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Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is derived from the transcription product of the proglucagon gene. The major source of GLP-1 in the body is the intestinal L cell that secretes GLP-1 as a gut hormone. The biologically active forms of GLP-1 are: GLP-1-(7-37) and GLP-1-(7-36)NH2.GLP-1 is also a neuropeptide (Jin et al., 1988) regulating several neuroendocrine and autonomic responses (Turton et al., 1996)
GLP-1 secretion by L cells is dependent on the presence of nutrients in the lumen of the small intestine. The secretagogues (agents that causes or stimulates secretion) of this hormone include major nutrients like carbohydrate, protein and lipid. Once in the circulation, GLP-1 has a half life of less than 2 minutes, due to rapid degradation by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-4.
GLP-1 possesses several physiological properties that make it a subject of intensive investigation as a potential treatment of diabetes mellitus.. The known physiological functions of GLP-1 include:
- increases insulin secretion from the pancreas in a glucose-dependent manner.
- decreases glucagon secretion from the pancreas.
- increases beta cells mass and insulin gene expression.
- inhibits acid secretion and gastric emptying in the stomach.
- decreases food intake by increasing satiety.
- Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor
- Glucagon-like peptide-2
- type 2 diabetes
- Dipeptidyl peptidase-4
- ↑ "Diabetes and Intestinal Incretin Hormones: A New Therapeutic Paradigm" at medscape.com (slide 36)
- ↑ Toft-Nielsen M, Madsbad S, Holst J (2001). Determinants of the effectiveness of glucagon-like peptide-1 in type 2 diabetes.. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86 (8): 3853-60. PMID 11502823.
- ↑ Meier J, Weyhe D, Michaely M, Senkal M, Zumtobel V, Nauck M, Holst J, Schmidt W, Gallwitz B (2004). Intravenous glucagon-like peptide 1 normalizes blood glucose after major surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes.. Crit Care Med 32 (3): 848-51. PMID 15090972.
Gastrointestinal hormones, pancreatic hormones: proglucagon
de:Glucagon-like Peptid 1