Wikia

Psychology Wiki

Halo effect

Talk2
34,141pages on
this wiki
Revision as of 19:11, October 12, 2011 by Dr Joe Kiff (Talk | contribs)

Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |

Social psychology: Altruism · Attribution · Attitudes · Conformity · Discrimination · Groups · Interpersonal relations · Obedience · Prejudice · Norms · Perception · Index · Outline


This article is in need of attention from a psychologist/academic expert on the subject.
Please help recruit one, or improve this page yourself if you are qualified.
This banner appears on articles that are weak and whose contents should be approached with academic caution
.

The halo effect refers to a cognitive bias whereby the perception of a particular trait is influenced by the perception of the former traits in a sequence of interpretations.

Edward L. Thorndike was the first to support the halo effect with empirical research. In a psychology study published in 1920, Thorndike asked commanding officers to rate their soldiers; Thorndike found high cross-correlation between all positive and all negative traits. People seem not to think of other individuals in mixed terms; instead we seem to see each person as roughly good or roughly bad across all categories of measurement.

A study by Solomon Asch suggests that attractiveness is a central trait, so we presume all the other traits of an attractive person are just as attractive and sought after.

The halo effect is involved in Harold Kelley's implicit personality theory, where the first traits we recognize in other people then influence the interpretation and perception of latter ones (because of our expectations). Attractive people are often judged as having a more desirable personality and more skills than someone of average appearance. Celebrities are used to endorse products that they have no expertise in evaluating.

Individuals often exhibit their best behavior in the presence of authority figures, presumably to avoid being accosted by said figures.

The halo effect is also a term used in human resources recruitment. While interviewing a person, you might be influenced by one of their attributes and ignore their other weaknesses.

Devil effect

File:IPod Nano in its Dock.jpg

A corollary to the halo effect is the devil effect, or horns effect, where individuals judged to have a single undesirable trait are subsequently judged to have many poor traits, allowing a single weak point or negative trait to influence others' perception of the person in general. Said another way, if we are told that we are seeing a person that has just returned from psychiatric treatment, we will tend to interpret otherwise neutral behaviors as indicators of mental sickness.

As a business model

In brand marketing, a halo effect is one where the perceived positive features of a particular item extend to a broader brand. It has been used to describe how the iPod has had positive effects on perceptions of Apple's other products. The term is also widely used in the automotive industry, where a manufacturer may produce an exceptional halo vehicle in order to promote sales of an entire marque.

See also

References

  • Asch, S. E. (1946). Forming impressions of personality. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 41, 258-290
  • Thorndike, E. L. (1920). A constant error on psychological rating. Journal of Applied Psychology, IV, 25-29
  • Kelly, G. A. (1955). The psychology of personal constructs (Vols. 1 and 2). New York: Norton.
  • Abikoff, H., Courtney, M., Pelham, W. E., & Koplewicz, H. S. (1993). Teachers' ratings of disruptive behaviors: The influence of halo effects: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology Vol 21(5) Oct 1993, 519-533.
  • Aiken, E. G. (1965). Conditioning and generalization of influence behavior: Perceptual and Motor Skills 20(1) 1965, 159-165.
  • Ailawadi, K. L., Harlam, B. A., Cesar, J., & Trounce, D. (2006). Promotion Profitability for a Retailer: The Role of Promotion, Brand, Category, and Store Characteristics: Journal of Marketing Research Vol 43(4) Nov 2006, 518-535.
  • Alleva, E., & Branchi, I. (2006). NGF: A social molecule: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 31(3) Apr 2006, 295-296.
  • Alliger, G. M., & Williams, K. J. (1989). Confounding among measures of leniency and halo: Educational and Psychological Measurement Vol 49(1) Spr 1989, 1-10.
  • Anastasi, A. (1943). Review of The varieties of temperament: A psychology of constitutional differences: Psychological Bulletin Vol 40(2) Feb 1943, 146-149.
  • Anastasiow, N. J. (1963). "Success" in first grade as seen by teachers: Gough's Adjective Check List and teachers' ratings: Psychological Reports 13(2) 1963, 403-407.
  • Anderson, N. H. (1971). Two more tests against change of meaning in adjective combinations: Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior Vol 10(1) Feb 1971, 75-85.
  • Anstey, E. (1971). The Civil Service Administrative Class: A follow-up of post-war entrants: Occupational Psychology Vol 45(1) 1971, 27-43.
  • Archer, J., & McCarthy, B. (1988). Personal biases in student assessment: Educational Research Vol 30(2) Jun 1988, 142-145.
  • Archibald, C. (2002). Sexuality and dementia in residential care--whose responsibility? : Sexual and Relationship Therapy Vol 17(3) Aug 2002, 301-309.
  • Asch, S. E. (1946). Forming impressions of personality: The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology Vol 41(3) Jul 1946, 258-290.
  • Athey, T. R., & McIntyre, R. M. (1987). Effect of rater training on rater accuracy: Levels-of-processing theory and social facilitation theory perspectives: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 72(4) Nov 1987, 567-572.
  • Babad, E. (2005). The Psychological Price of Media Bias: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied Vol 11(4) Dec 2005, 245-255.
  • Bagozzi, R. P. (1988). The rebirth of attitude research in marketing: Journal of the Market Research Society Vol 30(2) Apr 1988, 163-195.
  • Bagozzi, R. P. (1996). The role of arousal in the creation and control of the halo effect in attitude models: Psychology & Marketing Vol 13(3) May 1996, 235-264.
  • Ball, P., & et al. (1982). The retrospective speech halo effect: Some Australian data: Language & Communication Vol 2(3) 1982, 277-284.
  • Baltes, B. B., & Parker, C. P. (2000). Reducing the effects of performance expectations on behavioral ratings: Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes Vol 82(2) Jul 2000, 237-267.
  • Balu, M. (2007). An investigation of subjective bias/halo in 360-degree multi-source assessment through differential item function and structural equation model. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Balzer, W. K., & Sulsky, L. M. (1992). Halo and performance appraisal research: A critical examination: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 77(6) Dec 1992, 975-985.
  • Banks, W. P., & White, H. (1982). Single ordering as a processing limitation: Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior Vol 21(1) Feb 1982, 39-54.
  • Bar-Cohen, Y. (2006). A test of the volitional rating error model. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Barr, M. A., & Raju, N. S. (2003). IRT-based assessments of rater effects in multiple-source feedback instruments: Organizational Research Methods Vol 6(1) Jan 2003, 15-43.
  • Bartlett, C. J. (1983). What's the difference between valid and invalid halo? Forced-choice measurement without forcing a choice: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 68(2) May 1983, 218-226.
  • Barwise, T. P., & Ehrenberg, A. S. (1985). Consumer beliefs and brand usage: Journal of the Market Research Society Vol 27(2) Apr 1985, 81-93.
  • Beck, S. J. (1942). Error, symbol, and method in the Rorschach test: The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology Vol 37(1) Jan 1942, 83-103.
  • Becker, B. E., & Cardy, R. L. (1986). Influence of halo error on appraisal effectiveness: A conceptual and empirical reconsideration: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 71(4) Nov 1986, 662-671.
  • Beckwith, N. E., & Lehmann, D. R. (1975). The importance of halo effects in multi-attribute attitude models: Journal of Marketing Research Vol 12(3) Aug 1975, 265-275.
  • Bent-Hansen, J., Lauritzen, L., Clemmesen, L., Lunde, M., & et al. (1995). A definite and a semidefinite questionnaire version of the Hamilton/Melancholia (HDS/MES) Scale: Journal of Affective Disorders Vol 33(3) Mar 1995, 143-150.
  • Bernardin, H. J. (1977). Behavioral expectation scales versus summated scales: A fairer comparison: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 62(4) Aug 1977, 422-427.
  • Bernardin, H. J. (1978). Effects of rater training on leniency and halo errors in student ratings of instructors: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 63(3) Jun 1978, 301-308.
  • Bernardin, H. J., Bernardin, L., Riegelhaupt, B. J., & Taylor, K. (1987). Halo error: Is its strength dependent upon attribute saliency? : Psychological Reports Vol 60(3, Pt 2) Jun 1987, 1107-1112.
  • Bernardin, H. J., Cardy, R. L., & Carlyle, J. J. (1982). Cognitive complexity and appraisal effectiveness: Back to the drawing board? : Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 67(2) Apr 1982, 151-160.
  • Bernardin, H. J., & Pence, E. C. (1980). Effects of rater training: Creating new response sets and decreasing accuracy: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 65(1) Feb 1980, 60-66.
  • Bernardin, H. J., & Walter, C. S. (1977). Effects of rater training and diary-keeping on psychometric error in ratings: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 62(1) Feb 1977, 64-69.
  • Betts, W. R. (2006). Conjoint analysis: A new approach to satisfaction with mental health treatment. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Bingham, W. V. (1939). Halo, invalid and valid: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 23(2) Apr 1939, 221-228.
  • Bintig, A. (1979). Bias in judging persons and bias measurement: Zeitschrift fur Experimentelle und Angewandte Psychologie Vol 26(2) 1979, 181-197.
  • Bird, H. R., Davies, M., Fisher, P., Narrow, W. E., Jensen, P. S., Hoven, C., et al. (2000). How specific is specific impairment? : Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 39(9) Sep 2000, 1182-1189.
  • Blass, T. (1982). The tenacity of impressions and Jacob's rebuke of Simeon and Levi: Journal of Psychology & Judaism Vol 7(1) Fal-Win 1982, 55-61.
  • Bownas, D. A., & Bernardin, H. J. (1991). Suppressing illusory halo with forced-choice items: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 76(4) Aug 1991, 592-594.
  • Bradshow, J. L. (1969). The information conveyed by varying the dimensions of features in human outline faces: Perception & Psychophysics 6(1) 1969, 5-9.
  • Brown, E. M. (1967). The Influence on the Halo Effect of Training, Method, and Intensity of Relationship: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Brown, E. M. (1968). Influence of Training, Method, and Relationship of the Halo Effect: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 52(3) Jun 1968, 195-199.
  • Buehlmann, U., Bumgardner, M., Lihra, T., & Frye, M. (2007). Attitudes of U.S. retailers toward China, Canada, and the United States as manufacturing sources for furniture: An assessment of competitive priorities: Journal of Global Marketing Vol 20(1) 2007, 61-73.
  • Burdg, N. B. (1981). The effect of the developmentally delayed label on the perceptual-motor/memory performance of normal preschool children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Cahen, L. S. (1967). An Experimental Manipulation of the Halo Effect: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Caldwell, F. F., & Mowry, M. D. (1934). Teachers' grades as criteria of achievement of bilingual children: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 18(2) Apr 1934, 288-292.
  • Chapman, L. J. (1967). Illusory Correlation in Observational Report: Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior 6(1) 1967, 151-155.
  • Clark, C. C., & Lawless, H. T. (1994). Limiting response alternatives in time-intensity scaling: An examination of the halo-dumping effect: Chemical Senses Vol 19(6) Dec 1994, 583-594.
  • Coche, J. M. (1990). Resistance in existential-strategic marital therapy: A four-stage conceptual framework: Journal of Family Psychology Vol 3(3) Mar 1990, 236-250.
  • Colliver, J. A., Swartz, M. H., Robbs, R., & Cohen, D. (1999). Relationship between clinical competence and interpersonal and communication skills in standardized-patient assessment: Academic Medicine Vol 74(3) Mar 1999, 271-274.
  • Conover, J. N., Seymour, G. E., Marx, M. H., & Moore, M. M. (1978). Stereotyped personality trait ratings of concrete and typical stimulus persons: Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society Vol 12(6) Dec 1978, 400-402.
  • Cook, G. I., Marsh, R. L., & Hicks, J. L. (2003). Halo and devil effects demonstrate valenced-based influences on source-monitoring decisions: Consciousness and Cognition: An International Journal Vol 12(2) Jun 2003, 257-278.
  • Coombs, W. T., & Holladay, S. J. (2006). Unpacking the halo effect: Reputation and crisis management: Journal of Communication Management Vol 10(2) 2006, 123-137.
  • Cooper, W. H. (1981). Ubiquitous halo: Psychological Bulletin Vol 90(2) Sep 1981, 218-244.
  • Cooper, W. H. (1983). Internal homogeneity, descriptiveness, and halo: Resurrecting some answers and questions about the structure of job performance rating categories: Personnel Psychology Vol 36(3) Fal 1983, 489-502.
  • Coren, S. (1998). Student evaluations of an instructor's racism and sexism: Truth or expedience? : Ethics & Behavior Vol 8(3) 1998, 201-213.
  • Crissy, W. J. E., & Regan, J. J. (1951). Halo in the employment interview: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 35(5) Oct 1951, 338-341.
  • Curran, J. P., & Lippold, S. (1975). The effects of physical attraction and attitude similarity on attraction in dating dyads: Journal of Personality Vol 43(3) Sep 1975, 528-539.
  • Dalton, D. R., & Todor, W. D. (1984). Unanticipated consequences of union-management cooperation: An interrupted time series analysis: Journal of Applied Behavioral Science Vol 20(3) 1984, 253-264.
  • Darley, J. M., & Gross, P. H. (1983). A hypothesis-confirming bias in labeling effects: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Vol 44(1) Jan 1983, 20-33.
  • Darley, J. M., & Gross, P. H. (2000). A hypothesis-confirming bias in labeling effects. New York, NY: Psychology Press.
  • Davenport, W. G., Brooker, G., & Munro, N. (1971). Factors in social perception: Seating position: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 33(3, Pt 1) Dec 1971, 747-752.
  • Davidson, D. C. (1973). Perception of instructor in relation to self and evaluation of instructor's performance: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 36(2) Apr 1973, 533-534.
  • De Soto, C. B. (1961). The predilection for single orderings: The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology Vol 62(1) Jan 1961, 16-23.
  • Dean, M. L. (1973). The impact of exam question order effects on student evaluations: Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied Vol 85(2) Nov 1973, 245-248.
  • Dennis, I. (2007). Halo effects in grading student projects: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 92(4) Jul 2007, 1169-1176.
  • Derath, G., & Carp, F. M. (1959). The Picture-Choice Test as an indirect measure of attitudes: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 43(1) Feb 1959, 12-15.
  • Dickinson, T. L., & Glebocki, G. G. (1990). Modifications in the format of the mixed standard scale: Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes Vol 47(1) Oct 1990, 124-137.
  • Dillon, W. R., Mulani, N., & Frederick, D. G. (1984). Removing perceptual distortions in product space analysis: Journal of Marketing Research Vol 21(2) May 1984, 184-193.
  • Doll, J. (1988). Cognition and preference: The meaning of the halo effect for multiattributional attitude models: Zeitschrift fur Sozialpsychologie Vol 19(1) 1988, 41-52.
  • Dompnier, B., Pansu, P., & Bressoux, P. (2006). An integrative model of scholastic judgments: Pupils' characteristics, class context, halo effect and internal attributions: European Journal of Psychology of Education Vol 21(2) Jun 2006, 119-133.
  • Eder, R. W. (1983). The interactive effects of format anchors, contingent rewards and sex on rating accuracy and error: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Edwards, J. E. (1981). The interactions of rating formats, rater training, and rater individual difference variables: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Edwards, J. E., & Waters, L. K. (1984). Halo and leniency control in ratings as influenced by format, training, and rater characteristic differences: Managerial Psychology Vol 5(1) 1984, 1-16.
  • Egan, O., & Nugent, J. K. (1983). Adolescent conceptions of the homeland: A cross-cultural study: Journal of Youth and Adolescence Vol 12(3) Jun 1983, 185-201.
  • Elton, C. F., & Rose, H. A. (1972). What are the ratings rating? : American Psychologist Vol 27(3) Mar 1972, 197-201.
  • Engelhard, G. (1994). Examining rater errors in the assessment of written composition with a many-faceted Rasch model: Journal of Educational Measurement Vol 31(2) Sum 1994, 93-112.
  • Engelhard, G., Jr. (1996). Clarification to "Examining rater errors in the assessment of written composition with a many-faceted Rasch model." Journal of Educational Measurement Vol 33(1) Spr 1996, 115-116.
  • Enos, M. (2002). Defining emotion with measures of intensity and range of experience. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Epkins, C. C. (1994). Peer ratings of depression, anxiety, and aggression in inpatient and elementary school children: Rating biases and influence of rater's self-reported depression, anxiety, and aggression: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology Vol 22(5) Oct 1994, 611-640.
  • Feeley, T. H. (2002). Comment on halo effects in rating and evaluation research: Human Communication Research Vol 28(4) Oct 2002, 578-586.
  • Feeley, T. H. (2002). Evidence of halo effects in student evaluations of communication instruction: Communication Education Vol 51(3) Jul 2002, 225-236.
  • Feldman, J. M. (1986). A note on the statistical correction of halo error: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 71(1) Feb 1986, 173-176.
  • Fensterheim, H., & Tresselt, M. E. (1953). The influence of value systems on the perception of people: The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology Vol 48(1) Jan 1953, 93-98.
  • Fiedler, K. (1993). Constructive processes in person cognition: British Journal of Social Psychology Vol 32(4) Dec 1993, 349-364.
  • Finnegan Schaalman, M. L. (1985). Behavioral clarification of rating dimensions: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Fischbein, S. (1984). Self- and teacher-rated school adjustment in MZ and DZ twins: Acta Geneticae Medicae et Gemellologiae: Twin Research Vol 33(2) 1984, 205-212.
  • Fisicaro, S. A. (1988). A reexamination of the relation between halo error and accuracy: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 73(2) May 1988, 239-244.
  • Fisicaro, S. A., & Lance, C. E. (1990). Implications of three causal models for the measurement of halo error: Applied Psychological Measurement Vol 14(4) Dec 1990, 419-429.
  • Fisicaro, S. A., & Vance, R. J. (1994). Comments on the measurement of halo: Educational and Psychological Measurement Vol 54(2) Sum 1994, 366-371.
  • Flyer, E. S., & Carp, F. M. (1962). The Picture Test: Rationale and one validation of the method: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 46(3) Jun 1962, 226-227.
  • Follman, J., Wiley, R., Geiger, G., & Lavely, C. (1974). Effects of halo-effect instructions on level of ratings and intercorrelations: Psychological Reports Vol 35(1, Pt 2) Aug 1974, 392.
  • Foon, A. E. (1986). Social psychology as science or history: An experimental approach: Journal of Social Psychology Vol 126(4) Aug 1986, 431-435.
  • Foster, G., & Ysseldyke, J. (1976). Expectancy and halo effects as a result of artificially induced teacher bias: Contemporary Educational Psychology Vol 1(1) Jan 1976, 37-45.
  • Fox, S., Bizman, A., & Herrmann, E. (1983). The halo effect: Is it a unitary concept? : Journal of Occupational Psychology Vol 56(4) Dec 1983, 289-296.
  • Fox, S., Bizman, A., & Hoffman, M. A. (1989). The halo effect: It really isn't unitary: A rejoinder to Nathan (1986): Journal of Occupational Psychology Vol 62(2) Jun 1989, 183-188.
  • Fox, S., Caspy, T., & Reisler, A. (1994). Variables affecting leniency, halo and validity of self-appraisal: Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology Vol 67(1) Mar 1994, 45-56.
  • Francis, W. D. (1984). An experimental investigation of four models of halo bias: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Franke, J., Hoffmann, K., & Kamphaus, G. (1974). On possible training against "halo effects" in judging people: Psychologische Beitrage Vol 16(2) 1974, 188-202.
  • Friedman, M. G. (1986). 10 steps to objective appraisals: Personnel Journal Vol 65(6) Jun 1986, 66-71.
  • Frone, M. R., Adams, J., Rice, R. W., & Instone-Noonan, D. (1986). Halo error: A field study comparison of self- and subordinate evaluations of leadership process and leader effectiveness: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin Vol 12(4) Dec 1986, 454-461.
  • Gaitz, C. M., Varner, R. V., & Overall, J. E. (1977). Pharmacotherapy for organic brain syndrome in late life: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 34(7) Jul 1977, 839-845.
  • Gardner, D. C. (1974). Halo effects in employer ratings of career education students and coordinators: Psychology in the Schools Vol 11(3) Jul 1974, 363-366.
  • Geiselman, R. E., Haight, N. A., & Kimata, L. G. (1984). Context effects on the perceived physical attractiveness of faces: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology Vol 20(5) Sep 1984, 409-424.
  • Genta, M. L., Costabile, A., Guirini, A., & Franco, L. (1992). Mother-infant early interactions (8 weeks of age) in a situation of perturbed communication (blank face): Giornale di Neuropsichiatria dell'Eta Evolutiva Vol 12(2) Jun 1992, 81-90.
  • Genta, M. L., Costabile, A., Guirini, A., & Franco, L. (1992). Mothernfant early interactions (8 weeks of age) in a situation of perturbed communication (blank face): Giornale di Neuropsichiatria dell'Eta Evolutiva Vol 12(2) Jun 1992, 81-90.
  • Ghosh, D., & Ray, M. R. (2000). Evaluating managerial performance: Mitigating the "outcome effect." Journal of Managerial Issues Vol 12(2) Sum 2000, 247-260.
  • Gibb, G. D. (1983). Influence of "halo" and "demon" effects in subjective grading: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 56(1) Feb 1983, 67-70.
  • Godoy, R., Reyes-Garcia, V., Huanca, T., Tanner, S., Leonard, W. R., McDade, T., et al. (2005). Do smiles have a face value? Panel evidence from Amazonian Indians: Journal of Economic Psychology Vol 26(4) Aug 2005, 469-490.
  • Goffin, R. D., Jelley, R. B., & Wagner, S. H. (2003). Is halo helpful? Effects of inducing halo on performance rating accuracy: Social Behavior and Personality Vol 31(6) 2003, 625-636.
  • Goldman, M., Cowles, M. D., & Florez, C. A. (1983). The halo effect of an initial impression upon speaker and audience: Journal of Social Psychology Vol 120(2) Aug 1983, 197-201.
  • Gomez-Mejia, L. R. (1988). Evaluating employee performance: Does the appraisal instrument make a difference? : Journal of Organizational Behavior Management Vol 9(2) 1988, 155-172.
  • Groner, R. (1967). Perceptual Dimensions of Faces: Zeitschrift fur Experimentelle und Angewandte Psychologie 14(1) 1967, 135-154.
  • Gruenfeld, L., & Arbuthnot, J. (1969). Field independence as a conceptual framework for prediction of variability in ratings of others: Perceptual and Motor Skills 28(1) 1969, 31-44.
  • Guerin, B., & Innes, J. M. (1981). Awareness of cognitive processes: Replications and revisions: Journal of General Psychology Vol 104(2) Apr 1981, 173-189.
  • Gunderson, E. K., & Ryman, D. H. (1971). Convergent and discriminant validities of performance evaluations in extremely isolated groups: Personnel Psychology Vol 24(4) Win 1971, 715-724.
  • Hallworth, H. J. (1961). Teachers' personality ratings of high school pupils: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 52(6) Dec 1961, 297-302.
  • Han, C. M. (1989). Country image: Halo or summary construct? : Journal of Marketing Research Vol 26(2) May 1989, 222-229.
  • Harrod, W. J. (1980). Expectations from unequal rewards: Social Psychology Quarterly Vol 43(1) Mar 1980, 126-130.
  • Harvey, R. J. (1982). The future of partial correlation as a means to reduce halo in performance ratings: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 67(2) Apr 1982, 171-176.
  • Hauer, E., Ahlin, F. J., & Bowser, J. S. (1982). Speed enforcement and speed choice: Accident Analysis & Prevention Vol 14(4) Aug 1982, 267-278.
  • Helander, M. G., & Zhang, L. (1997). Field studies of comfort and discomfort in sitting: Ergonomics Vol 40(9) Sep 1997, 895-915.
  • Henik, A., & Tzelgov, J. (1985). Control of halo error: A multiple regression approach: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 70(3) Aug 1985, 577-580.
  • Henrikson, E. H. (1943). Comparison of ratings of voice and teaching ability: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 34(2) Feb 1943, 121-123.
  • Herman, J. M., Camp, D. L., & Jackson, D. S. (1985). Clinical evaluation in family medicine residency: Journal of Medical Education Vol 60(5) May 1985, 413-414.
  • Hettema, P. J. (1965). Are "field-dependents" dependent on the field? : Anthropology & Medicine 13(3) 1965, 201-207.
  • Holbrook, M. B. (1983). Using a structural model of halo effect to assess perceptual distortion due to affective overtones: Journal of Consumer Research Vol 10(2) Sep 1983, 247-252.
  • Hollingworth, H. L., Terman, L. M., & Kelly, E. L. (1939). Psychological factors in marital happiness: Psychological Bulletin Vol 36(3) Mar 1939, 191-196.
  • Holzbach, R. L. (1978). Rater bias in performance ratings: Superior, self-, and peer ratings: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 63(5) Oct 1978, 579-588.
  • Hoskens, M., & Wilson, M. (2001). Real-time feedback on rater drift in constructed-response items: An example from the Golden State Examination: Journal of Educational Measurement Vol 38(2) Sum 2001, 121-145.
  • Hughes, D. C., Keeling, B., & Tuck, B. F. (1980). The influence of context position and scoring method on essay scoring: Journal of Educational Measurement Vol 17(2) Sum 1980, 131-135.
  • Hulin, C. L. (1982). Some reflections on general performance dimensions and halo rating error: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 67(2) Apr 1982, 165-170.
  • Intons-Peterson, M. J., & Samuels, A. K. (1978). The cultural halo effect: Black and White women rate Black and White men: Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society Vol 11(5) May 1978, 309-312.
  • Iramaneerat, C., & Yudkowsky, R. (2007). Rater errors in a clinical skills assessment of medical students: Evaluation & the Health Professions Vol 30(3) Sep 2007, 266-283.
  • Jackson, C. (1996). An individual differences approach to the halo-accuracy paradox: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 21(6) Dec 1996, 947-957.
  • Jackson, C. J. (1990). Relationships between rater bias, accuracy and perceived task difficulty: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Jackson, C. J., & Furnham, A. (2001). Appraisal ratings, halo, and selection: A study using sales staff: European Journal of Psychological Assessment Vol 17(1) 2001, 17-24.
  • Jackson, D. A. (2002). The negative halo effect of oppositional defiant behaviors on teacher ratings of ADHD: Impact of child gender. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Jackson, D. A., & King, A. R. (2004). Gender Differences in the Effects of Oppositional Behavior on Teacher Ratings of ADHD Symptoms: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology Vol 32(2) Apr 2004, 215-224.
  • Jacobs, R., & Kozlowski, S. W. (1985). A closer look at halo error in performance ratings: Academy of Management Journal Vol 28(1) Mar 1985, 201-212.
  • Jennings, T., Palmer, J. K., & Thomas, A. (2004). Effects of performance context on processing speed and performance ratings: Journal of Business and Psychology Vol 18(4) Sum 2004, 453-463.
  • Johnson, D. M. (1963). Reanalysis of experimental halo effects: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 47(1) Feb 1963, 46-47.
  • Johnson, D. M., & Vidulich, R. N. (1956). Experimental manipulation of the halo effect: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 40(2) Apr 1956, 130-134.
  • Jones, L., & Fletcher, C. (2002). Self-assessment in a selection situation: An evaluation of different measurement approaches: Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology Vol 75(2) Jun 2002, 145-161.
  • Juslen, H., & Tenner, A. (2005). Mechanisms involved in enhancing human performance by changing the lighting in the industrial workplace: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics Vol 35(9) Sep 2005, 843-855.
  • Kammann, R., & Campbell, K. (1982). Illusory correlation in popular beliefs about the causes of happiness: New Zealand Psychologist Vol 11(2) Nov 1982, 52-63.
  • Kammann, R., Smith, R., Martin, C., & McQueen, M. (1984). Low accuracy in judgments of others' psychological well-being as seen from a phenomenological perspective: Journal of Personality Vol 52(2) Jun 1984, 107-123.
  • Kaplan, M. F. (1974). Context-induced shifts in personality trait evaluation: A comment on the evaluative halo effect and meaning change interpretations: Psychological Bulletin Vol 81(11) Nov 1974, 891-895.
  • Kaplan, R. M. (1978). Is beauty talent? Sex interaction in the attractiveness halo effect: Sex Roles Vol 4(2) Apr 1978, 195-204.
  • Kasten, R., & Weintraub, Z. (1999). Rating errors and rating accuracy: A field experiment: Human Performance Vol 12(2) 1999, 137-153.
  • Katz, S. (2003). Physical appearance: The importance of being beautiful. New York, NY: Free Press.
  • Kiker, D. S., & Motowidlo, S. J. (1998). Effects of rating strategy on interdimensional variance, reliability, and validity of interview ratings: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 83(5) Oct 1998, 763-768.
  • Klauer, K. C. (1988). The "consider the opposite" strategy for correction and analysis of halo errors: Zeitschrift fur Experimentelle und Angewandte Psychologie Vol 35(4) 1988, 597-627.
  • Klauer, K. C. (1989). Studies of the robustness of attribution-times-evaluation models: The role of halo effects and dominance: Zeitschrift fur Sozialpsychologie Vol 20(1) 1989, 14-26.
  • Klauer, K. C., & Schmeling, A. (1990). Are halo errors the effects of time pressure? : Zeitschrift fur Experimentelle und Angewandte Psychologie Vol 37(4) 1990, 594-607.
  • Kozlowski, S. W., & Kirsch, M. P. (1987). The systematic distortion hypothesis, halo, and accuracy: An individual-level analysis: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 72(2) May 1987, 252-261.
  • Kozlowski, S. W., Kirsch, M. P., & Chao, G. T. (1986). Job knowledge, ratee familiarity, conceptual similarity and halo error: An exploration: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 71(1) Feb 1986, 45-49.
  • Krampen, G. (1978). On the relationship between job satisfaction and vocational value orientations among teachers: Psychologie und Praxis Vol 22(2) Apr-Jun 1978, 49-57.
  • Kristiansen, C. M., & Zanna, M. P. (1991). Value relevance and the value-attitude relation: Value expressiveness versus halo effects: Basic and Applied Social Psychology Vol 12(4) Dec 1991, 471-483.
  • Lachman, S. J., & Bass, A. R. (1985). A direct study of halo effect: Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied Vol 119(6) Nov 1985, 535-540.
  • Lamarche, L. (1977). The integration of information in terms of polysemic stimuli: Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des Sciences du comportement Vol 9(3) Jul 1977, 233-241.
  • Lance, C. E., Fisicaro, S. A., & LaPointe, J. A. (1990). An examination of negative halo error in ratings: Educational and Psychological Measurement Vol 50(3) Fal 1990, 545-554.
  • Lance, C. E., LaPointe, J. A., & Fisicaro, S. A. (1994). Tests of three causal models of halo rater error: Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes Vol 57(1) Jan 1994, 83-96.
  • Lance, C. E., LaPointe, J. A., & Stewart, A. M. (1994). A test of the context dependency of three causal models of halo rater error: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 79(3) Jun 1994, 332-340.
  • Lance, C. E., & Woehr, D. J. (1986). Statistical control of halo: Clarification from two cognitive models of the performance appraisal process: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 71(4) Nov 1986, 679-685.
  • Landy, F. J., Vance, R. J., & Barnes-Farrell, J. L. (1982). Statistical control of halo: A response: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 67(2) Apr 1982, 177-180.
  • Larose, H., & Standing, L. (1998). Does the halo effect occur in the elderly? : Social Behavior and Personality Vol 26(2) 1998, 147-150.
  • Latham, G. P., Wexley, K. N., & Pursell, E. D. (1975). Training managers to minimize rating errors in the observation of behavior: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 60(5) Oct 1975, 550-555.
  • Lee, R., Malone, M., & Greco, S. (1981). Multitrait-multimethod-multirater analysis of performance ratings for law enforcement personnel: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 66(5) Oct 1981, 625-632.
  • Leitner, L. A. (1972). Discrimination of counselor interpersonal skills in self and others: Journal of Counseling Psychology Vol 19(6) Nov 1972, 509-511.
  • Lester, D., Leitner, L. A., & Posner, I. (1984). The effects of a stress management training programme on police officers: International Review of Applied Psychology Vol 33(1) Jan 1984, 25-31.
  • Lewis, E. W. (1997). A social psychological investigation of legal entrapment. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Li, F., Wang, E., & Zhang, F. (2002). The multitrait-multirater approach to analyzing rating biases: Acta Psychologica Sinica Vol 34(1) 2002, 89-96.
  • Linder, D. E., Pillow, D. R., & Reno, R. R. (1989). Shrinking jocks: Derogation of athletes who consult a sport psychologist: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology Vol 11(3) Sep 1989, 270-280.
  • Lowe, T. R. (1986). Eight ways to ruin a performance review: Personnel Journal Vol 65(1) Jan 1986, 60-62.
  • Luchins, A. S., & Luchins, E. H. (1968). The effect of massing or spacing communications on primacy effect: Journal of General Psychology 79(2) 1968, 191-199.
  • Lucker, G. W., Beane, W. E., & Helmreich, R. L. (1981). The strength of the halo effect in physical attractiveness research: Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied Vol 107(1) Jan 1981, 69-75.
  • Manderscheid, R. W., Koenig, G. R., & Silbergeld, S. (1977). Dimensions of classroom psychosocial environment: American Journal of Community Psychology Vol 5(3) Sep 1977, 299-306.
  • Marsh, H. W. (1983). Multitrait-multimethod analysis: Distinguishing between items and traits: Educational and Psychological Measurement Vol 43(2) Sum 1983, 351-358.
  • Marsh, H. W., & Bazeley, P. (1999). Multiple evaluations of grant proposals by independent assessors: Confirmatory factor analysis evaluations of reliability, validity, and structure: Multivariate Behavioral Research Vol 34(1) 1999, 1-30.
  • Marsh, H. W., & Butler, S. (1984). Evaluating reading diagnostic tests: An application of confirmatory factor analysis to multitrait-multimethod data: Applied Psychological Measurement Vol 8(3) Sum 1984, 307-320.
  • McIntyre, R. M., Smith, D. E., & Hassett, C. E. (1984). Accuracy of performance ratings as affected by rater training and perceived purpose of rating: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 69(1) Feb 1984, 147-156.
  • McNeil, D. W., & Janzen, W. B. (1987). Attitudes toward problem drinkers: Cognitive, affective, and behavioral intention dimensions: International Journal of the Addictions Vol 22(10) Oct 1987, 993-1017.
  • Meier, S. L., Rich, B. S., & Cady, J. A. (2006). Teachers' use of rubrics to score non-traditional tasks: Factors related to discrepancies in scoring: Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice Vol 13(1) Mar 2006, 69-95.
  • Meindl, J. R., & Ehrlich, S. B. (1987). The romance of leadership and the evaluation of organizational performance: Academy of Management Journal Vol 30(1) Mar 1987, 91-109.
  • Metzner, R. (1998). Reflections on the Concord Prison Project and the follow-up study: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs Vol 30(4) Oct-Dec 1998, 427-428.
  • Michelson, L., & et al. (1985). Expectancy bias in behavioral observations of therapeutic outcome: An experimental analysis of treatment and halo effects: Behaviour Research and Therapy Vol 23(4) 1985, 407-414.
  • Miklich, D. R. (1969). An experimental validations study of the Purdue Rating Scale for Instruction: Educational and Psychological Measurement 29(4) 1969, 963-967.
  • Miller, B. J. (1980). Differences in teaching styles between college disciplines on student evaluations of instruction when low-inference items are used and halo effect is controlled: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Miller, G. A., & Chapman, L. J. (1968). Response Bias and Schizophrenic Beliefs: Journal of Abnormal Psychology Vol 73(3, Pt 1) Jun 1968, 252-255.
  • Mills, J., & O'Neal, E. (1971). Anticipated choice, attention, and halo effect: Psychonomic Science Vol 22(4) Feb 1971, 231-233.
  • Mitchell, J. V. (1973). The influence of a desirability halo effect on ratings of institutional environment: Journal of Educational Measurement Vol 10(3) Fal 1973, 195-203.
  • Moritsch, B. G., & Suter, W. N. (1988). Correlates of halo error in teacher evaluation: Educational Research Quarterly Vol 12(3) 1988, 29-34.
  • Morrow, P. C., & McElroy, J. C. (1984). The impact of physical attractiveness in evaluative contexts: Basic and Applied Social Psychology Vol 5(3) Sep 1984, 171-182.
  • Mossholder, K. W., & Giles, W. F. (1983). The use of partial correlation to control halo in performance ratings: Educational and Psychological Measurement Vol 43(4) Win 1983, 977-984.
  • Mount, M. K. (1984). Psychometric properties of subordinate ratings of managerial performance: Personnel Psychology Vol 37(4) Win 1984, 687-702.
  • Mount, M. K., & Thompson, D. E. (1987). Cognitive categorization and quality of performance ratings: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 72(2) May 1987, 240-246.
  • Mumma, G. H. (2002). Effects of three types of potentially biasing information on symptom severity judgments for major depressive episode: Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 58(10) Oct 2002, 1327-1345.
  • Murphy, K. R. (1982). Difficulties in the statistical control of halo: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 67(2) Apr 1982, 161-164.
  • Murphy, K. R., & Anhalt, R. L. (1992). Is halo error a property of the rater, ratees, or the specific behaviors observed? : Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 77(4) Aug 1992, 494-500.
  • Murphy, K. R., & Jako, R. (1989). Under what conditions are observed intercorrelations greater or smaller than true intercorrelations? : Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 74(5) Oct 1989, 827-830.
  • Murphy, K. R., Jako, R. A., & Anhalt, R. L. (1993). Nature and consequences of halo error: A critical analysis: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 78(2) Apr 1993, 218-225.
  • Murphy, K. R., & Reynolds, D. H. (1988). Does true halo affect observed halo? : Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 73(2) May 1988, 235-238.
  • Murray, S. L., & Holmes, J. G. (1997). A leap of faith? Positive illusions in romantic relationships: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin Vol 23(6) Jun 1997, 586-604.
  • Murrone, J., & Gynther, M. D. (1989). Implicit theories or halo effect? Conceptions about children's intelligence: Psychological Reports Vol 65(3, Pt 2) Dec 1989, 1187-1193.
  • Musumeci, C. P. (1996). The moderating effect of rater self-monitoring on the relationship between applicant physical attractiveness and personnel selection decision-making. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Myers, P. N., Jr., Biocca, F. A., Wilson, G., Nias, D., Kaiser, S. B., Frank, M. G., et al. (1999). Appearance and adornment cues. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.
  • Naffziger, D. W. (1984). Personality and biodata correlates of rater effectiveness: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Naquin, C. E., & Tynan, R. O. (2003). The team halo effect: Why teams are not blamed for their failures: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 88(2) Apr 2003, 332-340.
  • Nathan, B. R. (1986). The halo effect: It is a unitary conceptp A reply to Fox et al. (1983): Journal of Occupational Psychology Vol 59(1) Mar 1986, 41-44.
  • Nathan, B. R., & Lord, R. G. (1983). Cognitive categorization and dimensional schemata: A process approach to the study of halo in performance ratings: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 68(1) Feb 1983, 102-114.
  • Nathan, B. R., & Tippins, N. (1990). The consequences of halo "error" in performance ratings: A field study of the moderating effect of halo on test validation results: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 75(3) Jun 1990, 290-296.
  • New, D. K. (2005). Observer bias influences in the Marschak Interaction Method Rating System. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Nielsen, B. L., & Schafer, I. (1973). Reading-class pupils' experience of their own or other's skill: Skolepsykologi Vol 10(6) 1973, 504-524.
  • Nier, J. A. (2004). Why Does the "Above Average Effect" Exist? Demonstrating Idiosyncratic Trait Definition: Teaching of Psychology Vol 31(1) Win 2004, 53-54.
  • Nisbett, R. E., & Wilson, T. D. (1977). The halo effect: Evidence for unconscious alteration of judgments: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Vol 35(4) Apr 1977, 250-256.
  • Oh, M.-Y., & Ramaprasad, J. (2003). Halo effect: Conceptual definition and empirical exploration with regard to South Korean subsidiaries of US and Japanese multinational corporations: Journal of Communication Management Vol 7(4) 2003, 317-330.
  • O'Neal, E. (1971). Influence of future choice importance and arousal upon the halo effect: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Vol 19(3) Sep 1971, 334-340.
  • O'Neal, E. (2005). Influence of future choice importance and arousal upon the halo effect: Integrative Physiological & Behavioral Science Vol 40(3) Jul-Sep 2005, 147-155.
  • O'Neal, E., & Mills, J. (1969). The influence of anticipated choice on the halo effect: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 5(3) 1969, 347-351.
  • O'Neal, E. C. (1970). The influence of arousal and of the importance of anticipated choice upon the halo effect: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Onodera, T., & Miura, M. (1990). Physical attractiveness and its halo effects on a partner: "Radiating beauty" in Japan also? : Japanese Psychological Research Vol 32(3) 1990, 148-153.
  • Ostroff, C. (1993). Rater perceptions, satisfaction and performance ratings: Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology Vol 66(4) Dec 1993, 345-356.
  • Ostroff, C., & Ilgen, D. R. (1992). Cognitive categories of raters and rating accuracy: Journal of Business and Psychology Vol 7(1) Fal 1992, 3-26.
  • O'Sullivan, M. (2003). The Fundamental Attribution Error in Detecting Deception: The Boy-Who-Cried-Wolf Effect: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin Vol 29(10) Oct 2003, 1316-1327.
  • Paine, F. T., Carroll, S. J., Jr., & Leete, B. A. (1966). Need satisfactions of managerial level personnel in a government agency: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 50(3) Jun 1966, 247-249.
  • Palmer, J., Thomas, A., & Maurer, T. (2003). Moderating effects of context on the relationship between behavioral diaries and performance rating halo and accuracy: North American Journal of Psychology Vol 5(1) 2003, 81-90.
  • Palmer, J. K. (1999). An examination of contrast effects, halo, and the effectiveness of accountability and debiasing strategies. (performance appraisal, social cognition). Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Palmer, J. K., & Feldman, J. M. (2005). Accountability and Need for Cognition Effects on Contrast, Halo, and Accuracy in Performance Ratings: Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied Vol 139(2) Mar 2005, 119-137.
  • Peeters, G. (1991). Evaluative inference in social cognition: The roles of direct versus indirect evaluation and positiveegative asymmetry: European Journal of Social Psychology Vol 21(2) Mar-Apr 1991, 131-146.
  • Peeters, G. (1991). Evaluative inference in social cognition: The roles of direct versus indirect evaluation and positive-negative asymmetry: European Journal of Social Psychology Vol 21(2) Mar-Apr 1991, 131-146.
  • Pellegrini, R. J. (1971). Some effects of seating position on social perception: Psychological Reports Vol 28(3) Jun 1971, 887-893.
  • Petzold, P. (1992). Context effects in judgments of attributes: An information-integration approach. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
  • Peyser, J. B. (1985). Examiner bias and intelligence test scoring: A study of the effect of speech-handicapped responses on the scoring of the WISC-R Comprehension subtest: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Phelps, L., Schmitz, C. D., & Boatright, B. (1986). The effects of halo and leniency on cooperating teacher reports using Likert-type rating scales: Journal of Educational Research Vol 79(3) Jan-Feb 1986, 151-154.
  • Philipp, M., & Maier, W. (1986). Methodological problems in polydiagnostic research: Psychopathology Vol 19(5) Sep-Oct 1986, 236-243.
  • Phillips, S. B. (1999). Student evaluation of faculty instruction: Inflated results and student feedback. (evaluation of instruction). Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Poduval, P. R. (1975). Selection of supervisory and managerial personnel: Indian Manager Vol 6(1) Jan-Mar 1975, 57-66.
  • Pringle, C. A. (1981). The effects of teachers' attitudes toward dialects on their expectations for students' academic competence: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Pulakos, E. D. (1984). A comparison of rater training programs: Error training and accuracy training: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 69(4) Nov 1984, 581-588.
  • Pulakos, E. D., Schmitt, N., & Ostroff, C. (1986). A warning about the use of a standard deviation across dimensions within ratees to measure halo: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 71(1) Feb 1986, 29-32.
  • Qibin, L., Ping, Z., Gao, W., & Jinsong, H. (2005). The Halo Effect in Customer Satisfaction Measurement: Acta Psychologica Sinica Vol 37(4) Jul 2005, 524-534.
  • Rae, D. S., & et al. (1976). FORTRAN IV programs for scoring group atmosphere scale (GAS) and class atmosphere scale (CAS) data: Behavior Research Methods & Instrumentation Vol 8(4) Aug 1976, 395.
  • Raines, J. C. (2001). Social workers' countertransference issues with spiritually similar clients. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Remmers, H. H. (1934). Reliability and halo effect of high school and college students' judgments of their teachers: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 18(5) Oct 1934, 619-630.
  • Remmers, H. H., & Martin, R. D. (1944). Halo effect in reverse--are teachers' ratings of high-school pupils valid? : Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 35(4) Apr 1944, 193-200.
  • Remole, A., & et al. (1985). Flicker haloes observed with subjective borders: Perception Vol 14(1) 1985, 31-40.
  • Richardson, R. R., Arbit, J., & Zagar, R. (1980). Evaluation of transcutaneous electrical neurostimulation: Journal of Psychosomatic Research Vol 24(2) 1980, 79-83.
  • Ridge, J. K. (2000). Rater halo error and accuracy in a mathematics performance assessment. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Ritti, R. R. (1964). Control of "Halo" in factor analysis of a supervisory behavior inventory: Personnel Psychology 17(3) 1964, 305-318.
  • Rizzo, W. A., & Frank, F. D. (1977). Influence of irrelevant cues and alternate forms of graphic rating scales on the halo effect: Personnel Psychology Vol 30(3) Fal 1977, 405-417.
  • Rosina, J. (1969). Evaluation of the pupils' progress and marking as factors of motivation: Jednotna Skola Vol 21(9) Nov 1969, 814-827.
  • Rozendal, F. G. (1983). Halos vs. stigmas: Long-term effects of parent's death or divorce on college students' concepts of the family: Adolescence Vol 18(72) Win 1983, 947-955.
  • Rubin, D. (1969). Halo effect in individual response to an attitude questionnaire: Perceptual and Motor Skills 28(1) 1969, 258.
  • Rubin, D. (1970). Halo effect in self-rated attitudes of certain black college freshmen: Psychological Reports Vol 26(3) Jun 1970, 940.
  • Safier, S. I. (1983). Beyond the halo effect: Physical attractiveness and impression formation as a function of cue availability: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Sager, C. E. (1991). A component model of halo: Peer and supervisory ratings of job performance: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Sappenfield, B. R. (1971). Social desirability, the halo effect, and stereotypical perception in person perception and self-perception: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 33(3, Pt 1) Dec 1971, 683-689.
  • Sattler, J. M., Hillix, W. A., & Neher, L. A. (1970). Halo effect in examiner scoring of intelligence test responses: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Vol 34(2) Apr 1970, 172-176.
  • Sattler, J. M., & Winget, B. M. (1970). Intelligence testing procedures as affected by expectancy and IQ: Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 26(4) Oct 1970, 446-448.
  • Sawyer, C. E., & Raybould, E. C. (1981). The visual halo effect in rating scales for infants: Educational Studies Vol 7(1) 1981, 47-53.
  • Schachar, R. J., Sandberg, S., & Rutter, M. (1986). Agreement between teachers' ratings and observations of hyperactivity, inattentiveness, and defiance: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology Vol 14(2) Jun 1986, 331-345.
  • Schlenker, B. R., & Leary, M. R. (1982). Audiences' reactions to self-enhancing, self-denigrating, and accurate self-presentations: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology Vol 18(1) Jan 1982, 89-104.
  • Schmidt, H. D. (1966). Reliability of behavior through rating scales: Archiv fur die Gesamte Psychologie 118(1-2) 1966, 47-72.
  • Schmitt, M. (1992). Beauty and talent: Studies on the disappearance of the halo effect: Zeitschrift fur Experimentelle und Angewandte Psychologie Vol 39(3) 1992, 475-492.
  • Sears, G. J., & Rowe, P. M. (2003). A personality-based similar-to-me effect in the employment interview: Conscientiousness, affect-versus competence-mediated interpretations, and the role of job relevance: Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des Sciences du comportement Vol 35(1) Jan 2003, 13-24.
  • Sezov, D. D. (2002). The contribution of empathy to harmony in interpersonal relationships. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Sheridan, J. E., Fairchild, T. J., & Kaas, M. (1983). Assessing the job performance of nursing home staff: Nursing Research Vol 32(2) Mar-Apr 1983, 102-107.
  • Sherman, M. B. (1984). A social psychological Model of the performance rating process: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Shinar, D., & Stiebel, J. (1986). The effectiveness of stationary versus moving police vehicles on compliance with speed limit: Human Factors Vol 28(3) Jun 1986, 365-371.
  • Siegel, L. (1959). Test Review: Picture Interest Inventory: Journal of Counseling Psychology Vol 6(2) Sum 1959, 166-167.
  • Silver, E. M. (1986). Cognitive style as a moderator variable in rater training to reduce illusory halo: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Silvia, P. J. (2002). Communicator similarity and persuasion: Exploring a balance model. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Sinclair, R. C. (1988). Mood, categorization breadth, and performance appraisal: The effects of order of information acquisition and affective state on halo, accuracy, information retrieval, and evaluations: Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes Vol 42(1) Aug 1988, 22-46.
  • Sine, W. D., Shane, S., & Gregorio, D. D. (2003). The Halo Effect and Technology Licensing: The Influence of Institutional Prestige on the Licensing of University Inventions: Management Science Vol 49(4) Apr 2003, 478-496.
  • Sinha, L. N., & Sinha, R. C. (1974). Halo effect in reciprocal evaluations by male and female college students: Indian Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 11(1) Jan 1974, 32-34.
  • Skay, C. L. (1991). Multidimensional scaling in the statistical control of halo: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Smith, A. T. (1993). Comparisons of self- and supervisor ratings of Alabama principals: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Smither, J. W., Reilly, R. R., & Buda, R. (1988). Effect of prior performance information on ratings of present performance: Contrast versus assimilation revisited: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 73(3) Aug 1988, 487-496.
  • Solomonson, A. L., & Lance, C. E. (1997). Examination of the relationship between true halo and halo error in performance ratings: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 82(5) Oct 1997, 665-674.
  • Srivastava, B. N., & Sett, P. K. (1998). Managerial attribution and response: An empirical test of an attributional leadership model in India: Journal of Social Psychology Vol 138(5) Oct 1998, 591-597.
  • Stein, R. I., & Nemeroff, C. J. (1995). Moral overtones of food: Judgments of others based on what they eat: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin Vol 21(5) May 1995, 480-490.
  • Stein, R. I., & Nemeroff, C. J. (1996). "Moral overtones of food: Judgments of others based on what they eat": Erratum: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin Vol 22(2) Feb 1996, 222.
  • Stevens, J., Quittner, A. L., & Abikoff, H. (1998). Factors influencing elementary school teachers' ratings of ADHD and ODD behaviors: Journal of Clinical Child Psychology Vol 27(4) Dec 1998, 406-414.
  • Stevenson, R. J., & Repacholi, B. M. (2005). Does the source of an interpersonal odour affect disgust? A disease risk model and its alternatives: European Journal of Social Psychology Vol 35(3) May-Jun 2005, 375-401.
  • Strupp, H. H., & Wallach, M. S. (1973). Psychotherapists' clinical judgments and attitudes toward patients (with M. S. Wallach). Lanham, MD: Jason Aronson.
  • Surawski, M. K., & Ossoff, E. P. (2006). The Effects of Physical and Vocal Attractiveness on Impression Formation of Politicians: Current Psychology: Developmental, Learning, Personality, Social Vol 25(1) Spr 2006, 15-27.
  • Suter, W. N., & Roberts, W. L. (1987). An experimental investigation of the beliefs-of-relatedness source of halo: Contemporary Educational Psychology Vol 12(1) Jan 1987, 77-85.
  • Tang, T. L., & Tang, T. L. (1987). A correlation study of students' evaluations of faculty performance and their self-ratings in an instructional setting: College Student Journal Vol 21(1) Spr 1987, 90-97.
  • Taylor, K., Bernardin, H. J., & Riegelhaupt, B. J. (1984). Halo error: An assessment of priming as a reduction technique: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 59(2) Oct 1984, 447-457.
  • Terman, L. M. (1939). The Effect of Happiness or Unhappiness on Self-Report Regarding Attitudes, Reaction Patterns, and Facts of Personal History: Psychological Bulletin Vol 36(3) Mar 1939, 197-202.
  • Terraciano, T. L. (1984). Effects of preobservational information on adaptive behavior ratings of a mentally retarded child: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Timmerman, K., & Hewitt, J. (1980). Examining the halo effect of physical attractiveness: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 51(2) Oct 1980, 607-612.
  • Todoroski, N., Stojanovski, S., & Stojanouski, Z. (1968). The influence of information on pupil achievement on the marking of written assignments: Psihologija 1(2) 1968, 176-180.
  • Toops, H. A. (1923). The measurement of teachers: Journal of Educational Psychology Vol 14(5) May 1923, 310-311.
  • Triandis, H. C. (2000). Cultural syndromes and subjective well-being. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
  • Tsui, A. S., & Barry, B. (1986). Interpersonal affect and rating errors: Academy of Management Journal Vol 29(3) Sep 1986, 586-599.
  • Tvedt, V. M. (1987). An analysis of halo effect in relation to job characteristics in a performance appraisal system: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Tziner, A. (1984). A fairer examination of rating scales when used for performance appraisal in a real organizational setting: Journal of Occupational Behaviour Vol 5(2) Apr 1984, 103-112.
  • Urry, V. W., & Nicewander, W. A. (1966). Factor analysis of the commander's evaluation report: US Army Enlisted Evaluation Center Technical Research Study No 40 1966, 28.
  • Vaa, T. (1997). Increased police enforcement: Effects on speed: Accident Analysis & Prevention Vol 29(3) May 1997, 373-385.
  • Vaillant, G. E., Bond, M., & Vaillant, C. O. (1986). An empirically validated hierarchy of defense mechanisms: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 43(8) Aug 1986, 786-794.
  • Van Rooijen, L., & Vlaander, G. P. (1983). Appearance and disappearance of halo effects in students' judgments of teachers: Tijdschrift voor Onderwijsresearch Vol 8(4) Jul 1983, 157-171.
  • Van Scotter, J. R., Moustafa, K., Burnett, J. R., & Michael, P. G. (2007). Influence of prior acquaintance with the ratee on rater accuracy and halo: Journal of Management Development Vol 26(8) 2007, 790-803.
  • Vance, R. J., Winne, P. S., & Wright, E. S. (1983). A longitudinal examination of rater and ratee effects in performance ratings: Personnel Psychology Vol 36(3) Fal 1983, 609-620.
  • Viswesvaran, C., Schmidt, F. L., & Ones, D. S. (2005). Is There a General Factor in Ratings of Job Performance? A Meta-Analytic Framework for Disentangling Substantive and Error Influences: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 90(1) Jan 2005, 108-131.
  • Vogelaar, A. L., de Vries, R. E., & Kuipers, H. (1994). Performance and personality ratings: Halo, leniency, and agreement: Gedrag en Organisatie Vol 7(3) Jun 1994, 129-144.
  • Wade, T. J., & DiMaria, C. (2003). Weight halo effects: Individual differences in perceived life success as a function of women's race and weight: Sex Roles Vol 48(9-10) May 2003, 461-465.
  • Wade, T. J., Fuller, L., Bresnan, J., Schaefer, S., & Mlynarski, L. (2007). Weight halo effects: Individual differences in personality evaluations and perceived life success of men as a function of weight? : Personality and Individual Differences Vol 42(2) Jan 2007, 317-324.
  • Wade, T. J., Loyden, J., Renninger, L., & Tobey, L. (2003). Weight halo effects: Individual differences in personality evaluations as a function of weight: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 34(2) Jan 2003, 263-268.
  • Wells, W. D. (1964). Recognition, recall, and rating scales: Journal of Advertising Research 4(3) 1964, 2-8.
  • Werner, J. M. (1993). Influences of information acquisition and method of rating, and in-role versus extra-role behaviors on rater accuracy, halo, type and amount of search: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Weston, D. J. (1984). The effects of familiarity and partialing procedures on halo reduction and the accuracy of performance ratings: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Wetzel, C. G., Wilson, T. D., & Kort, J. (1981). The halo effect revisited: Forewarned is not forearmed: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology Vol 17(4) Jul 1981, 427-439.
  • Wicklund, R. A., & Eckert-Nowack, M. (1989). The ascription of self-knowledge as a halo effect: Basic and Applied Social Psychology Vol 10(4) Dec 1989, 355-370.
  • Willis, R. P. (1986). Cognitive style, training format, and rating situation as determinants of halo and accuracy in performance ratings: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Witmer, N. T. (1985). Halo and accuracy in performance ratings: The effects of systematic distortion, personal constructs and frame-of-reference training: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Woehr, D. J., & Huffcutt, A. I. (1994). Rater training for performance appraisal: A quantitative review: Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology Vol 67(3) Sep 1994, 189-205.
  • Woods, K. D. (1999). Counselor attitude and racial consciousness: Their relatedness to perceived severity of client pathology. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Wright, B. A. (1964). Spread in adjustment to disability: Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic 28(4) 1964, 198-208.
  • Wyer, R. S. (1974). Changes in meaning and halo effects in personality impression formation: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Vol 29(6) Jun 1974, 829-835.
  • Yadav, R. S. (1990). Interview as a means of personality assessment: Some baffling dilemmas: Indian Journal of Psychometry & Education Vol 21(2) Jul 1990, 67-79.
  • Zaidel, D. W., Bava, S., & Reis, V. A. (2003). Relationship between facial asymmetry and judging trustworthiness in faces: Laterality: Asymmetries of Body, Brain and Cognition Vol 8(3) Jul 2003, 225-232.
  • Zarevski, P., Bratko, D., Butkovic, A., & Lazic, A. (2002). Self-reports and peer-ratings of shyness and assertiveness: Review of Psychology Vol 9(1-2) 2002, 13-16.
  • Zebrowitz, L. A., Montepare, J. M., & Lee, H. K. (1993). They don't all look alike: Individual impressions of other racial groups: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Vol 65(1) Jul 1993, 85-101.
  • Zebrowitz, L. A., Voinescu, L., & Collins, M. A. (1996). "Wide-eyed" and "crooked-faced": Determinants of perceived and real honesty across the life span: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin Vol 22(12) Dec 1996, 1258-1269.
  • Zempel, J., & Moser, K. (2005). Feedback as a moderator of the validity of self-ratings: Zeitschrift fur Personalpsychologie Vol 4(1) 2005, 19-27.
  • Zysberg, L., & Nevo, B. (2004). "The smarts that counts?": Psychologists' decision-making in personnel selection: Journal of Business and Psychology Vol 19(1) Fal 2004, 117-124.



This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).

Around Wikia's network

Random Wiki