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Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)
Glycopyrrolate chemical structure
| CAS number |
| ATC code |
| PubChem |
| DrugBank |
|Molecular weight||318.431 g/mol|
|Elimination half-life||0.6–1.2 hours|
|Excretion||85% renal, unknown amount in the bile|
|Routes of administration||oral, IV|
Glycopyrrolate is a medication of the muscarinic anticholinergic group. It does not cross the blood brain barrier and consequently has no to few central effects. It is a synthetic quaternary amine. It is available in oral and intravenous (i.v.) forms.
In anesthesia, glycopyrrolate injection can be used as a preoperative medication in order to reduce salivary, tracheobronchial, and pharyngeal secretions, as well as decreasing the acidity of gastric secretion. It is also used in conjunction with neostigmine, a neuromuscular blocking reversal agent, to prevent neostigmine's muscarinic effects such as bradycardia.
Since glycopyrrolate reduces the body's sweating ability, it can even cause fever and heat stroke in hot environments. Dry mouth, difficulty urinating, headaches, diarrhea and constipation are also observed side effects of the medication.
- ↑ Bajaj V, Langtry JA (July 2007). Use of oral glycopyrronium bromide in hyperhidrosis. Br. J. Dermatol. 157 (1): 118–21.
- ↑ Haddad EB, Patel H, Keeling JE, Yacoub MH, Barnes PJ, Belvisi MG (May 1999). Pharmacological characterization of the muscarinic receptor antagonist, glycopyrrolate, in human and guinea-pig airways. Br. J. Pharmacol. 127 (2): 413–20.
- ↑ Mier RJ, Bachrach SJ, Lakin RC, Barker T, Childs J, Moran M (December 2000). Treatment of sialorrhea with glycopyrrolate: A double-blind, dose-ranging study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 154 (12): 1214–8.
- ↑ Tscheng DZ (November 2002). Sialorrhea - therapeutic drug options. Ann Pharmacother 36 (11): 1785–90.
- ↑ Olsen AK, Sjøgren P (October 1999). Oral glycopyrrolate alleviates drooling in a patient with tongue cancer. J Pain Symptom Manage 18 (4): 300–2.
- ↑ Hansel TT, Neighbour H, Erin EM, et al. (October 2005). Glycopyrrolate causes prolonged bronchoprotection and bronchodilatation in patients with asthma. Chest 128 (4): 1974–9.
- ↑ Gilman MJ, Meyer L, Carter J, Slovis C (November 1990). Comparison of aerosolized glycopyrrolate and metaproterenol in acute asthma. Chest 98 (5): 1095–8.
- ↑ Tzelepis G, Komanapolli S, Tyler D, Vega D, Fulambarker A (January 1996). Comparison of nebulized glycopyrrolate and metaproterenol in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eur. Respir. J. 9 (1): 100–3.
- ↑ Kim WO, Kil HK, Yoon DM, Cho MJ (August 2003). Treatment of compensatory gustatory hyperhidrosis with topical glycopyrrolate. Yonsei Med. J. 44 (4): 579–82.
- ↑ Kim WO, Kil HK, Yoon KB, Yoon DM (May 2008). Topical glycopyrrolate for patients with facial hyperhidrosis. Br. J. Dermatol. 158 (5): 1094–7.
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