Fandom

Psychology Wiki

Gross motor skill learning

34,203pages on
this wiki
Add New Page
Talk0 Share

Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |

Cognitive Psychology: Attention · Decision making · Learning · Judgement · Memory · Motivation · Perception · Reasoning · Thinking  - Cognitive processes Cognition - Outline Index


Gross motor skill learning is the acquisition of gross motor skills and has been studied in a number of populations.

Aspects of the learning processEdit

Acquisition in childrenEdit

Acquisition by people with learning difficultiesEdit

Animal studiesEdit

See alsoEdit


ReferencesEdit

  • AbdulAhad, D. T. (1986). A comparison of the effects of massed versus distributed practice on gross and fine motor proficiency of male and female educable mentally handicapped adolescents: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Adelson, E., & Fraiberg, S. (1974). Gross motor development in infants blind from birth: Child Development Vol 45(1) Mar 1974, 114-126.
  • Akers, L. C. (1984). Comparison of motor proficiency in learning disabled and normal children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Almeida, G. L. (1994). Practice, transfer and performance enhancement of fast single-joint movements in individuals with Down syndrome. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Altman, R., Talkington, L. W., & Cleland, C. C. (1972). Relative effectiveness of modeling and verbal instructions on severe retardates' gross motor performance: Psychological Reports Vol 31(3) Dec 1972, 695-698.
  • Anderson, A. T. (1993). The effect of an instructional self-talk program on learning a motor skill: The overhand throw: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Anderson, B. J., Alcantara, A. A., & Greenough, W. T. (1996). Motor-skill learning: Changes in synaptic organization of the rat cerebellar cortex: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory Vol 66(2) Sep 1996, 221-229.
  • Anderson, D. F., Gebhart, J. A., Pease, D. G., & Ludwig, D. A. (1982). Effects of age and temporal placement of a modeled skill on children's performance on a balance task: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 55(3, Pt 2) Dec 1982, 1263-1266.
  • Armbruster, R. A. (1973). Perceptual motor, gross motor, and sensory motor skills training: The effect upon school readiness and self concept development of kindergarten children: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • Barr, H. M., Streissguth, A. P., Darby, B. L., & Sampson, P. D. (1990). Prenatal exposure to alcohol, caffeine, tobacco, and aspirin: Effects on fine and gross motor performance in 4-year-old children: Developmental Psychology Vol 26(3) May 1990, 339-348.
  • Bartholomew, R. (1976). Learning devices for mentally retarded children: Education & Training of the Mentally Retarded Vol 11(1) Feb 1976, 37-39.
  • Barto, J. J. (1987). Variable practice effects on recall schema development for an open and closed motor skill: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Bartz, D. W. (1975). Self-acceptance and disconfirming feedback as influences upon performance of a gross motor skill: Journal of Motor Behavior Vol 7(4) Dec 1975, 251-257.
  • Baylor, A. M., & Benjuya, N. (1989). H-reflexes during a motor skill acquisition task: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 69(2) Oct 1989, 659-670.
  • Bechtold, W. W. (1977). The effect of a tutorial relationship between high school student volunteers and peer-aged moderately retarded students participating in individually prescribed programs of physical activity: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Beitel, P. A. (1978). Multivariate relationships among visual perceptual attributes and gross motor tasks with different environmental demands: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Bellitto, F. C. (1981). A correlation between gross motor development and academic success for children exhibiting gross motor deficiencies upon entering school: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Bender, N. N. (1977). Verbal mediation as an instructional technique with young trainable mentally retarded children: The Journal of Special Education Vol 11(4) Win 1977, 449-455.
  • Blakemore, S.-J. (2000). Monitoring the self in schizophrenia: The role of internal models. Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
  • Bolter, C. J., & Dickinson, J. (1980). Note on absence of proactive interference in motor long-term memory: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 51(1) Aug 1980, 80-82.
  • Bourg, M. S. (1974). The effects of peer presence upon the learning of a gross motor task by third-grade children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Bradshaw, T. L. (1985). Relationships among selected basic motor skills and academic achievement variables: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Breslauer, A. H., Mack, J. D., & Wilson, W. K. (1976). A visual-perceptual training program: Academic Therapy Vol 11(3) Spr 1976, 321-334.
  • Bricker, W. A., & McLoughlin, C. S. (1982). Exploration of parental teaching style: Technical note: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 55(3, Pt 2) Dec 1982, 1174.
  • Bridges, D. M. (1993). A comparison of the effects of Self-As-A-Model and Model-Talk on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of gross motor skills by preschoolers who are developmentally delayed: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Brown, B. J. (1973). Mental age and physical performance of trainable mentally retarded: Training School Bulletin Vol 70(3) Nov 1973, 131-134.
  • Brown, D. A. (1995). Acquisition and generalization of gross motor ability following physical therapy in persons with significant physical and mental disabilities. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Bull, T. W. (1986). An assessment of the roles of vision and kinesthesis while learning a discrete ballistic motor skill: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Burwitz, L., Daggett, A., Harrison, P. W., & Davies, B. (1978). Cognition and gross motor performance in ESN children: American Corrective Therapy Journal Vol 32(4) Jul-Aug 1978, 123-126.
  • Capute, A. J., & et al. (1985). Cognitive-motor interactions: The relationship of infant gross motor attainment to IQ at 3 years: Clinical Pediatrics Vol 24(12) Dec 1985, 671-675.
  • Cashin, G. L. (1983). The effect of variable practice upon the acquisition of a novel gross motor task by elementary school children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Certo, N. J. (1977). A systematic comparison of the relative effectiveness of inducing generalization through the utilization of a concurrent vs. successive procedure during initial skill acquisition with handicapped students: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Chamblee, M. B. (1983). Motor skill learning with pattern and error correction feedback: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Chasey, W. C. (1976). Distribution of practice effects on learning retention and relearning by retarded boys: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 43(1) Aug 1976, 159-164.
  • Chasey, W. C., & et al. (1975). A stabilometer computerized analog recording system for studying gross motor skill learning: Behavior Research Methods & Instrumentation Vol 7(6) Nov 1975, 553-556.
  • Chasey, W. C., & Knowles, C. J. (1973). Effects of overlearning on retention and relearning of gross-motor skill by mentally retarded males: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 36(2) Apr 1973, 503-509.
  • Chau, C., Barbeau, H., & Rossignol, S. (1998). Early locomotor training with clonidine in spinal cats: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 79(1) Jan 1998, 392-409.
  • Church, G. E., & Broadhead, G. D. (1990). Psychomotor and behavioral characteristics of young Black and White children. New York, NY: AMS Press.
  • Cleland, F. E., & Gallahue, D. L. (1993). Young children's divergent movement ability: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 77(2) Oct 1993, 535-544.
  • Collier, D., & Reid, G. (1987). A comparison of two models designed to teach autistic children a motor task: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly Vol 4(3) Jul 1987, 226-236.
  • Connor, F. J. (1994). Teaching language concepts and labels to preschool children in special education and Head Start classes through physical education lessons. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Corbetta, D., & Bojczyk, K. E. (2002). Infants return to two-handed reaching when they are learning to walk: Journal of Motor Behavior Vol 34(1) Mar 2002, 83-95.
  • Darrah, J., Hodge, M., Magill-Evans, J., & Kembhavi, G. (2003). Stability of serial assessments of motor and communication abilities in typically developing infants--implications for screening: Early Human Development Vol 72(2) Jun 2003, 97-110.
  • David, M. S. (1975). Effects of peer cooperation on learning a selected gross-motor whole-body task by 17-22 year old women: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Decker, J. T. (1987). A comparison of the effectiveness and efficiency of behavior chaining techniques in the acquistion of selected motor fitness skills by individuals with severe mental retardation: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Dick, M. B., Andel, R., Hsieh, S., Bricker, J., Davis, D. S., & Dick-Muehlke, C. (2000). Contextual interference and motor skill learning in Alzheimer's disease: Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition Vol 7(4) Dec 2000, 273-288.
  • Dick, M. B., Hsieh, S., Dick-Muehlke, C., Davis, D. S., & Cotman, C. W. (2000). The variability of practice hypothesis in motor learning: Does it apply to Alzheimer's disease: Brain and Cognition Vol 44(3) Dec 2000, 470-489.
  • Dick, M. B., Shankle, R. W., Beth, R. E., Dick-Muehlke, C., & et al. (1996). Acquisition and long-term retention of a gross motor skill in Alzheimer's disease patients under constant and varied practice conditions: Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences Vol 51B(2) Mar 1996, P103-P111.
  • Distefano, E. A., & Brunt, D. (1982). Mentally retarded and normal children's performance on gross motor reaction- and movement-time tasks with varying degrees of uncertainty of movement: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 55(3, Pt 2) Dec 1982, 1235-1238.
  • Dix, C. L. (1983). Time-series analysis of intraindividual performances of a complex serial gross motor task: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Dunham, P., & Frens, G. (1983). Effect of specificity and shaping practice on the acquisition of a simple motor skill: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 57(3, Pt 1) Dec 1983, 875-878.
  • Eastridge, D., & Mozzoni, M. P. (2005). Fluency and Functional Motor Skills Following Brain Injury: Behavioral Interventions Vol 20(1) Feb 2005, 77-89.
  • Egstrom, G. H. (1964). Effects of an emphasis on conceptualizing techniques during early learning of a gross motor skill: Research Quarterly 35(4) 1964, 472-481.
  • Ferslew, K. E., & et al. (1983). Determination of fine and coarse pursuit-tracking performance: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 56(3) Jun 1983, 683-690.
  • French, S. N. (1978). Electromyographic biofeedback for tension control during gross motor skill acquisition: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 47(3, Pt 1) Dec 1978, 883-889.
  • Goodman, G., Satterfield, M. J., & Yasumura, K. (1982). Application of learning theory to small group instruction: An innovative program for treatment of children with scoliosis: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research Vol 5(4) Dec 1982, 523-527.
  • Goustard, M. (1986). Use of instruments and the capacity for adaptation in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthi) observed in semifreedom: Journal de Psychologie Normale et Pathologique Vol 81(3-4) 1986, 395-412.
  • Gray, S. A. (1996). The effects of the caregiving environment on the development of canonical babbling and phonology in prenatally crack cocaine/polydrug-exposed infants and toddlers. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Graydon, J. K., & Townsend, J. (1984). Proprioceptive and visual feedback in the learning of two gross motor skills: International Journal of Sport Psychology Vol 15(4) 1984, 227-235.
  • Greenwood, C. M. (1991). Effects of cognitive learning strategies and reinforcement on the acquisition of closed motor skills in older adults: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Hamilton, S. A. (1986). Cognitive-behavioral training of basketball players: Professional and peer training: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Harris, S. R., & Thompson, M. (1983). Water as a learning environment for facilitating gross motor skills in deaf-blind children: Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics Vol 3(1) Spr 1983, 75-82.
  • Harvey, W. J., & Reid, G. (1997). Motor performance of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A preliminary investigation: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly Vol 14(3) Jul 1997, 189-202.
  • Hawkins, A. H. (1979). The effects of instruction and behavior modification on the gross motor recreational behavior of autistic-like children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Hayashi, K. (1992). The influence of clothes and bedclothes on infants' gross motor development: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology Vol 34(6) Jun 1992, 557-558.
  • Hemmert, T. J. (1979). An investigation of basic gross motor skill development of moderately retarded children and youth: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Hore, J., Timmann, D., & Watts, S. (2002). Disorders in timing and force of finger opening in overarm throws made by cerebellar subjects. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences.
  • Horn, E. M. (1989). An investigation of the efficacy of a microcomputer-mediated intervention of gross motor skills for young children with multiple handicaps: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Horvat, M. A. (1980). The effect of a home learning program on the balance performance of elementary aged learning disabled students: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Horvat, M. A. (1982). Effect of a home learning program on learning disabled children's balance: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 55(3, Pt 2) Dec 1982, 1158.
  • Hoss, M. K. (1986). Recreation activities and an examination of the effects of activity programming on persons with Alzheimer's Disease: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Hughes, J. (2007). Challenge me! Mobility activity cards: Down Syndrome: Research & Practice Vol 12(1) Jul 2007, 43-44.
  • Ilmer, S. (1979). Relative effectiveness of verbal instructions, modeling and physical prompting on gross motor performance of moderately mentally impaired students: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Ilmer, S., & Drews, J. (1980). Differential analysis of selected prompts and neurological variables in motor assessment of moderately mentally retarded children: American Journal of Mental Deficiency Vol 84(5) Mar 1980, 508-517.
  • Jain, M., Turner, D., & Worrell, T. (1994). The Vulpe Assessment Battery and the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales: A preliminary study of concurrent validity between gross motor sections: Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics Vol 14(1) 1994, 23-33.
  • Jensen, B. E., Picado, M. E., & Morenz, C. (1981). Effects of precision of knowledge of results on performance of a gross motor coincidence-anticipation task: Journal of Motor Behavior Vol 13(1) Mar 1981, 9-17.
  • Johnson, L. J., Gallagher, R. J., Cook, M., & Wong, P. (1995). Critical skills for kindergarten: Perceptions from kindergarten teachers: Journal of Early Intervention Vol 19(4) Fal 1995, 315-327.
  • Johnson, S. K. (1983). Time-series analysis of individual performances of older women on a serial gross motor task: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Jones, M. B. (1980). Sequential precession and diminishing returns in the acquisition of a motor skill: Journal of Motor Behavior Vol 12(1) Mar 1980, 69-73.
  • Kamps, P. H. (2001). Modifiability of the psychomotor domain. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Karper, W. B. (1986). Effects of gross motor training on attention-deficit behavior in one learning-disabled child: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 63(1) Aug 1986, 219-225.
  • Katzan, M. A. (1980). Visual and kinesthetic mechanisms of balancing ability: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Kennes, J., Rosenbaum, P., Hanna, S. E., Walter, S., Russell, D., Raina, P., et al. (2002). Health status of school-aged children with cerebral palsy: Information from a population-based sample: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology Vol 44(4) Apr 2002, 240-247.
  • Kioumourtzoglou, E. (1986). The effects of contextual interference on the acquisition and retention of selected offensive basketball skills: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Kirby, K. C., & Holborn, S. W. (1986). Trained, generalized, and collateral behavior changes of preschool children receiving gross-motor skills training: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis Vol 19(3) Fal 1986, 283-288.
  • Kleinman, M. (1980). Distribution of practice and pre-task ability in the acquisition of three discrete gross motor skills: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 51(3, Pt 1) Dec 1980, 935-944.
  • Knowles, C. J. (1974). The effect of extrinsic feedback on the learning of gross motor skills by mildly and moderately retarded males: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Kokaska, S. M. (1973). Classroom movement training for the mentally retarded: Education & Training of the Mentally Retarded Vol 8(2) Apr 1973, 10-14.
  • Kozar, B. (1973). The effects of a supportive and nonsupportive audience upon learning a gross motor skill: International Journal of Sport Psychology Vol 4(1) 1973, 27-38.
  • Kozub, F. M. (1997). A comparison between children with cognitive disabilities and non-disabled peers in relation to attributional beliefs and persistence in gross and fine motor tasks. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Kvalseth, T. O. (1978). Effect of short-term practice on digital control performance: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 47(3, Pt 1) Dec 1978, 911-914.
  • Lafuente, M. J., Grifol, R., & Rios, D. (2001). Effects of the firstart method of prenatal stimulation on psychomotor development: From six to twelve months: Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health Vol 15(3) Spr 2001, 207-216.
  • Lam, M. Y., Ip, M. H., Lui, P. K., & Koong, M. K. (2003). How teachers can assess kindergarten children's motor performance in Hong Kong: Early Child Development and Care Vol 173(1) Feb 2003, 109-118.
  • Lancioni, G. E., & et al. (1984). Effects of gross motor activities on the severe self-injurious tantrums of multihandicapped individuals: Applied Research in Mental Retardation Vol 5(4) 1984, 471-482.
  • Lansdown, R. (1988). The clumsy child. Oxford, England: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Larson, B. A. (1978). Use of the Motorvator in improving gross-motor coordination, visual perception and IQ scores: A pilot study: Journal of Music Therapy Vol 15(3) Fal 1978, 145-149.
  • Laszlo, J., Bairstow, P., & Bartrip, J. (1988). A new approach to treatment of perceptuo-motor dysfunction: Previously called "clumsiness." Support for Learning Vol 3(1) Feb 1988, 35-40.
  • Lay, C. M. (1974). The influence of trait anxiety, knowledge of results, and physical working capacity upon the amount of learning and final performance of a gross motor skill among male college students: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Lazar, M. (1989). The effects of contextual interference on the acquisition, recognition, and transfer of a gross motor skill in two separate experiments for educable mentally retarded and normal high school girls: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Lee, T. D., Swinnen, S. P., & Verschueren, S. (1995). Relative phase alterations during bimanual skill acquisition: Journal of Motor Behavior Vol 27(3) Sep 1995, 263-274.
  • Leitschuh, C. A., & Dunn, J. M. (2001). Prediction of the gross motor development quotient in young children prenatally exposed to cocaine/polydrugs: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly Vol 18(3) Jul 2001, 240-256.
  • Liemohn, W. (1976). Rhythm and motor ability in developmentally disabled boys: American Corrective Therapy Journal Vol 30(1) Jan-Feb 1976, 12-14.
  • Llewellyn, J. H. (1973). Effects of two levels of overlearning on retention of a gross motor skill by institutionalized educable mental retardates and normal students: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • Lowenthal, B. (1983). Gross motor activities: Movement for fun and learning: Academic Therapy Vol 18(5) May 1983, 555-560.
  • Madden, G. E. (1985). Hemisphericity, relaxation, and imagery in the learning of a motor skill: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Maltais, D. B., & Bar-Or, O. (2006). 'Assessing functional differences in gross motor skills in children with cerebral palsy who use an ambulatory aid or orthoses: Can the GMFM-88 help?': Comment: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology Vol 48(2) Feb 2006, 158.
  • Marchiori, G. E., Wall, A. E., & Bedingfield, E. W. (1987). Kinematic analysis of skill acquisition in physically awkward boys: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly Vol 4(4) Oct 1987, 305-315.
  • Marotte, D. M. (1977). Assessing gross-motor and body-image development: A composite of the Purdue, Lincoln-Oseretsky, and Valett surveys: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Marquardt, R. C. (1978). Performance, learning, and retention of a novel gross motor skill by trainable mentally retarded male adolescents following varying amounts of practice: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • McLeod, B., & Hansen, E. (1989). Effects of the eyerobics visual skills training program on static balance performance of male and female subjects: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 69(3, Pt 2) Dec 1989, 1123-1126.
  • Merriman, W. J., Barnett, B. E., & Isenberg, D. (1995). A preliminary investigation of the relationship between language and gross motor skills in preschool children: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 81(3, Pt 2) Dec 1995, 1211-1216.
  • Milburn, P. D. (1985). Application of a mathematical model of performance as feedback during skill acquisition: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Molnar, G. E. (1978). Analysis of motor disorder in retarded infants and young children: American Journal of Mental Deficiency Vol 83(3) Nov 1978, 213-222.
  • Morrison, D., & Pothier, P. (1972). The different remedial motor training programs and the development of mentally retarded pre-schoolers: American Journal of Mental Deficiency Vol 77(3) Nov 1972, 251-258.
  • Mount, J. (1987). Effectiveness of visual vs kinesthetic instruction for learning a gross motor skill: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 65(3) Dec 1987, 715-720.
  • Mumford, J. H. (2004). Review of Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) 2 DC Set: Self-instructional Training CD-ROM: Child: Care, Health and Development Vol 30(5) Sep 2004, 563.
  • Nikkhah, G., Falkenstein, G., & Rosenthal, C. (2001). Restorative plasticity of dopamine neuronal transplants depends on the degree of hemispheric dominance: Journal of Neuroscience Vol 21(16) Aug 2001, 6252-6263.
  • No authorship, i. (1921). Motor phenomena and action: Psychological Bulletin Vol 18(3) Mar 1921, 134.
  • Normand, M. C., Lagasse, P. P., Rouillard, C. A., & Tremblay, L. E. (1982). Modifications occurring in motor programs during learning of a complex task in man: Brain Research Vol 241(1) Jun 1982, 87-93.
  • Norrie, M. L., & Henry, F. M. (1978). Influence of an interpolated non-related motor task on short- and long-term memory learning and retention of a gross motor skill: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 46(3, Pt 1) Jun 1978, 987-994.
  • Norrie, M. L., & Henry, F. M. (1978). Reciprocal interference in learning two interleaved gross motor tasks: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 47(2) Oct 1978, 565-566.
  • Nourrit, D., Delignieres, D., Caillou, N., Deschamps, T., & Lauriot, B. (2003). On discontinuities in motor learning: A longitudinal study of complex skill acquisition on a ski-simulator: Journal of Motor Behavior Vol 35(2) Jun 2003, 151-170.
  • O'Callaghan, S. N. (1978). The influence of laterality training upon visual discrimination of direction of kindergarten children: An experiment in crossmodal transfer: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Page, T. J., Iwata, B. A., & Reid, D. H. (1982). Pyramidal training: A large-scale application with institutional staff: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis Vol 15(3) Fal 1982, 335-351.
  • Parks, R. A., & Danoff, J. V. (1999). Motor performance changes in children testing positive for HIV over 2 years: American Journal of Occupational Therapy Vol 53(5) Sep-Oct 1999, 524-528.
  • Patterson, J. A. (1982). The acquisitional process of selected spatial and temporal aspects of a waltz sequence: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Porretta, D. L. (1982). Motor schema formation by EMR boys: American Journal of Mental Deficiency Vol 87(2) Sep 1982, 164-172.
  • Porretta, D. L. (1988). Contextual interference effects on the transfer and retention of a gross motor skill by mildly mentally handicapped children: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly Vol 5(4) Oct 1988, 332-339.
  • Porretta, D. L., & Surburg, P. R. (1995). Imagery and physical practice in the acquisition of gross motor timing of coincidence by adolescents with mild mental retardation: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 80(3, Pt 2) Jun 1995, 1171-1183.
  • Rafiq, H. F. (1987). The effects of structured prompts upon the acquisition and generalization of selected soccer skills in mildly mentally handicapped adults: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Rahmatpanah, M. (1986). The effects of verbal and verbal-visual instructional information feedback upon the gross motor skill acquisition of mentally retarded individuals: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Rau, M. T. (1973). Reward, punishment, and performance of a gross motor skill: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Reeves, L. P. (1992). Motor ability testing of speech-handicapped preschool children: A validation study: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Reid, G. (1980). The effects of memory strategy instruction in the short-term memory of the mentally retarded: Journal of Motor Behavior Vol 12(3) Sep 1980, 221-227.
  • Reid, M. E. (1992). The motor development of infants and children exposed to cocaine while in utero: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Reilly, A., & Eaves, R. C. (2000). Factor analysis of the Minnesota Infant Development Inventory based on a Hispanic migrant population: Educational and Psychological Measurement Vol 60(2) Apr 2000, 271-285.
  • Rider, R. A., & Abdulahad, D. T. (1991). Effects of massed versus distributed practice on gross and fine motor proficiency of educable mentally handicapped adolescents: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 73(1) Aug 1991, 219-224.
  • Rimmer, J. H., & Kelly, L. E. (1989). Gross motor development in preschool children with learning disabilities: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly Vol 6(3) Jul 1989, 268-279.
  • Rine, R. M., Cornwall, G., Gan, K., LoCascio, C., O'Hare, T., Robinson, E., et al. (2000). Evidence of progressive delay of motor development in children with sensorineural hearing loss and concurrent vestibular dysfunction: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 90(3,Pt2) Jun 2000, 1101-1112.
  • Ripoll, H., Keller, J., & Olivier, I. (1994). Development of gross motor skills in children: Catching and intercepting a ball: Enfance No 2-3 1994, 265-284.
  • Rogers, S. J., & DiLalla, D. L. (1991). A comparative study of the effects of a developmentally based instructional model on young children with autism and young children with other disorders of behavior and development: Topics in Early Childhood Special Education Vol 11(2) Sum 1991, 29-47.
  • Rose, D. J., Heath, E. M., & Megale, D. M. (1990). Development of a diagnostic instrument for evaluating tennis serving performance: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 71(2) Oct 1990, 355-363.
  • Roswal, P. M., Sherrill, C., & Roswal, G. M. (1988). A comparison of data based and creative dance pedagogies in teaching mentally retarded youth: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly Vol 5(3) Jul 1988, 212-222.
  • Russell, D. J., & Gorter, J. W. (2005). Assessing functional differences in gross motor skills in children with cerebral palsy who use an ambulatory aid or orthoses: Can the GMFM-88 help? : Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology Vol 47(7) Jul 2005, 462-467.
  • Russell, D. J., & Gorter, J. W. (2006). 'Assessing functional differences in gross motor skills in children with cerebral palsy who use an ambulatory aid or orthoses: Can the GMFM-88 help?': Reply: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology Vol 48(2) Feb 2006, 158-159.
  • Safford, P. L., Gregg, L. A., Schneider, G., & Sewell, J. M. (1976). A stimulation program for young sensory-impaired, multihandicapped children: Education & Training of the Mentally Retarded Vol 11(1) Feb 1976, 12-17.
  • Sanderson, F. H. (1983). Length and spacing of practice sessions in sport skills: International Journal of Sport Psychology Vol 14(2) 1983, 116-122.
  • Sanz Aparicio, M. T. (1987). The effect of social reward in a sample of 21-trisomic infants treated with early stimulation: Analisis y Modificacion de Conducta Vol 13(35) 1987, 129-144.
  • Sayers, L. K., Cowden, J. E., Newton, M., & Warren, B. (1996). Qualitative analysis of a pediatric strength intervention on the developmental stepping movements of infants with down syndrome: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly Vol 13(3) Jul 1996, 247-268.
  • Schack, F. K. (1977). The effects of varying types of reinforcement on gross motor skill learning and retention in trainable mentally retarded boys: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Schack, F. K., & Ryan, T. (1978). The effects of varying types of reinforcement on gross motor skill learning and retention in trainable mentally retarded boys: American Corrective Therapy Journal Vol 32(5) Sep-Oct 1978, 135-140.
  • Schleien, S. J., Heyne, L. A., & Berken, S. B. (1988). Integrating physical education to teach appropriate play skills to learners with autism: A pilot study: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly Vol 5(3) Jul 1988, 182-192.
  • Sewall, L. P., Reeve, T. G., & Day, R. A. (1988). Effect of concurrent visual feedback on acquisition of a weightlifting skill: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 67(3) Dec 1988, 715-718.
  • Shah, V. (1998). Motor development in young children infected with the HIV virus. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Shapiro, D. R., Yun, J., & Ulrich, D. A. (2002). Measuring perceived gross motor skill competence in children: International Journal of Sport Psychology Vol 33(4) Oct-Dec 2002, 391-409.
  • Sigmundsson, H., & Rostoft, M. S. (2003). Motor Development: Exploring the motor competence of 4-year-old Norwegian children: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research Vol 47(4) Sep 2003, 451-459.
  • Sparrow, W. A., & Irizarry-Lopez, V. M. (1987). Mechanical efficiency and metabolic cost as measures of learning a novel gross motor task: Journal of Motor Behavior Vol 19(2) Jun 1987, 240-264.
  • Start, K. B. (1964). Intelligence and the improvement in a gross motor skill after mental practice: British Journal of Educational Psychology 34(1) 1964, 85-90.
  • Start, K. B. (1964). Kinaesthesis and mental practice: Research Quarterly 35(3, Pt 1) 1964, 316-320.
  • Stockard, J. R. (1974). Prior physical exertion in learning a novel gross-motor task: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 38(1) Feb 1974, 146.
  • Stoner, J. C. (1973). The effect of two levels of pre-task exercise upon the performance of a gross motor task by educable mentally retarded children: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • Swinnen, S. (1984). Field dependence independence as a factor in learning complex motor skills and underlying sex differences: International Journal of Sport Psychology Vol 15(4) 1984, 236-249.
  • Swinnen, S., Vandenberghe, J., & Van Assche, E. (1986). Role of cognitive style constructs field dependence-independence and reflection-impulsivity in skill acquisition: Journal of Sport Psychology Vol 8(1) Mar 1986, 51-69.
  • Takahashi, Y., & Kawama, K. (1994). Acquisition of the standing up motion in two children with cerebral palsy: Applications of the "Dousa method": Japanese Journal of Special Education Vol 32(2) Sep 1994, 47-52.
  • Tani, K. (1991). Teaching of walking and standing skills to a child with cerebral palsy and mental retardation: Japanese Journal of Special Education Vol 29(3) Dec 1991, 39-45.
  • Tawney, G. (1897). Review of The Education of the Central Nervous System, a Study of Foundations, especially of Sensory and Motor Training: Psychological Review Vol 4(1) Jan 1897, 85-86.
  • Teague, M. L. (1976). A combined systematic desensitization and electromyograph biofeedback technique for controlling state anxiety and improving gross motor skill performance: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Temple, I. G., & Williams, H. G. (1977). Rate and level of learning as functions of information-processing characteristics of the learner and the task: Journal of Motor Behavior Vol 9(3) Sep 1977, 179-192.
  • Thelen, D. C. (1973). Classroom techniques: A program for training children in coordination and perceptual development: Education & Training of the Mentally Retarded Vol 8(1) Feb 1973, 29-35.
  • Thomas, R. M. (1978). The effects of knowledge of results upon motor skill performance of the trainable mentally retarded: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Thompson, J. E. (1980). The effects of noise, anxiety levels, gender, and trials on the cognitive learning stage of a selected fine motor and a gross motor task: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Tidwell, B. R. (1975). The effects of gross-motor and fine-motor skill training on the perceptual-motor skills and the intelligence scores of kindergarten children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Trahan, J., & Malouin, F. (2002). Intermittent intensive physiotherapy in children with cerebral palsy: A pilot study: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology Vol 44(4) Apr 2002, 233-239.
  • Troster, H., Hecker, W., & Brambring, M. (1994). Longitudinal study of gross-motor development in blind infants and preschoolers: Early Child Development and Care Vol 104 Dec 1994, 61-78.
  • Ulianova, R. K. (1988). Correction of motor defects in preschoolers with early autism: Defektologiya No 4 1988, 66-70.
  • Ulrich, D. A., & Ulrich, B. D. (1984). The Objectives-based Motor-skill Assessment Instrument: Validation of instructional sensitivity: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 59(1) Aug 1984, 175-179.
  • Van Emmerik, R. E., den Brinker, B. P., Vereijken, B., & Whiting, H. T. (1989). Preferred tempo in the learning of a gross cyclical action: The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A: Human Experimental Psychology Vol 41(2-A) May 1989, 251-262.
  • Vardaxis, V. G. (1997). Learning adaptations in performance production measures of novel multijoint tasks. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Vera Noriega, J. A. (1996). Comparative characterization of preschool children in urban and rural areas of Sonora, Mexico: Revista de Psicologia Social y Personalidad Vol 12(1-2) 1996, 105-114.
  • Vintere, P., Hemmes, N. S., Brown, B. L., & Poulson, C. L. (2004). Gross-motor skill acquisition by preschool dance students under self-instruction procedures: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis Vol 37(3) Fal 2004, 305-322.
  • Walker, B. C. (1978). The relative effects of painting and gross-motor activities on the intrinsic locus-of-control of hyperactivity in learning disabled elementary school pupils: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Watkinson, J., & Wall, A. E. (1978). The PREP program: A preschool play program for moderately mentally retarded children: Mental Retardation Bulletin Vol 6(1) Sum 1978, 1-13.
  • Webb, R. C., & Koller, J. R. (1979). Effects of sensorimotor training on intellectual and adaptive skills of profoundly retarded adults: American Journal of Mental Deficiency Vol 83(5) Mar 1979, 490-496.
  • Weber, R. C., & Thorpe, J. (1992). Teaching children with autism through task variation in physical education: Exceptional Children Vol 59(1) Sep 1992, 77-86.
  • Wharry, R. E., Kirkpatrick, S. W., & Stokes, K. D. (1987). Motor training and precision performance with learning disabled children: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 65(3) Dec 1987, 973.
  • Whitehead, R. K. (1974). The effect of four feedback treatments on perception and performance during the early learning of a gross motor skill: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Whiting, H. T., Bijlard, M. J., & den Brinker, B. P. (1987). The effect of the availability of a dynamic model on the acquisition of a complex cyclical action: The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A: Human Experimental Psychology Vol 39(1-A) Feb 1987, 43-59.
  • Wiggins, K. C. (1987). The influence of two instructional approaches on the motor skill acquisition of young children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Wilkerson, H. R. (1980). Massed practice and sex effects in tracking skills: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Williams, H. G., & Abernathy, D. (2000). Assessment of gross motor development. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
  • Williams, H. G., & Abernathy, D. (2004). Assessment of gross motor development. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
  • Williams, J. G. (1987). Visual demonstration and movement production: Effects of motoric mediation during observation of a model: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 65(3) Dec 1987, 825-826.
  • Williams, L. R., & Grbin, I. R. (1976). The large pursuit rotor: A new gross motor tracking task: Journal of Motor Behavior Vol 8(3) Sep 1976, 245-250.
  • Willinger, U., & Eisenwort, B. (2005). Mothers' estimates of their children with disorders of language development: Behavioral Medicine Vol 31(3) Fal 2005, 117-122.
  • Willingham, D. B. (1991). Memory systems and mechanisms of motor skill learning: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Winders, P. C. (1997). Gross motor skills in children with Down syndrome: A guide for parents and professionals. Bethesda, MD: Woodbine House.
  • Wood, J. A. (1987). A kinematic analysis of selected gross movements of the motorically delayed child: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Wright, D. A. (1974). An investigation of the relationships between physiological readiness and the rates and efficiency of learning three gross motor skills by children from five to nine years of age: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Wulf, G., & Schmidt, R. A. (1996). Average KR degrades parameter learning: Journal of Motor Behavior Vol 28(4) Dec 1996, 371-381.
  • Yamamoto, K., & Inomata, K. (1982). Effect of mental rehearsal with part and whole demonstration models on acquisition of backstroke swimming skills: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 54(3, Pt 2) Jun 1982, 1067-1070.
  • Yang, J. J. (1997). Effects of a four-step strategy on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of three gross motor skills by adolescents with mild mental retardation. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Zhang, J., Horvat, M., & Gast, D. L. (1994). Using the constant time delay procedure to teach task-analyzed gross motor skills to individuals with severe intellectual disabilities: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly Vol 11(4) Oct 1994, 347-358.
  • Zhu, W., & Kurz, K. A. (1994). Rasch Partial Credit analysis of gross motor competence: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 79(2) Oct 1994, 947-961.

Ad blocker interference detected!


Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.

Also on Fandom

Random Wiki