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The '''globus pallidus''' ([[Latin]] for "pale globe") or pallidum (pallid), is a sub-[[cortical]] structure of the [[brain]]. It is a major element of the [[basal ganglia]] system. In this system , it is a major element of the basal ganglia core; made up of the striatum and its direct targets: pallidum and nigra. The last two are made up of the same neuronal elements, have a similar main afferent, the striatum, a similar synaptology and do not receive cortical afferents.
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The '''globus pallidus''' ([[Latin]] for "pale globe") is a sub-[[Cerebral cortex|cortical]] structure of the [[brain]]. It is a major element of the [[basal ganglia]] system. In this system, it is a major constituent of the basal ganglia core, which consists of the striatum and its direct targets: globus pallidus and [[substantia nigra]]. The last two are made up of the same neuronal elements, have a similar main afferent (the dorsal [[striatum]]), have a similar [[synapse|synaptology]], and do not receive cortical afferents. It was recently discovered [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/7132829.stm] to play an active part in pre-filtering external stimuli and may help reduce the amount of irrelevant information the brain needs to store.
   
==History==
+
==History of name==
The origin of the name is not established. It was known by Dejerine (1906) but not by Ramon y Cajal (1909-1911). As the elements in no way have the shape of a globe, Foix and Nicolesco (1925), the Vogts (1941), Crosby et all.(1962) followed by the Terminologia anatomica proposed the simpler term (neutral adjective) of pallidum (pale). During a long period the pallidum was unduly linked to the putamen in the nucleus lenticularis or lentiformis. This was a heterogeneous anatomical entity that should no longer be considered a part of the pallidum. The link with the substantia reticulata was stressed very early on due to the similarities in dendritic arborisation, but in spite of solid arguments this link is still not widely accepted. The two however constitute a particular set of the basal ganglia system (the pallidonigral set).
+
The origin of the name is not established. It was known by Dejerine (1906) but not by [[Santiago Ramón y Cajal]] (1909-1911). As the elements in no way have the shape of a globe, Foix and Nicolesco (1925), the Vogts (1941), Crosby et all.(1962) followed by the Terminologia anatomica proposed the simpler term (neuter adjective) of pallidum (pale). During a long period the globus pallidus was unduly linked to the putamen in the [[lentiform nucleus]] (nucleus lenticularis or lentiformis). This was a heterogeneous anatomical entity that is part of the [[striatum]] rather than the pallidum. The link with the substantia reticulata was stressed very early on due to the similarities in dendritic arborisation, but in spite of solid arguments this link is still not widely accepted. The two however constitute a particular set of the basal ganglia system (the pallidonigral set).
   
 
==Parts==
 
==Parts==
In [[primate]]s, the [[pallidum]] is divided into two parts (and not segments, which are geometrically different things) by the [[medial medullary lamina]].A frequent nomenclature use the adjective internus and externus, which in many languages may be interpreted as meaning inside and outside. The anatomically usual medialis and lateralis are preferable. The medial pallidum(GPi) and lateral pallidum (GPe) are thus the two parts of the pallidum that are two closed nuclei surrounded everywhere by myelinic walls. In primates an accessory lamina in the medial pallidum separates the last into a lateral (PaML) and a medial (PaMM) subparts, which do not correspond to known functional subdivisions.
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In [[primate]]s, the dorsal pallidum, or globus pallidus, is divided into two segments by the [[medial medullary lamina]]. A frequent nomenclature uses the adjectives internal and external to refer to the two divisions of the globus pallidus. The medial segment of the dorsal pallidum, internal globus pallidus (GPi), and lateral division of the dorsal pallidum, external globus pallidus (GPe), are thus the two parts of the dorsal pallidum that are two closed nuclei surrounded everywhere by myelinic walls.
   
The later isolation of a ventral subdivision by Heimer (1978) has not the same strength and value, with no clear border. Its isolation is not accepted by all authors.
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The ventral pallidum lies within the substantia innominata (Latin for un-named substance) and receives efferent connections from the ventral [[striatum]] ([[nucleus accumbens]] and [[olfactory tubercle]]). The ventral pallidum projects to the dorsomedial nucleus of the dorsal [[thalamus]], which projects to the prefrontal cortex. The ventral pallidum also projects to the pedunclopontine nucleus and tegmental motor area. The function of the ventral pallidum is limbic-somatic motor interface for the planning and inhibition of movements from the dorsal striatopallidal complex.
   
 
==Structure==
 
==Structure==
Both pallidal nuclei are made up of the same neuronal components. Almost all neurons in primates are very large, parvalbumin positive, with very large dendritic arborizations. These have the peculiarity of having the three dimensional shape of flat discs, parallel one to the other, parallel to the border of the pallidum<ref>Yelnik, J., Percheron, G., and François, C. (1984) A Golgi analysis of the primate globus pallidus. II- Quantitative morphology and spatial orientation of dendritic arborisations. J. Comp. Neurol. 227:200-213</ref> and perpendicular to the afferent striatopallidal axons.<ref>Percheron, G.,Yelnik, J. and François. C. (1984) A Golgi analysis of the primate globus pallidus. III-Spatial organization of the striato-pallidal complex. J. Comp. Neurol. 227: 214-227</ref> There are only a few small local circuitry neurons.
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Pallidal nuclei are made up of the same neuronal components. In primates, almost all pallidal neurons are very large, [[parvalbumin]] positive, with very large dendritic arborizations. These have the peculiarity of having the three-dimensional shape of flat discs, parallel to one another, parallel to the border of the pallidum<ref>Yelnik, J., Percheron, G., and François, C. (1984) A Golgi analysis of the primate globus pallidus. II- Quantitative morphology and spatial orientation of dendritic arborisations. J. Comp. Neurol. 227:200-213</ref> and perpendicular to the afferent striatopallidal axons.<ref>Percheron, G.,Yelnik, J. and François. C. (1984) A Golgi analysis of the primate globus pallidus. III-Spatial organization of the striato-pallidal complex. J. Comp. Neurol. 227: 214-227</ref> There are only a few small local circuitry neurons.
   
The globus pallidus is traversed by the numerous [[myelin|myelinated]] axons of the striato-pallidonigral bundle that give it the pale appearance from which it is named.
+
The globus pallidus is traversed by the numerous [[myelin]]ated axons of the striato-pallidonigral bundle that give it the pale appearance from which it is named.
   
The ultrastructure is very peculiar as the long dendrites are everywhere without discontinuity, covered by synapses.<ref name="fox">Fox, C.A., Andrade, A.N. Du Qui, I.J., Rafols, J.A. (1974) The primate globus pallidus. A Golgi and electron microscopic study. J. Hirnforsch. 15: 75-93</ref><ref name="di Figlia">di Figlia, M., Pasik, P., Pasik, T. (1982) A Golgi and ultrastructural study of the monkey globus pallidus. J. Comp. Neurol. 212: 53-75</ref>
+
The ultrastructure is very peculiar, as the long dendrites are everywhere, without discontinuity, covered by synapses.<ref name="fox">Fox, C.A., Andrade, A.N. Du Qui, I.J., Rafols, J.A. (1974) The primate globus pallidus. A Golgi and electron microscopic study. J. Hirnforsch. 15: 75-93</ref><ref name="di Figlia">di Figlia, M., Pasik, P., Pasik, T. (1982) A Golgi and ultrastructural study of the monkey globus pallidus. J. Comp. Neurol. 212: 53-75</ref>
   
 
==Pallidonigral pacemaker==
 
==Pallidonigral pacemaker==
   
The two pallidal nuclei and the two nigral (lateralis and reticulata) parts constitute a high frequency autonomous pacemaker<ref>Surmeier, D.J., Mercer, J.N. and Savio Chan, C. (2005) Autonomous pacemakers in the basal ganglia: who needs excitatory synapses anyway? Cur. Opin.Neurobiol. 15:312-318.</ref> (see [[primate basal ganglia system]])
+
The two pallidal nuclei and the two nigral (pars compacta and pars reticulata) parts constitute a high-frequency autonomous pacemaker<ref>Surmeier, D.J., Mercer, J.N. and Savio Chan, C. (2005) Autonomous pacemakers in the basal ganglia: who needs excitatory synapses anyway? Cur. Opin.Neurobiol. 15:312-318.</ref> (see [[primate basal ganglia system#Pallido-nigral_set_and_pacemaker]])
   
 
==Common afferences==
 
==Common afferences==
The two parts receive successively a large quantity of GABAergic axonal terminal arborisations from the [[striatum]] through the dense striato-pallidonigral bundle. The synaptology is very peculiar (see [[primate basal ganglia system]]).<ref name="fox"> </ref><ref name="di Figlia"> </ref>The striatal afference contribute for more than 90% of synapses.
+
The two parts receive successively a large quantity of GABAergic axonal terminal arborisations from the [[striatum]] through the dense striato-pallidonigral bundle. The synaptology is very peculiar (see [[primate basal ganglia system]]).<ref name="fox" /><ref name="di Figlia" />The striatal afference contribute for more than 90% of synapses.{{Fact|date=December 2008}}
 
The two pallidal nuclei receives dopaminergic axons from the pars compacta of the substantia nigra.
 
The two pallidal nuclei receives dopaminergic axons from the pars compacta of the substantia nigra.
   
==Other connections and subsystems==
 
 
[[Image:Basal-ganglia-coronal-sections-large.png|thumb|400px|Coronal slices of human brain showing the basal ganglia.<BR>ROSTRAL: [[striatum]], [[globus pallidus]] (GPe and GPi)<BR>CAUDAL: [[subthalamic nucleus]] (STN), [[substantia nigra]] (SN)]]
 
[[Image:Basal-ganglia-coronal-sections-large.png|thumb|400px|Coronal slices of human brain showing the basal ganglia.<BR>ROSTRAL: [[striatum]], [[globus pallidus]] (GPe and GPi)<BR>CAUDAL: [[subthalamic nucleus]] (STN), [[substantia nigra]] (SN)]]
===Lateral pallidum (GPe)===
 
   
The lateral pallidum receives a strong [[glutamate]]rgic projection from the [[subthalamic nucleus]]. The two form a particular system: a [[coupled pacemaker]].
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==See also==
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*[[Lentiform nucleus]]
The axons of the lateral pallidum go essentially to the [[subthalamic nucleus]]. They go also to other elements of the basal ganglia system, the striatum, the [[substantia nigra]] pars reticulata and the medial pallidum, where they release the [[neurotransmitter]] [[GABA]]. The lateral pallidum is particular in comparison to the other elements of the set by the fact that it does not work as an output base of the basal ganglia (not sending axons to the thalamus) but as the main regulator of the basal ganglia system. It is sometimes used as a target for [[deep brain stimulation]] as a treatment for [[Parkinson's disease]].
 
 
===Medial pallidum (GPi)===
 
The medial pallidum (internal segment of the globus pallidus; GPi) is one of the output nuclei of the basal ganglia (the other being the substantia nigra pars reticulata). The GABA-containing neurons send their axons to a specific [[thalamus|thalamic]] nucleus (VO), to the centremedian complex and to the pedunculopontine complex.<ref>Nauta, W.J.H. and Mehler, W.R. (1966) Projections of the lentiform nucleus in the monkey. Brain Res. 1: 3-42</ref><ref>Percheron, G., François, C., Talbi, B., Yelnik, J., Fenelon, G. (1996) The primate motor thalamus. Brain Res. Rev. 22: 93-181 </ref>
 
 
The efferent bundle is constituted first of the ansa and fasciculus lenticularis, then crosses the internal capsule as the Edinger's comb system then arrives at the laterosuperior corner of the subthalamic nucleus and constitutes the Forel's field H2, then H and suddendly changes its direction to form H1 that goes to the inferior part of the thalamus. The distribution of axonal islands is widespread in the lateral region of the thalamus. The innervation of the central region is done by collaterals.<ref>Arrechi-Bouchhioua, P., Yelnik, K., François, C..,Percheron. G., Tandé, D. (1997) Three-dimensional morphology and distribution of pallidal axons projecting to both the lateral region of the thalamus and the central complex in primates. Brain Res. 754: 311-314</ref>
 
   
 
==References==
 
==References==
<references/>
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{{reflist}}
   
 
==Additional images==
 
==Additional images==
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Image:Gray744.png|Coronal section of brain through anterior commissure.
 
Image:Gray744.png|Coronal section of brain through anterior commissure.
 
Image:Telencephalon-Horiconatal.jpg|Horizontal section of right cerebral hemisphere.
 
Image:Telencephalon-Horiconatal.jpg|Horizontal section of right cerebral hemisphere.
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Image:Basal-ganglia-classic.png |Connectivity Diagram showing glutamatergic pathways as red, dopaminergic as magenta and GABA pathways as blue.
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Image:Pallidus.jpg|Horizontal slice of MRI-image showing the globus pallidus.
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
   
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* [http://www.prometheus.uni-tuebingen.de/sec/vl/documents/42/bgana_normal.gif Diagram at uni-tuebingen.de]
 
* [http://www.prometheus.uni-tuebingen.de/sec/vl/documents/42/bgana_normal.gif Diagram at uni-tuebingen.de]
   
{{Prosencephalon}}
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{{Basal ganglia}}
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[[Category:Basal ganglia]]
 
[[Category:Cerebrum]]
 
[[Category:Cerebrum]]
   
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Latest revision as of 22:25, December 16, 2008

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Brain: Globus pallidus
Brain structure
Globus pallidus labeled at bottom right.
DA-loops in PD
Latin '
Gray's subject #
Part of
Components
Artery
Vein
BrainInfo/UW hier-213
MeSH A08.186.211.730.885.105.487.397

The globus pallidus (Latin for "pale globe") is a sub-cortical structure of the brain. It is a major element of the basal ganglia system. In this system, it is a major constituent of the basal ganglia core, which consists of the striatum and its direct targets: globus pallidus and substantia nigra. The last two are made up of the same neuronal elements, have a similar main afferent (the dorsal striatum), have a similar synaptology, and do not receive cortical afferents. It was recently discovered [1] to play an active part in pre-filtering external stimuli and may help reduce the amount of irrelevant information the brain needs to store.

History of nameEdit

The origin of the name is not established. It was known by Dejerine (1906) but not by Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1909-1911). As the elements in no way have the shape of a globe, Foix and Nicolesco (1925), the Vogts (1941), Crosby et all.(1962) followed by the Terminologia anatomica proposed the simpler term (neuter adjective) of pallidum (pale). During a long period the globus pallidus was unduly linked to the putamen in the lentiform nucleus (nucleus lenticularis or lentiformis). This was a heterogeneous anatomical entity that is part of the striatum rather than the pallidum. The link with the substantia reticulata was stressed very early on due to the similarities in dendritic arborisation, but in spite of solid arguments this link is still not widely accepted. The two however constitute a particular set of the basal ganglia system (the pallidonigral set).

PartsEdit

In primates, the dorsal pallidum, or globus pallidus, is divided into two segments by the medial medullary lamina. A frequent nomenclature uses the adjectives internal and external to refer to the two divisions of the globus pallidus. The medial segment of the dorsal pallidum, internal globus pallidus (GPi), and lateral division of the dorsal pallidum, external globus pallidus (GPe), are thus the two parts of the dorsal pallidum that are two closed nuclei surrounded everywhere by myelinic walls.

The ventral pallidum lies within the substantia innominata (Latin for un-named substance) and receives efferent connections from the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle). The ventral pallidum projects to the dorsomedial nucleus of the dorsal thalamus, which projects to the prefrontal cortex. The ventral pallidum also projects to the pedunclopontine nucleus and tegmental motor area. The function of the ventral pallidum is limbic-somatic motor interface for the planning and inhibition of movements from the dorsal striatopallidal complex.

StructureEdit

Pallidal nuclei are made up of the same neuronal components. In primates, almost all pallidal neurons are very large, parvalbumin positive, with very large dendritic arborizations. These have the peculiarity of having the three-dimensional shape of flat discs, parallel to one another, parallel to the border of the pallidum[1] and perpendicular to the afferent striatopallidal axons.[2] There are only a few small local circuitry neurons.

The globus pallidus is traversed by the numerous myelinated axons of the striato-pallidonigral bundle that give it the pale appearance from which it is named.

The ultrastructure is very peculiar, as the long dendrites are everywhere, without discontinuity, covered by synapses.[3][4]

Pallidonigral pacemakerEdit

The two pallidal nuclei and the two nigral (pars compacta and pars reticulata) parts constitute a high-frequency autonomous pacemaker[5] (see primate basal ganglia system#Pallido-nigral_set_and_pacemaker)

Common afferencesEdit

The two parts receive successively a large quantity of GABAergic axonal terminal arborisations from the striatum through the dense striato-pallidonigral bundle. The synaptology is very peculiar (see primate basal ganglia system).[3][4]The striatal afference contribute for more than 90% of synapses.[How to reference and link to summary or text] The two pallidal nuclei receives dopaminergic axons from the pars compacta of the substantia nigra.

Basal-ganglia-coronal-sections-large

Coronal slices of human brain showing the basal ganglia.
ROSTRAL: striatum, globus pallidus (GPe and GPi)
CAUDAL: subthalamic nucleus (STN), substantia nigra (SN)

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Yelnik, J., Percheron, G., and François, C. (1984) A Golgi analysis of the primate globus pallidus. II- Quantitative morphology and spatial orientation of dendritic arborisations. J. Comp. Neurol. 227:200-213
  2. Percheron, G.,Yelnik, J. and François. C. (1984) A Golgi analysis of the primate globus pallidus. III-Spatial organization of the striato-pallidal complex. J. Comp. Neurol. 227: 214-227
  3. 3.0 3.1 Fox, C.A., Andrade, A.N. Du Qui, I.J., Rafols, J.A. (1974) The primate globus pallidus. A Golgi and electron microscopic study. J. Hirnforsch. 15: 75-93
  4. 4.0 4.1 di Figlia, M., Pasik, P., Pasik, T. (1982) A Golgi and ultrastructural study of the monkey globus pallidus. J. Comp. Neurol. 212: 53-75
  5. Surmeier, D.J., Mercer, J.N. and Savio Chan, C. (2005) Autonomous pacemakers in the basal ganglia: who needs excitatory synapses anyway? Cur. Opin.Neurobiol. 15:312-318.

Additional imagesEdit

External linksEdit


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