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Generativity is a form of prosocial behavior and is the concern of establishing and guiding the next generation by developing in them the knowledge, skills and theory that will outlive onself. Socially-valued work and disciplines are expressions of generativity. Simply having or wanting children does not in and of itself achieve generativity.


The conflict betwen generativity and stagnation is the seventh of Erikson's stages of psychosocial development and is a focus for people in the 35-60 year age range.

History Edit

The term "generativity" was coined by the psychoanalyst Erik Erikson in 1950 to denote "a concern for establishing and guiding the next generation." It can be defined as creativity between the generations. Generativity can be expressed in literally hundreds of ways, from raising a child to stopping a tradition of abuse, from writing a family history to starting a new organization. One can try to "make a difference" with one's life, to "give back," to "take care" of one's community and one's planet.[1]


See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. http://www.johnkotre.com/generativity.htm


Further readingEdit

BooksEdit

  • An, J. S. (2003). Psychological well-being in mid to late adulthood: Parent-child relationships across the lifespan and generativity development. An, Jeong Shin: U Missouri - Columbia, US.
  • Berliner, A. J. (2000). Re-visiting Erikson's developmental model: The impact of identity crisis resolution on intimacy motive, generativity formation, and psychological adaptation in never-married, middle-aged adults. Berliner, Atara J : Long Island U, The Brooklyn Center, US.
  • Berman, A. (2007). Envy and generativity: Owning inner resources. In Envy, competition, and gender: Theory, clinical applications and group work (pp. 99-119). New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.
  • Browning, D. (2004). An Ethical Analysis of Erikson's Concept of Generativity. In The generative society: Caring for future generations (pp. 241-255). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Cantor, D. L. (2003). Sources of generativity in older women: A life-span developmental perspective. Cantor, Deborah Lessa: Simmons Coll School Of Social Work, US.
  • Coleman, P. G., Hautamaki, A., & Podolskij, A. (2002). Trauma, reconciliation, and generativity: The stories told by European war veterans. In Critical advances in reminiscence work: From theory to application (pp. 218-232). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Co.
  • Craft, A. (2006). Changing Minds About GoodWork? [References]. In Howard Gardner under fire: The rebel psychologist faces his critics (pp. 217-229). Chicago, IL: Open Court Publishing Co.
  • de, S. (2004). The Propagation of Genes and Memes: Generativity Through Culture in Japan and the USA. In The generative society: Caring for future generations (pp. 63-82). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • de, S., McAdams, D. P., & Kim, T.-C. (2004). The Generative Society: An Epilogue. In The generative society: Caring for future generations (pp. 265-271). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • de, S., McAdams, D. P., & Kim, T.-C. (2004). The Generative Society: An Introduction. In The generative society: Caring for future generations (pp. 3-13). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • de St. Aubin, E., McAdams, D. P., & Kim, T.-C. (2004). The generative society: Caring for future generations. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Eggers, S. J., & Hensley, B. H. (2004). Empowering Spirituality and Generativity Through Intergenerational Connections. In Spiritual assessment and intervention with older adults: Current directions and applications (pp. 87-108). Binghamton, NY: Haworth Pastoral Press.
  • Gottlieb, D. (2006). Letters to Sam: A grandfather's lessons on love, loss, and the gifts of life. New York, NY: Sterling Publishing Co.
  • Harris, L. A. (2003). Grandparent involvement in child care: Relations between caregiving levels, grandparent role meaning, role satisfaction, and psychological well-being. Harris, Lori Ann: Southern Illinois U Carbondale, US.
  • Kotre, J. (1999). Make it count: How to generate a legacy that gives meaning to your life. New York, NY: Free Press.
  • Maruna, S. (2001). Work, generativity, and reform. In Making good: How ex-convicts reform and rebuild their lives (pp. 117-130). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • McAdams, D. P. (2000). Generativity: Kazdin, Alan E (Ed).
  • McAdams, D. P. (2001). Generativity in midlife. In Handbook of midlife development (pp. 395-443). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
  • McAdams, D. P. (2004). Generativity and the Narrative Ecology of Family Life. In Family stories and the life course: Across time and generations (pp. 235-257). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
  • Miller-Day, M. A. (2004). Communication among grandmothers, mothers, and adult daughters: A qualitative study of maternal relationships. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
  • Modell, J. (2002). Generativity, identity, and the proclamation of landmarks. In (2002) Looking at lives: American longitudinal studies of the twentieth century (pp. 347-366). New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.
  • Schorr, A. (2006). Generativity: The key to marketing strategies targeting female midagers. In Changing media markets in Europe and abroad: New ways of handling information and entertainment content (pp. 469-493). Lengerich, Germany: Pabst Science Publishers.
  • Taylor, A. S. (2006). Generativity and Adult Development: Implications for Mobilizing Volunteers in Support of Youth. In Mobilizing adults for positive youth development: Strategies for closing the gap between beliefs and behaviors (pp. 83-100). New York, NY: Springer Science + Business Media.
  • Trumbull, H. (1890). Giving added value to a child's Christmas. In Hints on child-training (pp. 283-290). New York, NY: Charles Scribner's Sons.
  • Verhaagen, D. (2005). Parenting the millennial generation: Guiding our children born between 1982 and 2000. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group.

PapersEdit

  • Adams-Price, C. E., & Steinman, B. A. (2007). Crafts and generative expression: A qualitative study of the meaning of creativity in women who make jewelry in midlife. International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 65(4), 315-333.
  • An, J. S., & Cooney, T. M. (2006). Psychological well-being in mid to late life: The role of generativity development and parent-child relationships across the lifespan. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 30(5), 410-421.
  • Apter, M. J. (1984). Reversal theory and predictive generativity: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 29 (5), May, 1984.
  • Azarow, J., Manley, M. J., Koopman, C., Platt-Ross, A., Butler, L. D., & Spiegel, D. (2003). American expressions of altruism and generativity in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. Psicologia Politica No 27 Nov 2003, 37-58.
  • Azarow, J. A. (2003). Generativity and well-being: An investigation of the Eriksonian hypothesis (Erik Erikson). Azarow, Jay Allen: Northwestern U , US.
  • Bellizzi, K. M. (2004). Expressions of generativity and posstraumatic growth in adult cancer survivors. International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 58(4), 267-287.
  • Bishop, D. V., & Norbury, C. F. (2005). Executive functions in children with communication impairments, in relation to autistic symptomatology I: Generativity. Autism, 9(1), 7-27.
  • Bond, J. B., Jr. (1982). Review of Late Adulthood: Perspectives on Human Development. 2nd ed: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 27 (9), Sep, 1982.
  • Boucher, J. (2007). Memory and generativity in very high functioning autism: A firsthand account, and an interpretation. Autism, 11(3), 255-264.
  • Butler, C. M. (2003). Generativity in midlife baby-boomer women without children: A psychological study. Butler, Christina Marie: Cleveland State U , US.
  • Calo, T. J. (2005). The Generativity Track: A Transitional Approach to Retirement. Public Personnel Management, 34(4), 301-312.
  • Cheek, C., & Piercy, K. W. (2008). Quilting as a tool in resolving Erikson's adult stage of human development. Journal of Adult Development, 15(1), 13-24.
  • Climo, A. H. (2000). Generativity, eldercare and women's midlife well-being. Climo, Alison Heather: U Michigan, US.
  • Coleman, P. G., & Podolskij, A. (2007). Identity loss and recovery in the life stories of Soviet World War II veterans. The Gerontologist, 47(1), 52-60.
  • Crawshaw, T. P. (2005). Despair, hope and generativity: A qualitative study of parental experience following homicide. Crawshaw, Tiffany Phyllis: Alliant International U, San Diego, US.
  • Decerf, A. (2006). Can We Be Reborn from Ourselves? Topique: Revue Freudienne No 94(37) 2006, 97-111.
  • Dillon, M., & Wink, P. (2004). American Religion, Generativity, and the Therapeutic Culture. In The generative society: Caring for future generations (pp. 153-174). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Dillon, M., Wink, P., & Fay, K. (2003). Is Spirituality Detrimental to Generativity? Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 42(3), 427-442.
  • Diriwachter, R. (2006). The Wandering Soul in Relation to Time. Culture & Psychology, 12(2), 161-167.
  • Eggers, S. J., & Hensley, B. H. (2004). Empowering Spirituality and Generativity Through Intergenerational Connections. Journal of Religion, Spirituality & Aging, 17(1-2), 87-108.
  • Erikson, K. (2004). Reflections on Generativity and Society: A Sociologist's Perspective. In The generative society: Caring for future generations (pp. 51-61). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Esquivel, G. B. (2008). The splendid vision and voices of youth: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 53 (33), 2008.
  • Everingham, C. (2003). 'Self-actualisation' and the ageing process from an inter-generational lifecourse perspective. Ageing & Society, 23(2), 243-253.
  • Ford, M. J. (2005). The Game, the Pieces, and the Players: Generative Resources From Two Instructional Portrayals of Experimentation. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 14(4), 449-487.
  • Forsyth, D. R. (1994). Helping People Help Themselves: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 39 (8), Aug, 1994.
  • Frensch, K. M., Pratt, M. W., & Norris, J. E. (2007). Foundations of generativity: Personal and family correlates of emerging adults' generative life-story themes. Journal of Research in Personality, 41(1), 45-62.
  • Friedman, L. J. (2001). Erik Erikson on identity, generativity, and pseudospeciation: A biographer's perspective. Psychoanalysis and History, 3(2), 179-192.
  • Friedman, L. J. (2004). Erik Erikson on Generativity: A Biographer's Perspective. In The generative society: Caring for future generations (pp. 257-264). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Fulton, B. R. (2005). Adult child caregivers of persons with Alzheimer's disease: Social exchange, generativity, and the family. Fulton, Bradley R : Loyola U Chicago, US.
  • Gonick, M. (2001). IV. What is the 'problem' with these girls? Youth and feminist pedagogy. Feminism & Psychology, 11(2), 167-171.
  • Gow, A. J., Whiteman, M. C., Pattie, A., & Deary, I. J. (2005). The personality-intelligence interface: Insights from an ageing cohort. Personality and Individual Differences, 39(4), 751-761.
  • Gramling, L. F. (2007). Women in young and mid-adulthood: Theory advancement and retroduction. Advances in Nursing Science, 30(2), 95-107.
  • Grossbaum, M. F., & Bates, G. W. (2002). Correlates of psychological well-being at midlife: The role of generativity, agency and communion, and narrative themes. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 26(2), 120-127.
  • Hart, H. M., McAdams, D. P., Hirsch, B. J., & Bauer, J. J. (2001). Generativity and social involvement among African Americans and White adults. Journal of Research in Personality, 35(2), 208-230.
  • Hofer, J., Busch, H., Chasiotis, A., Kartner, J., & Campos, D. (2008). Concern for generativity and its relation to implicit pro-social power motivation, generative goals, and satisfaction with life: A cross-cultural investigation. Journal of Personality, 76(1), 1-30.
  • Hood, K. E. (2006). Times of Life and Timing in Developmental Psychology. Culture & Psychology, 12(2), 230-244.
  • Hopflinger, F. (2002). Generativity at higher ages: A generational approach. Zeitschrift fur Gerontologie und Geriatrie, 35(4), 328-334.
  • Huta, V., & Zuroff, D. C. (2007). Examining mediators of the link between generativity and well-being. Journal of Adult Development, 14(1-2), 47-52.
  • Imada, T. (2004). Generativity as Social Responsibility: The Role of Generations in Societal Continuity and Change. In The generative society: Caring for future generations (pp. 83-95). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • James, J. B., & Zarrett, N. (2005). Ego integrity in the lives of older women: A follow-up of mothers from the Sears, Maccoby, and Levin (1951) patterns of Child Rearing Study. Journal of Adult Development, 12(4), 155-167.
  • James, J. B., & Zarrett, N. (2006). Ego integrity in the lives of older women. Journal of Adult Development, 13(2), 61-75.
  • Janotta, C. M. (2004). Role discrepancy in relation to midlife women's generativity and psychological well-being. Janotta, Carol Michalak: U Akron, US.
  • Joseph, M. E. (2001). Perceived cultural influences on generativity identified by childless women. Joseph, Miriam E : Saint Louis U , US.
  • Kessler, E.-M., & Staudinger, U. M. (2007). Intergenerational potential: Effects of social interaction between older adults and adolescents. Psychology and Aging, 22(4), 690-704.
  • Kim, G., & Youn, G. (2002). Role of education in generativity differences of employed and unemployed women in Korea. Psychological Reports, 91(3,Pt2), 1205-1212.
  • Kleiber, D., & Nimrod, G. (2008). Expressions of generativity and civic engagement in a 'learning in retirement' group. Journal of Adult Development, 15(2), 76-86.
  • Knill, M. K. (2007). Orientation toward others, life satisfaction and health: The relationship of social interest and generativity to positive psychological functioning in old age. Knill, Mary Katherine: U Texas At Austin, US.
  • Kotre, J. (2004). Generativity and Culture: What Meaning Can Do. In The generative society: Caring for future generations (pp. 35-49). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Labouvie-Vief, G. (1989). Fruits of Later Life: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 34 (7), Jul, 1989.
  • Lackovic-Grgin, K., Penezic, Z., & Tucak, I. (2002). Relationship of generativity and the other components of personality from Erikson's model in young, middle and older adults. Suvremena Psihologija, 5(1), 9-30.
  • Lawford, H., Pratt, M. W., Hunsberger, B., & Pancer, S. (2005). Adolescent Generativity: A Longitudinal Study of Two Possible Contexts for Learning Concern for Future Generations. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 15(3), 261-273.
  • Lewis, M. S. (2000). The life stories of less generative adults: Identifying narrative and psychological features. Lewis, Martha Schroeder: Northwestern U , US.
  • Liberatore, P. (2005). On the complexity of case-based planning. Journal of Experimental & Theoretical Artificial Intelligence, 17(3), 283-295.
  • Magee, J. J. (2005). Using Older Adults' Life Review in Marriage Preparation: Report from a Pilot Project. Activities, Adaptation & Aging, 29(2), 1-9.
  • Makover, R. B. (2005). Review of The Generative Society: Caring for Future Generations. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(1), 199.
  • Manheimer, R. (2004). Rope of Ashes: Global Aging, Generativity, and Education. In The generative society: Caring for future generations (pp. 115-130). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Marcoux, J.-S. (2001). The 'Casser Maison' ritual: Constructing the self by emptying the home. Journal of Material Culture, 6(2), 213-235.
  • Maruna, S., LeBel, T. P., & Lanier, C. S. (2004). Generativity Behind Bars: Some "Redemptive Truth" About Prison Society. In The generative society: Caring for future generations (pp. 131-151). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Marushima, R., & Arimitsu, K. (2007). Revised generative concern scale and generative behavior checklist (GCS-R, GBC-R): Scale reconstruction, reliability, and validity. Japanese Journal of Psychology, 78(3), 303-309.
  • Masciadrelli, B. P. (2008). Generativity in the lives of non-metropolitan lesbians and gay men. Masciadrelli, Brian Paul: U Illinois At Urbana-Champaign, US.
  • McAdams, D. P. (2006). The Redemptive Self: Generativity and the Stories Americans Live By. Research in Human Development, 3(2-3), 81-100.
  • McAdams, D. P. (2008). Generativity, the redemptive self, and the problem of a noisy ego in American life. In Transcending self-interest: Psychological explorations of the quiet ego (pp. 235-242). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • McAdams, D. P., & Logan, R. L. (2004). What Is Generativity? [References]. In The generative society: Caring for future generations (pp. 15-31). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • McGuire, A. P. (2005). Generativity in adolescents. Mcguire, Allison Patten: Vanderbilt U , US.
  • McKeering, H., & Pakenham, K. I. (2000). Gender and generativity issues in parenting: Do fathers benefit more than mothers from involvement in child care activities? Sex Roles, 43(7-8), 459-480.
  • Milardo, R. M. (2005). Generative uncle and nephew relationships. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67(5), 1226-1236.
  • Miller, P. J., Wang, S.-h., Sandel, T., & Cho, G. E. (2002). Self-esteem as folk theory: A comparison of European American and Taiwanese mothers' beliefs. Parenting: Science and Practice, 2(3), 209-239.
  • Miller-McLemore, B. J. (2004). Generativity and Gender: The Politics of Care. In The generative society: Caring for future generations (pp. 175-194). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Muller, U., & Giesbrecht, G. F. (2006). Psychological Models of Time: Arrows, Cycles and Spirals. Culture & Psychology, 12(2), 221-229.
  • No authorship, i. (2007). Review of Parenting the Millennial Generation: Guiding our children born between 1982 and 2000. Family Therapy, 34(1), 61.
  • Nytofte, J. (2005). Erik Erikson's intergenerational theory of generativity. Psyke & Logos, 26(2), 395-415.
  • Olfman, S. (2006). Self, Identity, and Generativity. In Child honoring: How to turn this world around (pp. 29-41). Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group.
  • Perlmutter, M. (1999). A Generation of Ideas on Human Generativity: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 44 (1), Feb, 1999.
  • Peterson, B. E. (2002). Longitudinal analysis of midlife generativity, intergenerational roles, and caregiving. Psychology and Aging, 17(1), 161-168.
  • Peterson, B. E. (2004). Guarding the Next Generation: The Politics of Generativity. In The generative society: Caring for future generations (pp. 195-209). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Peterson, B. E. (2006). Generativity and Successful Parenting: An Analysis of Young Adult Outcomes. Journal of Personality, 74(3), 847-869.
  • Peterson, B. E., & Duncan, L. E. (2007). Midlife women's generativity and authoritarianism: Marriage, motherhood, and 10 years of aging. Psychology and Aging, 22(3), 411-419.
  • Phelan, K. M. (2005). Generativity and psychological well-being in middle-age adults. Phelan, Kathleen M : U South Carolina, US.
  • Pontecorvo, C. (2007). On the conditions for generative collaboration: Learning through collaborative research. Integrative Physiological & Behavioral Science, 41(2), 178-186.
  • Pratt, M. W., Danso, H. A., Arnold, M. L., Norris, J. E., & Filyer, R. (2001). Adult generativity and the socialization of adolescents: Relations to mothers' and fathers' parenting beliefs, styles, and practices. Journal of Personality, 69(1), 89-120.
  • Pratt, M. W., Norris, J. E., Cressman, K., Lawford, H., & Hebblethwaite, S. (2008). Parents' stories of grandparenting concerns in the three-generational family: Generativity, optimism, and forgiveness. Journal of Personality, 76(3), 581-604.
  • Presley, S. E. (2006). Examining veterans' generativity and legacy behavior using a qualitative phenomenological approach. Presley, Stacy Ellen: Purdue U , US.
  • Raphael-Leff, J. (2007). Femininity and its unconscious 'shadows': Gender and generative identity in the age of biotechnology. British Journal of Psychotherapy, 23(4), 497-515.
  • Roy, K. M., & Lucas, K. (2006). Generativity as Second Chance: Low-Income Fathers and Transformation of the Difficult Past. Research in Human Development, 3(2-3), 139-159.
  • Sadler, E., Braam, A., Broese van Groenou, M., Deeg, D., & van der Geest, S. (2006). Cosmic transcendence, loneliness, and exchange of emotional support with adult children: a study among older parents in The Netherlands. European Journal of Ageing, 3(3), 146-154.
  • Sasaki, T. (2004). Generativity and the Politics of Intergenerational Fairness. In The generative society: Caring for future generations (pp. 211-219). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Scharf, T. (2001). Ageing and intergenerational relationships in rural Germany. Ageing & Society, 21(5), 547-565.
  • Singer, J. A., King, L. A., Green, M. C., & Barr, S. C. (2002). Personal identity and civic responsibility: "Rising to the occasion" narratives and generativity in community action student interns. Journal of Social Issues, 58(3), 535-556.
  • Sinnott, J. D. (2004). We're All in This Together: Societies as Well as Individuals Can Be Generative: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 49 (Suppl 14), 2004.
  • Slater, C. L. (2003). Generativity versus stagnation: An elaboration of Erikson's adult stage of human development. Journal of Adult Development, 10(1), 53-65.
  • Smith, M. J. (2004). The use of generativity as an intervention in HIV prevention among gay males. Smith, Michael Joseph: The Wright Inst , US.
  • Snarey, J., & Hanford, R. (1997). The transition to fatherhood: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 42 (3), Mar, 1997.
  • Snyder, M., & Clary, E. (2004). Volunteerism and the Generative Society. In The generative society: Caring for future generations (pp. 221-237). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Spencer, H. (1892). Parenthood. In The principles of ethics (Vol 1) (pp. 544-554). New York, NY: D Appleton & Company.
  • Stewart, A. J., Ostrove, J. M., & Helson, R. (2001). Middle aging in women: Patterns of personality change from the 30s to the 50s. Journal of Adult Development, 8(1), 23-37.
  • Stewart, K. (2005). Cultural Poesis: The Generativity of Emergent Things. In The Sage handbook of qualitative research (3rd ed ) (pp. 1027-1042). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Ltd.
  • Stockman, R. D. (2008). Generativity and meaning in life in the third age. Stockman, Robert D : Walden U , US.
  • Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., Wang, S., Koutsouvanou, E., & Albright, M. (2002). Childrearing values in Greece, Taiwan, and the United States. Parenting: Science and Practice, 2(3), 185-208.
  • Thiele, D. M., & Whelan, T. A. (2008). The relationship between grandparent satisfaction, meaning, and generativity. International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 66(1), 21-48.
  • Thorngate, W. (2006). The Seductive Danger of Visual Metaphors: It's About Time. Culture & Psychology, 12(2), 215-219.
  • Van Hiel, A., Mervielde, I., & De Fruyt, F. (2006). Stagnation and Generativity: Structure, Validity, and Differential Relationships With Adaptive and Maladaptive Personality. Journal of Personality, 74(2), 543-574.
  • Wallin, J., & Graham, T. (2002). Generativity: Lived Experience as Curricular Content. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 48(4), 341-349.
  • Warburton, J., McLaughlin, D., & Pinsker, D. (2006). Generative acts: Family and community involvement of older Australians. International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 63(2), 115-137.
  • Westermeyer, J. F. (2004). Predictors and characteristics of Erikson's life cycle model among men: A 32-year longitudinal study. International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 58(1), 29-48.
  • Wills, T. W., Estow, S., Soraci, S. A., & Garcia, J. (2006). The Aha Effect in Groups and Other Dynamic Learning Contexts. Journal of General Psychology, 133(3), 221-236.
  • Yamada, Y. (2004). The Generative Life Cycle Model: Integration of Japanese Folk Images and Generativity. In The generative society: Caring for future generations (pp. 97-112). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Yamada, Y., & Kato, Y. (2006). Directionality of Development and the Ryoko Model: Reply to Four Commentaries. Culture & Psychology, 12(2), 260-272.
  • Yamada, Y., & Kato, Y. (2006). Images of Circular Time and Spiral Repetition: The Generative Life Cycle Model. Culture & Psychology, 12(2), 143-160.

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