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Glycolysis Metabolic Pathway
- Glycolysis - the breakdown of the glucose molecule in order to obtain ATP and Pyruvate
- Glycogenesis - the conversion of excess glucose into glycogen in order to prevent excessive osmotic pressure buildup inside the cell
- Glycogenolysis - the breakdown of glycogen into glucose, in order to provide a steady level of glucose supply for glucose-dependent tissues.
- Gluconeogenesis - de novo synthesis of glucose molecules from simple organic compounds
The hormone insulin makes the body convert glucose into glycogen and puts it into the liver; the insulin is made in the pancreas, and is secreted when the blood sugar is too high. Insulin also promotes the use of glucose by the muscles.
The hormone glucagon, on the other hand, acts in the opposite direction and promotes the conversion of glycogen to glucose in response to low blood sugar.