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Graduated Reciprocation in Tension-reduction (GRIT) was an approach to international relations developed by Charles E. Osgood. It was first articulated in a paper titled, "Reciprocal Initiative",and developed at greater length in his seminal book, An Alternative To War Or Surrender, both published in 1962. Osgood hoped to be able to reverse the nuclear arms race through a series of carefully calibrated,reciprocal steps which would gradually foster greater trust between the two superpowers. He was appointed to the Social Science Advisory Board of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, serving from 1964 to 1971.