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Handwriting legibility

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Handwriting legibility is the ease with which handwriting can be read. This is not a trivial task as the same letter can be written in a number of ways using different script styles and this calls for a great deal of pattern recognition processing by the brain.

See alsoEdit

References & BibliographyEdit

Key textsEdit



A. S, V., J, R., & Bhogle, S. (2002). Improving children's handwriting: An operant model approach: Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology Vol 28(1-2) Jan-Jul 2002, 25-30.

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  • Hughes, D. C., Keeling, B., & Tuck, B. F. (1983). Effects of achievement expectations and handwriting quality on scoring essays: Journal of Educational Measurement Vol 20(1) Spr 1983, 65-70.
  • Hughes, H. H., Jackson, K., du Bois, K. E., & Erwin, R. (1979). Treatment of handwriting problems utilizing EMG biofeedback training: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 48(2) Apr 1979, 603-606.
  • Jackson, K., & Hughes, H. H. (1978). Effects of relaxation training on cursive handwriting of fourth grade students: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 47(3, Pt 1) Dec 1978, 707-712.
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  • Kosiewicz, M. M., Hallahan, D. P., & Lloyd, J. W. (1981). The effects of an LD student's treatment choice on handwriting performance: Learning Disability Quarterly Vol 4(3) Sum 1981, 281-286.
  • Lahey, B. B., Busemeyer, M. K., O'Hara, C., & Beggs, V. E. (1977). Treatment of severe perceptual-motor disorders in children diagnosed as learning disordered: Behavior Modification Vol 1(1) Jan 1977, 123-140.
  • Lindsay, G. A., & McLennan, D. (1983). Lined paper: Its effects on the legibility and creativity of young children's writing: British Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 53(3) Nov 1983, 364-368.
  • MacArthur, C. A. (1999). Word prediction for students with severe spelling problems: Learning Disability Quarterly Vol 22(3) Sum 1999, 158-172.
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  • May, D. S., & Brannin, J. R. (1984). A possible relationship between handwriting speed and intelligence: Human Learning: Journal of Practical Research & Applications Vol 3(3) Jul-Sep 1984, 209-213.
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  • Myles, B. S., Huggins, A., Rome-Lake, M., Hagiwara, T., Barnhill, G. P., & Griswold, D. E. (2003). Written language profile of children and youth with Asperger syndrome: From research to practice: Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities Vol 38(4) Dec 2003, 362-369.
  • Nikola-Lisa, W. J. (1987). Motor, perceptual-motor and cognitive factors responsible for differentiating between above- and below-average legibility scores of second grade students: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Park, C., Weber, K. P., & McLaughlin, T. F. (2007). The effects of fading, modeling, prompting, and direct instruction on letter legibility for two preschool students with physical and developmental delays: Child & Family Behavior Therapy Vol 29(3) 2007, 13-21.
  • Peeples, E. E., Searls, D. T., & Wellingham-Jones, P. (1995). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A longitudinal case study of handwriting characteristics: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 81(3, Pt 2) Dec 1995, 1243-1252.
  • Rosenblum, S. (2005). Using the Alphabet Task to Differentiate between Proficient and Nonproficient Handwriters: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 100(3) Jun 2005, 629-639.
  • Rosenblum, S., Chevion, D., & Weiss, P. L. (2006). Using data visualization and signal processing to characterize the handwriting process: Pediatric Rehabilitation Vol 9(4) Oct-Dec 2006, 404-417.
  • Rosenblum, S., Weiss, P. L., & Parush, S. (2003). Product and process evaluation of handwriting difficulties: Educational Psychology Review Vol 15(1) Mar 2003, 41-81.
  • Schilling, D. L., Washington, K., Billingsley, F. F., & Deitz, J. (2003). Classroom Seating for Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Therapy Balls Versus Chairs: American Journal of Occupational Therapy Vol 57(5) Sep-Oct 2003, 534-541.
  • Schneck, C. M. (1998). Clinical interpretation of "Test-retest reliability of the Evaluation Tool of Children's Handwriting-Manuscript." American Journal of Occupational Therapy Vol 52(4) Apr 1998, 256-258.
  • Sheffield, B. (1996). Handwriting: A neglected cornerstone of literacy: Annals of Dyslexia Vol 46 1996, 21-35.
  • Simpson, S., & Abromovitch, N. (1980). A diagnostic approach to writing disability: Academic Therapy Vol 16(1) Sep 1980, 83-92.
  • Sims, E. V., & Weisberg, P. (1984). Effects of page prompts on beginning handwriting legibility: Journal of Educational Research Vol 77(6) Jul-Aug 1984, 360-365.
  • Sloan, C. A., & McGinnis, I. (1982). The effect of handwriting on teachers' grading of high school essays: Journal of the Association for the Study of Perception Vol 17(2) Fal 1982, 15-21.
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  • Weintraub, N., Drory-Asayag, A., Dekel, R., Jokobovits, H., & Parush, S. (2007). Developmental trends in handwriting performance among middle school children: OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health Vol 27(3) Sum 2007, 104-112.
  • Woodward, S., & Swinth, Y. (2002). Multisensory approach to handwriting remediation: Perceptions of school-based occupational therapists: American Journal of Occupational Therapy Vol 56(3) May-Jun 2002, 305-312.
  • Workman, E. A., Workman, B. L., & Maclin, J. (1979). Visual and auditory stimulus presentation factors in the behavioral treatment of illegible handwriting: Corrective & Social Psychiatry & Journal of Behavior Technology, Methods & Therapy Vol 25(4) 1979, 129-133.
  • Ziviani, J. (1984). Some elaborations on handwriting speed in 7- to 14-year-olds: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 58(2) Apr 1984, 535-539.
  • Ziviani, J., & Watson-Will, A. (1998). Writing speed and legibility of 7-14-year-old school students using modern cursive script: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal Vol 45(2) Jun 1998, 59-64.

Additional materialEdit




  • Appleton, A. (1992). Handwriting skills of children in third through sixth-grade: Relationship to academic achievement: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Engleman, M. A. (1978). An investigation of handwriting achievement and visual-motor-perception abilities of first grade students: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Strickling, G. A. (1974). The effect of handwriting and related skills upon the spelling score of above average and below average readers in the fifth grade: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Torres Ortiz, P. (1994). The use of computer-assisted instruction in the teaching of handwriting skills. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Tseng, M.-h. (1992). Handwriting performance and perceptual-motor abilities in Chinese school-aged children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Windsor, M.-M. (1995). Handwriting in boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.

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