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Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)
|style="background: #F8EABA; text-align: center;" colspan="2"||Galactose|
167 degrees C
|style="background: #F8EABA; text-align: center;" colspan="2"|| Except where noted otherwise, data are given for|
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox disclaimer and references
Relationship to lactoseEdit
Galactose is a monosaccharide constituent, together with glucose, of the disaccharide lactose. The hydrolysis of lactose to glucose and galactose is catalyzed by the enzyme lactase, a β-galactosidase. In the human body, glucose is changed into galactose in order to enable the mammary glands to secrete lactose.
There are some ongoing studies which suggest that Galactose may have a role in treatment of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (a kidney disease resulting in kidney failure and proteinuria).[How to reference and link to summary or text] This effect is likely to be a result of binding of Galactose to FSGS factor.[How to reference and link to summary or text]
Structure and isomerismEdit
The first and last -OH groups point the same way and the second and third -OH groups point the other way. D-Galactose has the same configuration at its penultimate carbon as D-glyceraldehyde. Galactose is an optical isomer of glucose.
Liver galactose metabolismEdit
In the liver, galactose is converted to glucose 6-phosphate in the following reactions:
galacto- uridyl phosphogluco- kinase transferase mutase gal --------> gal 1 P ------------------> glc 1 P -----------> glc 6 P ^ \ / v UDP-glc UDP-gal ^ / \___________/ epimerase
There are 3 important disorders involving galactose:
|Galactosemia||Galactokinase||Causes cataracts and mental retardation. If a galactose-free diet starts sufficiently early, the cataracts will regress without complications however neurological damage is permanent.|
|UDPgalactose-4-epimerase deficiency||UDPgalactose-4-epimerase||Is extremely rare (only 2 reported cases). It causes nerve deafness.|
|Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase deficiency||Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase||Is the most problematic, as galactose-free diets do not have considerable long-term effects.|
- ↑ Cramer D (1989). Lactase persistence and milk consumption as determinants of ovarian cancer risk. Am J Epidemiol 130 (5): 904-10.
- ↑ Cramer D, Harlow B, Willett W, Welch W, Bell D, Scully R, Ng W, Knapp R (1989). Galactose consumption and metabolism in relation to the risk of ovarian cancer. Lancet 2 (8654): 66-71.
|General:||Aldose | Ketose | Pyranose | Furanose|
|Geometry:||Triose | Tetrose | Pentose | Hexose | Heptose | Cyclohexane conformation | Anomer | Mutarotation|
|Small/Large:||Glyceraldehyde | Dihydroxyacetone | Erythrose | Threose | Erythrulose | Sedoheptulose|
|Trioses:||ketotriose | Aldotriose|
|Tetroses:||Erythrulose | Erythrose | Threose|
|Pentoses:||Arabinose | Deoxyribose | Lyxose | Ribose | Ribulose | Xylose | Xylulose|
|Hexoses:||Glucose | Galactose | Mannose | Gulose | Idose | Talose | Allose | Altrose | Fructose | Sorbose | Tagatose | Psicose | Fucose | Rhamnose|
|Disaccharides:||Sucrose | Lactose | Trehalose | Maltose|
|Polymers:||Glycogen | Starch (Amylose | Amylopectin) | Cellulose | Chitin | Stachyose | Inulin | Dextrin|
|Glycosaminoglycans:||Heparin | Chondroitin sulfate | Hyaluronan | Heparan sulfate | Dermatan sulfate | Keratan sulfate|
|Aminoglycosides:||Kanamycin | Streptomycin | Tobramycin | Neomycin | Paromomycin | Apramycin | Gentamicin | Netilmicin | Amikacin|
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