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Glycogenolysis

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Glycogenesis is the process of glycogen synthesis, in which glucose molecules are added to chains of glycogen. This process is activated by insulin in response to high glucose levels.

The first step involves the synthesis of UDP-glucose from glucose-1-phosphate and UTP:

Glucose 1-phosphate + UTP + H2O → UDP-glucose + 2 Pi

This reaction is catalyzed by UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. This reaction would be reversible if it were not for the rapid exergonic hydrolysis (hence the need for water) of pyrophosphate to orthophosphate (catalyzed by pyrophosphatase).

In the second reaction, UDP-glucose is transferred to the hydroxyl group of the existing chain, forming an α-1,4-glycosidic link. This reaction is catalyzed by glycogen synthase. Glycogen synthase can only add to a chain that contains at least four units. Therefore, the protein glycogenin is used as a "primer-molecule." α-1,6 Links are created by a branching enzyme.

Glycogen synthase is activated by phosphoprotein phoshatase. This enzyme is activated by insulin.

External linksEdit

es:Glucogénesis
fr:Glycogénogénèse
it:Glicogenosintesi
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