Gamma-Aminobutyric acid(GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter used to calm neuronal firing of the cortex and hippocampus. Glutamate is the excitatory neurotransmitter inhibited by GABA at the synapse. Astrocytes regulate mood by releasing and absorbing glutamate, and through the use of GABA receptors.
GABA is the neurotransmitter specifically targeted in anxiolytic drugs, such as Valium. Valium has a binding site on the GABAA receptors distinguishable from the endogenous GABA neurotransmitter. As a result Valium artificially inhibits action potential in these transmissions.
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