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When genital alterations are used for punishment, typically for rape, adultery or other socially forbidden sexual practices, such modifications have included castration (actual or chemical) or penectomy.
- Main article: Female genital cutting
This consists of removal and/or surgery of various parts of the female genitals, typically one or more of removal of the clitoral hood (Clitoridotomy), removal of the clitoris (Clitoridectomy) and sewing up the vagina (Infibulation). When performed on female minors these procedures can be highly controversial.===Male===
- Main article: Male circumcision
The removal of the foreskin for religious, social, or medical reasons (for phimosis or to prevent urinary tract infections, for example). In the west, there is controversy over this procedure when performed on male minors for reasons other than immediate therapeutic need.
Elective genital alteration
Female genital modification surgery
Female genital enhancement surgery includes laser resurfacing of the labia to remove wrinkles and clitoral repositioning for those not achieving optimum stimulation as well as labiaplasty and vaginal tightening.
A designer vagina is a cosmetic surgery procedure and the result of that procedure. The procedure is also known as labiaplasty (a reduction of the labia minora, the flaps of skin which form the lips of a woman's genitalia and cover the clitoris and vaginal opening) and vaginal tightening (involving surgery on the interior of the vaginal vault). It is a type of genital modification.
Types of genital alteration
The procedures listed below are different examples of genital alterations. Any of these changes may be considered to be modifications or mutilations by some groups of people. Some of these changes, in particular male circumcision, are not considered by other groups to be mutilations.
|Kind||Removal of tissue||Alteration of tissue||Addition to tissue|
- "New study shows female genital mutilation exposes women and babies to significant risk at childbirth" - World Health Organization study finds strong correlation between female genital mutilation and higher death rates for women and babies
- "US also practices genital mutilation" - editorial by opponent of male circumcision
- Genital Mutilation at the Open Directory Project.
- "Genital Mutilation American Style" - opinion article by opponent of male circumcision.
- Episiotomy: Ritual Genital Mutilation in Western Obstetrics - Information on routine episiotomies
- On Line Body Modification Magazine/Site. Photos, details, history, everything. WARNING - adults only. Very graphic.
- Salon He calls designer vagina surgery "Laser Vaginal Rejuvenation (LVR) to tighten her vagina and enhance sexual gratification and Designer Laser Vaginoplasty (DLV) to aesthetically modify her labia."
- Sydney Morning Herald "Designer vaginas are now on offer" ... "including restoring hymens, vaginal rejuvenation, repairing damage from giving birth, liposuction and labial reconstruction."
-  Harvard International Review Article on FGM in Africa
- Rotten Warning: adults only. Graphic site. "The only real difference between these new designer vaginas and more traditional modifications is technology and advertising."
- Guardian "The new nose job: designer vaginas"
- MGMbill.org Proposed legislation to regulate circumcision of boys under the age of 18
- fr:Mutilation génitale
- pt:Mutilação sexual
- fi:Naisten sukupuolielinten silpominen
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