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'''Gastroenterology''' ([[Medical Subject Headings|MeSH]] heading)<ref>[http://www.nlm.nih.gov/cgi/mesh/2007/MB_cgi?mode=&term=gastroenterology nlm.nih.gov]</ref> is a branch of [[medicine]] focused on the [[digestive system]] and its disorders. The name is a combination of three [[Ancient Greek]] words ''[[wikt:γαστήρ|gaster]] (gen.: gastros)'' ([[stomach]]), ''[[wikt:ἔντερον|enteron]]'' ([[intestine]]), and ''[[logos]]'' ([[reason]]). In the U.S., Gastroenterology is an Internal Medicine Subspecialty certified by the ABIM (www.abim.org).
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[[Diseases]] affecting the [[gastrointestinal tract]], which includes the [[Organ (anatomy)|organs]] from [[human mouth|mouth]] to [[anus]], along the [[alimentary canal]], are the focus of this specialty. [[Physician]]s practicing in this field of medicine are called '''gastroenterologists'''. They have usually completed the eight years of pre-medical and medical education, the yearlong internship (if this is not a part of the residency), three years of an internal medicine residency, and two to three years in the gastroenterology fellowship. Some gastroenterology trainees will complete a "fourth-year" (although this is often their 7th year of graduate medical education) in Transplant [[Hepatology]], Advanced [[Endoscopy]], [[Inflammatory Bowel Disease|IBD]], motility or other topics.
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Gastroenterology is not the same as colorectal or hepatobiliary surgery, which are specialty branches of general surgery.
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'''[[Hepatology]]''', or '''hepatobiliary medicine''', encompasses the study of the [[liver]], [[pancreas]], and [[biliary tree]], and is traditionally considered a sub-specialty.
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==History==
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[[File:Bozzini Lichtleiter.jpg|thumb|Drawings of Bozzini's "Lichtleiter"]]
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Citing from [[Ancient Egypt|Egyptian]] [[papyrus|papyri]], Nunn identified significant knowledge of gastrointestinal diseases among practising physicians during the periods of the [[pharaoh]]s. [[Irynakhty]], of the tenth dynasty, c. 2125 B.C., was a court [[physician]] specialising in gastroenterology and [[proctology]].<ref>Nunn JF. Ancient Egyptian Medicine. 2002. ISBN 0-8061-3504-2.</ref>
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Among ancient [[Greeks]], [[Hippocrates]] attributed [[digestion]] to concoction. [[Galen]]'s concept of the [[stomach]] having four ''faculties'' was widely accepted up to modernity in the seventeenth century.
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Eighteenth century:
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* [[Italy|Italian]] [[Lazzaro Spallanzani]] (1729–99) was among early [[physician]]s to disregard Galen's theories, and in 1780 he gave experimental proof on the action of [[gastric juice]] on foodstuffs.
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* In 1767, [[Germany|German]] [[Johann Georg Ritter von Zimmermann|Johann von Zimmermann]] wrote an important work on [[dysentery]].
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* In 1777, [[Maximilian Stoll]] of [[Vienna]] described cancer of the [[gallbladder]].<ref>Edgardo Rivera, MD
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James L. Abbruzzese, MD; Pancreatic, Hepatic, and Biliary Carcinomas, MEDICAL ONCOLOGY: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW [http://www.cancernetwork.com/textbook/morev16.htm/]</ref><ref>DeStoll M: Rationis Mendendi, in Nosocomio Practico vendobonensi.
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Part 1 LugduniBatavarum, Haak et Socios et A et J Honkoop 1788, OCLC: 23625746</ref>
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Nineteenth century:
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* In 1805, [[Philipp Bozzini]] made the first attempt to observe inside the living human body using a tube he named ''Lichtleiter'' (light-guiding instrument) to examine the [[urinary tract]], the [[rectum]], and the [[human pharynx|pharynx]]. This is the earliest description of [[endoscopy]].<ref>Gilger, Mark A. MD,Gastroenterologic endoscopy in children: past, present, and future. Gastroenterology and nutrition Current Opinion in Pediatrics. 13(5):429-434, October 2001.
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</ref><ref>[http://www.olympus-global.com/en/corc/history/endo/ The Origin of Endoscopes, Olympus history]</ref>
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* [[Charles Emile Troisier]] described enlargement of [[lymph node]]s in abdominal cancer.<ref>Anton Sebastian,A Dictionary of the History of Medicine, ISBN 1-85070-021-4</ref>
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* In 1823, [[William Prout]] discovered that [[stomach]] juices contain [[hydrochloric acid]].<ref>''Prout, W.'' On the nature of the acid and saline matters usually existing in the stomachs of animals.&nbsp;– Philos. Transactions, 1824, 1, 45.</ref>
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* In 1868, [[Adolf Kussmaul]], a well-known German physician, developed the [[gastroscope]]. He perfected the technique on a [[Sword swallowing|sword swallower]].
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* In 1871, at the society of physicians in Vienna, [[Karl Stoerk|Carl Stoerk]] demonstrated an esophagoscope made of two telescopic metal tubes, initially devised by Waldenburg in 1870.
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* In 1876, [[Karl Wilhelm von Kupffer]] described the properties of some liver cells now called [[Kupffer cell]].
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* In 1883, [[Hugo Kronecker]] and [[Samuel James Meltzer]] studied oesophageal [[manometry]] in humans.
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[[Image:McClendon pH-probe.png|60px|thumb|[[Jesse Francis McClendon|McClendon's]] pH-probe]]
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Twentieth century:
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* In 1915, [[Jesse Francis McClendon|Jesse McClendon]] tested [[Gastric acid|acidity]] of human stomach ''[[in situ]]''.<ref>McClendon J. F. New hydrogen electrodes and rapid methods of determining hydrogen ion concentrations.&nbsp;– Amer. J. Physoil., 1915, 38, 2, 180.</ref>
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* In 1921-22, [[Walter C. Alvarez|Walter Alvarez]] did the first [[electrogastrogram|electrogastrography]] research.<ref>Alvarez W. C. The electrogastrogram and what it shows. JAMA, 78(15):1116-18, 1922.</ref>
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* [[Rudolph Schindler (doctor)|Rudolph Schindler]] described many important diseases involving the human digestive system during [[World War I]] in his illustrated textbook and is portrayed by some as the "father of gastroscopy". He and [[Georg Wolf]] developed a semiflexible gastroscope in 1932.
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* In 1932, [[Burrill Bernard Crohn]] described [[Crohn's disease]].
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* In 1957, [[Basil Hirschowitz]] introduced the first prototype of a fibreoptic gastroscope.
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Twenty-first century:
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* In 2005, [[Barry Marshall]] and [[Robin Warren]] of Australia were awarded the [[Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine]] for their discovery of ''[[Helicobacter pylori]]'' (1982/1983) and its role in [[peptic ulcer disease]]. James Leavitt assisted in their research, but the Nobel Prize is not awarded posthumously so he was not included in the award.
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==Disease classification==
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1. '''International Classification of Disease([[ICD]] 2007)/WHO classification''':
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*Chapter XI,Diseases of the digestive system,(K00-K93)[http://www.who.int/classifications/apps/icd/icd10online/]
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2. '''[[Medical Subject Headings|MeSH]] subject Heading''':
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*Gastroenterology (G02.403.776.409.405)[http://www.nlm.nih.gov/cgi/mesh/2007/MB_cgi?mode=&term=Gastroenterology&field=entry]
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*Gastroenterological diseases(C06.405)[http://www.nlm.nih.gov/cgi/mesh/2007/MB_cgi?mode=&term=Gastrointestinal+Diseases#TreeC06.405]
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3. '''[[National Library of Medicine]] Catalogue(NLM classification 2006)''':
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*Digestive system(W1)[http://wwwcf.nlm.nih.gov/class/class_wi.html#WI]
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==Gastroenterological societies==
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* [[World Gastroenterology Organisation]]
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* [[American College of Gastroenterology]]
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* [[American Gastroenterological Association]]
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* [[American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy]]
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* [[British Society of Gastroenterology]]
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== Research resources for gastroenterology ==
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* Annals of Gastroenterology & Hepatology - www.slm-gastroenterology.com (Published by San Lucas Medical www.slm-journals.com)
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* [[Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology]] (SGAS)
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==See also==
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Annals of Gastroenterology & Hepatology - www.slm-gastroenterology.com (Published by San Lucas Medical www.slm-journals.com)
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*[[Gastroenterology (journal)]]
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==References==
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{{reflist}}
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==External links==
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{{Dmoz|Health/Medicine/Medical_Specialties/Gastroenterology/Journals/|Publications/Journals}}
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* [http://www.virtualgastrocentre.com/ Virtual Gastro Centre]
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* [http://www.gastrohep.com/ GastroHep.com - Gastrohep]
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* [http://www.daveproject.org/ The Digital Atlas of Video Education - Gastroenterology]
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{{Gastroenterology}}
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{{Medicine}}
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[[Category:Gastroenterology| ]]
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[[Category:Medical specialities]]
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Functional gastrointestinal disorder
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Gastroenterology (MeSH heading)[1] is a branch of medicine focused on the digestive system and its disorders. The name is a combination of three Ancient Greek words gaster (gen.: gastros) (stomach), enteron (intestine), and logos (reason). In the U.S., Gastroenterology is an Internal Medicine Subspecialty certified by the ABIM (www.abim.org).

Diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract, which includes the organs from mouth to anus, along the alimentary canal, are the focus of this specialty. Physicians practicing in this field of medicine are called gastroenterologists. They have usually completed the eight years of pre-medical and medical education, the yearlong internship (if this is not a part of the residency), three years of an internal medicine residency, and two to three years in the gastroenterology fellowship. Some gastroenterology trainees will complete a "fourth-year" (although this is often their 7th year of graduate medical education) in Transplant Hepatology, Advanced Endoscopy, IBD, motility or other topics.

Gastroenterology is not the same as colorectal or hepatobiliary surgery, which are specialty branches of general surgery.

Hepatology, or hepatobiliary medicine, encompasses the study of the liver, pancreas, and biliary tree, and is traditionally considered a sub-specialty.

HistoryEdit

File:Bozzini Lichtleiter.jpg
Drawings of Bozzini's "Lichtleiter"

Citing from Egyptian papyri, Nunn identified significant knowledge of gastrointestinal diseases among practising physicians during the periods of the pharaohs. Irynakhty, of the tenth dynasty, c. 2125 B.C., was a court physician specialising in gastroenterology and proctology.[2]

Among ancient Greeks, Hippocrates attributed digestion to concoction. Galen's concept of the stomach having four faculties was widely accepted up to modernity in the seventeenth century.

Eighteenth century:

Nineteenth century:

File:McClendon pH-probe.png
McClendon's pH-probe

Twentieth century:

Twenty-first century:

Disease classificationEdit

1. International Classification of Disease(ICD 2007)/WHO classification:

  • Chapter XI,Diseases of the digestive system,(K00-K93)[2]

2. MeSH subject Heading:

  • Gastroenterology (G02.403.776.409.405)[3]
  • Gastroenterological diseases(C06.405)[4]

3. National Library of Medicine Catalogue(NLM classification 2006):

  • Digestive system(W1)[5]

Gastroenterological societiesEdit

Research resources for gastroenterology Edit

  • Annals of Gastroenterology & Hepatology - www.slm-gastroenterology.com (Published by San Lucas Medical www.slm-journals.com)

See alsoEdit

Annals of Gastroenterology & Hepatology - www.slm-gastroenterology.com (Published by San Lucas Medical www.slm-journals.com)

ReferencesEdit

  1. nlm.nih.gov
  2. Nunn JF. Ancient Egyptian Medicine. 2002. ISBN 0-8061-3504-2.
  3. Edgardo Rivera, MD James L. Abbruzzese, MD; Pancreatic, Hepatic, and Biliary Carcinomas, MEDICAL ONCOLOGY: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW [1]
  4. DeStoll M: Rationis Mendendi, in Nosocomio Practico vendobonensi. Part 1 LugduniBatavarum, Haak et Socios et A et J Honkoop 1788, OCLC: 23625746
  5. Gilger, Mark A. MD,Gastroenterologic endoscopy in children: past, present, and future. Gastroenterology and nutrition Current Opinion in Pediatrics. 13(5):429-434, October 2001.
  6. The Origin of Endoscopes, Olympus history
  7. Anton Sebastian,A Dictionary of the History of Medicine, ISBN 1-85070-021-4
  8. Prout, W. On the nature of the acid and saline matters usually existing in the stomachs of animals. – Philos. Transactions, 1824, 1, 45.
  9. McClendon J. F. New hydrogen electrodes and rapid methods of determining hydrogen ion concentrations. – Amer. J. Physoil., 1915, 38, 2, 180.
  10. Alvarez W. C. The electrogastrogram and what it shows. JAMA, 78(15):1116-18, 1922.


External linksEdit

Publications/Journals at the Open Directory Project


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