sims, E. V., & Weisberg, P. (1984). Effects of page prompts on beginning handwriting legibility: Journal of Educational Research Vol 77(6) Jul-Aug 1984, 360-365.
  • Sloan, C. A., & McGinnis, I. (1982). The effect of handwriting on teachers' grading of high school essays: Journal of the Association for the Study of Perception Vol 17(2) Fal 1982, 15-21.
  • Sommer, R. (1977). A note on "graphonyms": American Journal of Psychology Vol 90(3) Sep 1977, 527-528.
  • Starrfelt, R. (2007). Selective alexia and agraphia sparing numbers: A case study: Brain and Language Vol 102(1) Jul 2007, 52-63.
  • Stott, D. H., Henderson, S. E., & Moyes, F. A. (1987). Diagnosis and remediation of handwriting problems: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly Vol 4(2) Apr 1987, 137-147.
  • Streifler, M., & Hofman, S. (1976). Sinistrad mirror writing and reading after brain concussion in a bi-systemic (oriento-occidental) polyglot: Cortex Vol 12(4) Dec 1976, 356-364.
  • Sweeney, W. J., Salva, E., Cooper, J. O., & Talbert-Johnson, C. (1993). Using self-evaluation to improve difficult-to-read handwriting of secondary students: Journal of Behavioral Education Vol 3(4) Dec 1993, 427-443.
  • Tahil, F. A. (2005). BluefishRx Prescription Writer: Journal of Psychiatric Practice Vol 11(1) Jan 2005, 58-61.
  • Turner, C. O., & Spivack, G. (1971). Staff-patient interaction, race and patient behavior on a psychiatric ward: Mental Hygiene Vol 55(4) Oct 1971, 499-503.
  • Waggoner, J., LaNunziata, L. J., Hill, D. S., & Cooper, J. O. (1981). Space size and accuracy of kindergarten and first grade students' manuscript handwriting: Journal of Educational Research Vol 74(3) Jan-Feb 1981, 182-184.
  • Weintraub, N., Drory-Asayag, A., Dekel, R., Jokobovits, H., & Parush, S. (2007). Developmental trends in handwriting performance among middle school children: OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health Vol 27(3) Sum 2007, 104-112.
  • Woodward, S., & Swinth, Y. (2002). Multisensory approach to handwriting remediation: Perceptions of school-based occupational therapists: American Journal of Occupational Therapy Vol 56(3) May-Jun 2002, 305-312.
  • Workman, E. A., Workman, B. L., & Maclin, J. (1979). Visual and auditory stimulus presentation factors in the behavioral treatment of illegible handwriting: Corrective & Social Psychiatry & Journal of Behavior Technology, Methods & Therapy Vol 25(4) 1979, 129-133.
  • Ziviani, J. (1984). Some elaborations on handwriting speed in 7- to 14-year-olds: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 58(2) Apr 1984, 535-539.
  • Ziviani, J., & Watson-Will, A. (1998). Writing speed and legibility of 7-14-year-old school students using modern cursive script: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal Vol 45(2) Jun 1998, 59-64.

Additional materialEdit

BooksEdit

PapersEdit


DissertationsEdit

  • Appleton, A. (1992). Handwriting skills of children in third through sixth-grade: Relationship to academic achievement: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Engleman, M. A. (1978). An investigation of handwriting achievement and visual-motor-perception abilities of first grade students: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Strickling, G. A. (1974). The effect of handwriting and related skills upon the spelling score of above average and below average readers in the fifth grade: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Torres Ortiz, P. (1994). The use of computer-assisted instruction in the teaching of handwriting skills. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Tseng, M.-h. (1992). Handwriting performance and perceptual-motor abilities in Chinese school-aged children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Windsor, M.-M. (1995). Handwriting in boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.

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