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'''George Trumbull Ladd''' (19 January, [[1842]] – 8 August, [[1921]]) was an American philosopher and psychologist.
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'''George Trumbull Ladd''' (January 19, 1842 – August 8, 1921) was an [[United States|American]] [[philosopher]], [[educator]] and [[psychologist]].
   
Born in Painesville, Lake County, Ohio, he graduated from Western Reserve College in [[1864]] and from Andover Theological Seminary in [[1869]]; he preached in Edinburg, Ohio, during [[1869]] to [[1871]], and in the Spring Street Congregational Church of Milwaukee from [[1871]] to [[1879]]; and was professor of philosophy at Bowdoin College from 1879 to [[1881]], and Clark professor of [[metaphysics]] and [[moral philosophy]] at [[Yale]] from 1881 until [[1901]], when he took charge of the graduate department of philosophy and [[psychology]]; he became professor emeritus in [[1905]].
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==Biography==
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===Early life and ancestors===
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He was born in [[Painesville, Ohio|Painesville]], [[Lake County, Ohio]], on January 19, 1842, the son of Silas Trumbull Ladd and Elizabeth Williams.<ref>Leonard, John W. (1901).[http://books.google.com/books?id=ov0UAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA654&lpg=PA654&dq=Elizabeth+Williams+and+silas+ladd&source=bl&ots=KwZPxb5dmN&sig=HUF3Bbw9SlpqIybg_pl23HIE1_A&hl=en&ei=qgU1Su7dHomwsgOUg92nDg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2#PPA654,M1 Ladd, "George Trumbull,"] ''Who's who in America,'' p.654.</ref><ref>[http://books.google.com/books?id=gMEOs4na_yAC&pg=PA281&lpg=PA281&dq=Jesse+Ladd+and+Ruby+Brewster,&source=bl&ots=61FuhH6hh-&sig=jlFPfLmsjJUcKwyYP3ZwJDUrrcI&hl=en&ei=sp5wSs6oL42gswP3q8HjCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10]</ref><ref>His father, Silas, ran a general store in [[Hudson, Ohio]] and was a deacon in his church, filled various minor town offices, and was held in high esteem for his integrity, industry and kindliness. He served as treasurer of [[Case Western Reserve University|Western Reserve College]], now [[Case Western Reserve University]], when the institution was located at Hudson, Ohio. He was also a founder as well as a trustee of [[Lake Erie College]].</ref><ref>His sister, Martha Brewster Ladd, was married to the Rev. Dr. Lewis Orsmond Brastow (1834–1912),who was the Dean of the [[Yale Divinity School]].</ref><ref>Burton, Richard. (1898). [http://books.google.com/books?id=NlwoAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA233&lpg=PA233&dq=Lewis+Orsmond+Brastow,+died&source=bl&ots=H2YRoNcb3r&sig=2lUQKtd6_Ti6s1EZafFjx-6j7mQ&hl=en&ei=F5UxStKqC5_utQORpZnfBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6#PPA233,M1 "Brastow, Lewis Orsmond,"] ''Men of Progress: Biographical Sketches And Portraits of Leaders In Business And Professional Life in and of Connecticut,'' p. 233</ref><ref>[http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9C0CE0DD1F3CE633A25752C1A96E9C946396D6CF "Prof. L. O. Brastow Dies,"] ''New York Times.'' August 11, 1912.</ref>
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He was a grandson of Jesse Ladd and Ruby Brewster,<ref>http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~maberksh/towns/washington/wm.html</ref> who were among the original pioneers in [[Madison, Ohio|Madison]], [[Lake County, Ohio]]. Ruby was a granddaughter of Oliver Brewster<ref name="'Brewster Genealogy">Jones, Emma. (1908). [http://books.google.com/books?id=PDY2AAAAMAAJ&dq=emma+c+brewster+jones&printsec=frontcover&source=bl&ots=WAjTDllySM&sig=qRVUkp6qBkJMvG9Zm-PbTBMBw1k&hl=en&ei=CbjUSZ_LBJ-OtgPn_dmgCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3#PRA1-PA86,M1 ''The Brewster genealogy, 1566-1907: a Record of the Descendants of William Brewster of the "Mayflower," p. 86.]</ref> and [[Martha Wadsworth Brewster]], a poet and writer, and one of the earliest American female literary figures.
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He was a descendant of Elder [[William Brewster (pilgrim)|William Brewster]] (c. 1567 – April 10, 1644), the Pilgrim leader and spiritual elder of the [[Plymouth Colony]] and a passenger on the ''[[Mayflower]]'', and [[Governor William Bradford]] (1590–1657) of the Plymouth Colony and a passenger on the ''Mayflower''. He was also a 7th generation direct lineal descendant of Daniel Ladd, Sr. (1613–1693).<ref>Daniel Ladd, Sr. was born in 1613 in Deal, Kent County, England. He died on July 27, 1693 at the age of 80 in Haverhill, Essex County, Massachusetts. On March 24, 1633, took the "Oath of Supermacy and Allegiance, thus enabling him to leave London, England and take the Vessel "Mary And John" (Robert Sayres, Master). First mentioned in Ipswich town records in Feb. 1637; in Salibury, MA, Oct. 29, 1639, and was one of the first settlers of Haverhill, MA. On February 5, 1637 he was granted six acres of land on which he built a house...On October 29, 1639 and September 7, 1640, he had land granted to him in Salisbury. From Salisbury he removed to Haverhill where he died. His house in Haverhill was in the village, his planting lots were in two different locations while his meadows were located in seven different locations. In 1659 Daniel erected a sawmill with Theophilus Shatwell on the Spiggot (Spicket) River. It was built within the present limits of Salem, New Hampshire and was the first mill erected on that stream. An extensive account of Daniel Ladd is provided on pages1 through 11 of "The Ladd Family" as well as on pages 12-21 of "Lest We Forget: AFamily Saga"From the NEHG Register, Vol 38, p. 345. According to the record of the Quarterly Court of Essex County:"Daniel Ladd was accounted a man of good social graces." He held at one time the rank of Lieutenant.</ref>
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===Education===
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He early gave indications of the studious habits that characterized him through life. When he was eight years old his first savings, two dollars, were spent for a copy of Josephus and Plutarch, while when eighteen years of age he read [[Kant]]'s [[Critique of Pure Reason]].
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Most of his work in preparing for college was done by himself, only a portion of the time being given to the curriculum in the Painesville High School and at the college preparatory school of the Rev. Mr. Brayton in Painesville, Ohio.
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He graduated from [[Case Western Reserve University|Western Reserve College]] in 1864 and from [[Andover Theological Seminary]] in 1869. He was ordained to the Congregational ministry on May 26, 1870. The degree of [[Doctor of Divinity]] (D.D. or DD, ''Divinitatis Doctor'' in Latin) was conferred on him by Western Reserve College in 1879; Yale University that of M.A. in 1881, Western Reserve College that of LL.D. in 1895, and [[Princeton University]] that of LL.D. in 1896.
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===Career===
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After graduation, he went into business with his father. His constant studies, however, seemed to turn his steps naturally toward a higher institution of learning, with the result that in 1866 he went to the Andover Theological Seminary.
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In 1869, he was installed as the pastor of the Congregational Church in [[Edinburg, Ohio|Edinburg]], [[Portage County, Ohio]], remaining here until 1871. In 1871 he began to preach at the Spring Street Congregational Church of [[Milwaukee, Wisconsin|Milwaukee]], [[Milwaukee County, Wisconsin]] leaving in 1879.<ref>[http://www.linkstothepast.com/milwaukee/ch_congregational1.php "Free Congregational Church (a//k/a Spring St. Congregation after 1847),"] Milwaukee County Congregational Churches.</ref> He was professor of intellectual and moral philosophy at [[Bowdoin College]] from 1879 to 1881, and Clark professor of [[metaphysics]] and [[moral philosophy]] at [[Yale University]] from 1881 until 1901, when he took charge of the graduate department of philosophy and [[psychology]]; he became professor emeritus in 1905. He retired in 1906.
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During 1879 to 1882 he lectured on theology at Andover Theological Seminary, and in 1883 at [[Harvard University]], where during the time period of 1895 to 1896 he conducted a graduate seminar in [[ethics]].
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Between 1892 and 1899, at the invitation of the [[Government of Japan]], he served as a diplomatic adviser and helped the Cabinet under Prime Minister [[Hirofumi Ito]] (1841–1909) to promote mutual understanding between Japan and the United States.
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He lectured at [[National Seven Universities|Imperial University]] in [[Japan]] in 1892 and 1899 (when he also visited the universities of [[India]] in [[Calcutta]], [[Bombay]] and [[Benares]]) and again from 1906 to 1907.<ref>Ladd, George. [http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9C0CE1DB123EE033A25751C2A9659C946697D6CF Letter to the Editor: "America and Japan,"] ''New York Times. March 22, 1907.</ref>
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The series of lectures he delivered in Japan revolutionized its educational methods;<ref>[http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9901E4DC1639E333A25751C2A9649C946997D6CF Topics of the Week: "George Trumbull Ladd,"] ''New York Times.'' February 22, 1908.</ref> In 1899, [[Emperor Meiji]] conferred the [[Order of the Rising Sun|Order of the Rising Sun, Gold Rays with Neck Ribbon]], which represents the third highest of eight classes associated with the award. Trumbull was again honored in 1907, this time with the [[Order of the Rising Sun|Order of the Rising Sun, Gold and Silver Star]], which represents the second highest of eight classes. He was the first foreigner to receive the honor in this class.<ref name="time1939">[http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,761252,00.html "Business: Japanese Strip,"] ''Time Magazine.'' May 8, 1939.</ref><ref name="time1939"/><ref>[http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9504E6DD1530E132A25751C2A9669D94689ED7CF "American Honored by the Japanese,"] ''The New York Times.'' October 22, 1899.</ref>
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He was much influenced by the German philosopher [[Hermann Lotze]], whose ''Outlines of Philosophy'' he translated (6 vols., 1877) and was one of the first to introduce (1879) the study of [[experimental psychology]] into America; the Yale psychological laboratory being founded by him. In 1887, he published ''Elements of Physiological Psychology'', the first American textbook to include a substantial amount of information on the new experimental form of the discipline.
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===Marriage and family===
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He married on December 8, 1869 at Bridgeport, [[Belmont County, Ohio]], Cornelia Ann Tallman, born August 26, 1842 at [[St. Clairsville, Ohio|St. Clairsville]], Belmont County, Ohio and died on October 19, 1893 at [[North Haven, Connecticut|North Haven]], [[New Haven County, Connecticut]].<ref>[http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9F00E6DC173EEF33A25753C2A9669D94629ED7CF Obituary: "Cornelia A. Ladd,"] ''New York Times.'' October 20, 1893.</ref> She was the daughter of Ellen Ryne and John C. Tallman, a well-known banker and business man of Bridgeport, Ohio.
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George and Cornelia were the parents of four children:
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**George Tallman Ladd (1871–1943), an [[Industrialist]] of [[Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania]] and an 1891 graduate of [[Yale University]]. He was president and CEO of United Engineering & Foundry Company, the largest U. S. maker of steel mill equipment. The George Tallman Ladd Award, at the [[Carnegie Institute of Technology]] is named after him.<ref name="time1939"/><ref>[http://books.google.com/books?id=VvkMAAAAYAAJ&pg=RA1-PA71-IA3&lpg=RA1-PA71-IA3&dq=George+Tallman+Ladd&source=bl&ots=V85gxUQrVu&sig=nPml6Khv4-Bgpftk5RoIGQ-9ryQ&hl=en&ei=BN12Sq6aOI30sQPvq73TCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6#v=onepage&q=George%20Tallman%20Ladd&f=false]</ref>
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** Dr. Louis Williams Ladd, (1873 - 1955), was a doctor of internal medicine and professor of clinical microscopy at the [[Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine]]. He graduated from [[Yale University]] in 1895 earning his [[Bachelor of Arts]] degree, and he graduated with an [[Doctor of Medicine|MD]] from [[Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine]] in 1899.
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**Jesse Brewster Ladd, (1876–1882).<ref>[http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GSln=ladd&GSmid=47194125&GRid=57809838& Jesse Brewster Ladd] at [[Find A Grave]]</ref>
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**Elizabeth Tudor Ladd, (1882 - 1965), married Walter Aldrich Barrett.
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He married second, on December 9, 1895, Frances Virginia Stevens,<ref>[http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=57809711 Frances Virginia Stevens Ladd] at [[Find A Grave]]</ref> born February 9, 1866 at New York City, the daughter of Dr. George T. Stevens and Harriet Weeks Wadhams. There were no children from the second marriage.
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===Death===
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Ladd died on August 8, 1921 at New Haven, Connecticut.<ref>[http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9905E2D9173EEE3ABC4153DFBE66838A639EDE Obituary: "Prof. G. T. Ladd Dies,"] ''New York TImes.'' August 9, 1921.</ref> After cremation, half his ashes were buried in a Tokyo Temple and a monument was erected to him. The remaining ashes were interred under a monument of the rising sun in Grove Street Cemetery, New Haven, Ct.<ref name="time1939"/><ref>{{cite web
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| title = Great Head Temple Sôjiji
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| year = 2007
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| url = http://www.terebess.hu/zen/sojiji/szodzsi.html
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| accessdate = 2009-07-29 }}</ref><ref>[http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=54289065 Dr. George Trumbull Ladd] at [[Find A Grave]]</ref>
   
During 1879 to [[1882]] he lectured on theology at Andover Theological Seminary, and in [[1883]] at Harvard, where during [[1895]] to [[1896]] he conducted a graduate seminar in [[ethics]]. He lectured in [[Japan]] in [[1892]] and [[1899]] (when he also visited the universities of India) and from [[1906]] to [[1907]]. He was much influenced by the German philosopher [[Rudolf Hermann Lotze|Lotze]], whose ''Outlines of Philosophy'' he translated (6 vols., 1877) and was one of the first to introduce ([[1879]]) the study of [[experimental psychology]] into America; the Yale psychological laboratory being founded by him.
 
   
 
He was elected [[List of presidents of American Psychological Association|APA president]] in [[1893]]
 
He was elected [[List of presidents of American Psychological Association|APA president]] in [[1893]]

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George Trumbull Ladd (January 19, 1842 – August 8, 1921) was an American philosopher, educator and psychologist.

Biography

Early life and ancestors

He was born in Painesville, Lake County, Ohio, on January 19, 1842, the son of Silas Trumbull Ladd and Elizabeth Williams.[1][2][3][4][5][6]

He was a grandson of Jesse Ladd and Ruby Brewster,[7] who were among the original pioneers in Madison, Lake County, Ohio. Ruby was a granddaughter of Oliver Brewster[8] and Martha Wadsworth Brewster, a poet and writer, and one of the earliest American female literary figures.

He was a descendant of Elder William Brewster (c. 1567 – April 10, 1644), the Pilgrim leader and spiritual elder of the Plymouth Colony and a passenger on the Mayflower, and Governor William Bradford (1590–1657) of the Plymouth Colony and a passenger on the Mayflower. He was also a 7th generation direct lineal descendant of Daniel Ladd, Sr. (1613–1693).[9]

Education

He early gave indications of the studious habits that characterized him through life. When he was eight years old his first savings, two dollars, were spent for a copy of Josephus and Plutarch, while when eighteen years of age he read Kant's Critique of Pure Reason.

Most of his work in preparing for college was done by himself, only a portion of the time being given to the curriculum in the Painesville High School and at the college preparatory school of the Rev. Mr. Brayton in Painesville, Ohio.

He graduated from Western Reserve College in 1864 and from Andover Theological Seminary in 1869. He was ordained to the Congregational ministry on May 26, 1870. The degree of Doctor of Divinity (D.D. or DD, Divinitatis Doctor in Latin) was conferred on him by Western Reserve College in 1879; Yale University that of M.A. in 1881, Western Reserve College that of LL.D. in 1895, and Princeton University that of LL.D. in 1896.

Career

After graduation, he went into business with his father. His constant studies, however, seemed to turn his steps naturally toward a higher institution of learning, with the result that in 1866 he went to the Andover Theological Seminary.

In 1869, he was installed as the pastor of the Congregational Church in Edinburg, Portage County, Ohio, remaining here until 1871. In 1871 he began to preach at the Spring Street Congregational Church of Milwaukee, Milwaukee County, Wisconsin leaving in 1879.[10] He was professor of intellectual and moral philosophy at Bowdoin College from 1879 to 1881, and Clark professor of metaphysics and moral philosophy at Yale University from 1881 until 1901, when he took charge of the graduate department of philosophy and psychology; he became professor emeritus in 1905. He retired in 1906.

During 1879 to 1882 he lectured on theology at Andover Theological Seminary, and in 1883 at Harvard University, where during the time period of 1895 to 1896 he conducted a graduate seminar in ethics.

Between 1892 and 1899, at the invitation of the Government of Japan, he served as a diplomatic adviser and helped the Cabinet under Prime Minister Hirofumi Ito (1841–1909) to promote mutual understanding between Japan and the United States.

He lectured at Imperial University in Japan in 1892 and 1899 (when he also visited the universities of India in Calcutta, Bombay and Benares) and again from 1906 to 1907.[11]

The series of lectures he delivered in Japan revolutionized its educational methods;[12] In 1899, Emperor Meiji conferred the Order of the Rising Sun, Gold Rays with Neck Ribbon, which represents the third highest of eight classes associated with the award. Trumbull was again honored in 1907, this time with the Order of the Rising Sun, Gold and Silver Star, which represents the second highest of eight classes. He was the first foreigner to receive the honor in this class.[13][13][14]

He was much influenced by the German philosopher Hermann Lotze, whose Outlines of Philosophy he translated (6 vols., 1877) and was one of the first to introduce (1879) the study of experimental psychology into America; the Yale psychological laboratory being founded by him. In 1887, he published Elements of Physiological Psychology, the first American textbook to include a substantial amount of information on the new experimental form of the discipline.

Marriage and family

He married on December 8, 1869 at Bridgeport, Belmont County, Ohio, Cornelia Ann Tallman, born August 26, 1842 at St. Clairsville, Belmont County, Ohio and died on October 19, 1893 at North Haven, New Haven County, Connecticut.[15] She was the daughter of Ellen Ryne and John C. Tallman, a well-known banker and business man of Bridgeport, Ohio.

George and Cornelia were the parents of four children:

He married second, on December 9, 1895, Frances Virginia Stevens,[18] born February 9, 1866 at New York City, the daughter of Dr. George T. Stevens and Harriet Weeks Wadhams. There were no children from the second marriage.

Death

Ladd died on August 8, 1921 at New Haven, Connecticut.[19] After cremation, half his ashes were buried in a Tokyo Temple and a monument was erected to him. The remaining ashes were interred under a monument of the rising sun in Grove Street Cemetery, New Haven, Ct.[13][20][21]


He was elected APA president in 1893


Publications

Books

  • The Principles of Church Polity (1882)
  • The Doctrine of Sacred Scripture (1884)
  • What is the Bible? (1888)
  • Essays on the Higher Education (1899), defending the "old" (Yale) system against the Harvard or "new" education, as praised by George H. Palmer
  • Elements of Physiological Psychology (1889, rewritten as Outlines of Physiological Psychology, in 1890)
  • Primer of Psychology (1894)
  • Psychology, Descriptive and Explanatory (1894)
  • Outlines of Descriptive Psychology (1898); in a "system of philosophy"
  • Philosophy of the Mind (1891)
  • Philosophy of Knowledge (1897)
  • A Theory of Reality (1899)
  • Philosophy of Conduct (1902)
  • Philosophy of Religion (2 vols., 1905)
  • In Korea with Marquis Ito (1908)
  • Knowledge, Life and Reality (1909)

Papers

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
Preceded by:
G. Stanley Hall
President
American Psychological Association

1893
Succeeded by:
William James


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