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Gross National Product (GNP) is the market value of all products and services produced in one year by labor and property supplied by the residents of a country. Unlike Gross Domestic Product (GDP), which defines production based on the geographical location of production, GNP allocates production based on ownership.

GNP does not distinguish between qualitative improvements in the state of the technical arts (e.g., increasing computer processing speeds), and quantitative increases in goods (e.g., number of computers produced), and considers both to be forms of "economic growth".[1]

GNP vs. GDPEdit

Gross National Product (GNP) is often contrasted with Gross Domestic Product (GDP). While GNP measures the output generated by a country's enterprises (whether physically located domestically or abroad) GDP measures the total output produced within a country's borders - whether produced by that country's own firms or not.

When a country's capital or labour resources are employed outside its borders, or when a foreign firm is operating in its territory, GDP and GNP can produce different measures of total output. In 2009 for instance, the United States estimated its GDP at $14.119 trillion, and its GNP at $14.265 trillion.[2]


The United States used GNP as its primary measure of total economic activity before 1991, when it began to use GDP.[3] In making the switch, the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) noted both that GDP provided an easier comparison of other measures of economic activity in the United States and that "virtually all other countries have already adopted GDP as their primary measure of production."[4]

List of countries by GNP(GNI) (nominal, Atlas method) (millions of US$)[5] (Top 10)Edit

Rank 2010 2009 2008
1 Template:Country data United States style="text-align:right"|14,600,828 Template:Country data United States style="text-align:right"|14,223,686 Template:Country data United States style="text-align:right"|14,506,142
2 Template:CHN5,700,018 Template:CHN4,857,623 Template:Country data Japan style="text-align:right"|4,853,005
3 Template:Country data Japan style="text-align:right"|5,369,116 Template:Country data Japan style="text-align:right"|4,785,450 Template:CHN4,042,883
4 Template:DEU3,537,180 Template:DEU3,473,814 Template:DEU3,504,510
5 Template:Country data France style="text-align:right"|2,749,821 Template:Country data France style="text-align:right"|2,750,418 Template:Country flag2 style="text-align:right"|2,799,960
6 Template:Country flag2 style="text-align:right"|2,399,292 Template:Country flag2 style="text-align:right"|2,538,578 Template:Country data France style="text-align:right"|2,700,770
7 Template:Country data Italy style="text-align:right"|2,125,845 Template:Country data Italy style="text-align:right"|2,114,668 Template:Country data Italy style="text-align:right"|2,115,482
8 Template:BRA1,830,392 Template:BRA1,563,126 Template:Country data Spain style="text-align:right"|1,449,186
9 Template:IND1,566,636 Template:Country data Spain style="text-align:right"|1,472,046 Template:Country data Canada style="text-align:right"|1,446,669
10 Template:Country data Spain style="text-align:right"|1,462,894 Template:IND1,405,064 Template:BRA1,433,699

See alsoEdit


  1. Daly, Herman E. (1996), Beyond Growth. Beacon Press
  2. Flow of Funds Accounts of the United States. (PDF) Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.
  3. BEA: Glossary "G". Bureau of Economic Analysis.
  4. (1991). Gross Domestic Product as a Measure of U.S. Production. (PDF)
  5. [1]


  • Christian Leipert (March, 1987) "A Critical Appraisal of Gross National Product: The Measurement of Net National Welfare and Environmental Accounting". Journal of Economic Issues, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 357-373
  • England, RW "Alternatives to Gross National Product: A Critical Survey", in Human Wellbeing and Economic Goals (Island Press, 1998)</marquee> please refer it <marquee>

External linksEdit

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