Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
A functional analysis or behavioural assessment is generally considered to be a problem-solving process for addressing student problem behavior in schools. It relies on a variety of techniques and strategies to identify the purposes of specific behavior and to help IEP teams select interventions to directly address the problem behavior. Functional behavioral assessment should be integrated, as appropriate, throughout the process of developing, reviewing, and, if necessary, revising a student’s IEP.
A functional behavioral assessment looks beyond the behavior itself. The focus when conducting a functional behavioral assessment is on identifying significant, pupil-specific social, affective, cognitive, and/or environmental factors associated with the occurrence (and non-occurrence) of specific behaviors. This broader perspective offers a better understanding of the function or purpose behind student behavior. Behavioral intervention plans based on an understanding of "why" a student misbehaves are extremely useful in addressing a wide range of problem behaviors.
- Bambara, L. M., & Kern, L. (2005). Individualized supports for students with problem behaviors: Designing positive behavior plans. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
- Kearney, C. A. (2001). Assessing youth with school refusal behavior. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- Noell, G. H. (2003). Functional assessment of school-based concerns. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
- Reitman, D., & Hupp, S. D. A. (2003). Behavior problems in the school setting: Synthesizing structural and functional assessment. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
- Alter, P. J., Conroy, M. A., Mancil, G. R., & Haydon, T. (2008). A comparison of functional behavior assessment methodologies with young children: Descriptive methods and functional analysis: Journal of Behavioral Education Vol 17(2) Jun 2008, 200-219.
- Anderson, M. T., Vu, C., Derby, M., Goris, M., & McLaughlin, T. F. (2002). Using functional procedures to monitor medication effects in an outpatient and school setting: Psychology in the Schools Vol 39(1) Jan 2002, 73-76.
- Asmus, J. M., Franzese, J. C., Conroy, M. A., & Dozier, C. L. (2003). Clarifying Functional Analysis Outcomes for Disruptive Behaviors by Controlling Consequence Delivery for Stereotypy: School Psychology Review Vol 32(4) 2003, 624-630.
- Berg, W. K., Wacker, D. P., Cigrand, K., Merkle, S., Wade, J., Henry, K., et al. (2007). Comparing functional analysis and paired-choice assessment results in classroom settings: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis Vol 40(3) Fal 2007, 545-552.
- Blood, E., & Neel, R. S. (2007). From FBA to implementation: A look at what is actually being delivered: Education & Treatment of Children Vol 30(4) Nov 2007, 67-80.
- Bonfiglio, C. M., Daly, E. J., III, Ervin, R. A., & Ward, P. (2002). Facilitating teacher inquiry through data-based behavioral consultation and functional assessment in a special education classroom: Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines Vol 21(4) Sum 2002, 31-39.
- Bonfiglio, C. M., Daly, E. J., III, Ervin, R. A., & Ward, P. (2002). Facilitating teacher inquiry through data-based behavioral consultation and functional assessment in a special education classroom: Erratum: Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines Vol 22(1) Fal 2002, 37.
- Boyajian, A. E., DuPaul, G. J., Handler, M. W., Eckert, T. L., & McGoey, K. E. (2001). The use of classroom-based brief functional analyses with preschoolers at-risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: School Psychology Review Vol 30(2) 2001, 278-293.
- Chafouleas, S. M., Riley-Tillman, T. C., & Eckert, T. L. (2003). A comparison of school psychologists' acceptability, training, and use of norm-referenced, curriculum-based, and brief experimental analysis methods to assess reading: School Psychology Review Vol 32(2) 2003, 272-281.
- Dufrene, B. A., Doggett, R. A., Henington, C., & Watson, T. S. (2007). Functional assessment and intervention for disruptive classroom behaviors in preschool and Head Start classrooms: Journal of Behavioral Education Vol 16(4) Dec 2007, 368-388.
- Ellis, J., & Magee, S. (2004). Modifications to Basic Functional Analysis Procedures in School Settings: A Selective Review: Behavioral Interventions Vol 19(3) Jul 2004, 205-228.
- Ervin, R. A., Radford, P. M., Bertsch, K., Piper, A. L., Ehrhardt, K. E., & Poling, A. (2001). A descriptive analysis and critique of the empirical literature on school-based functional assessment: School Psychology Review Vol 30(2) 2001, 193-210.
- Gable, R. A., & Hendrickson, J. M. (2000). Strategies for maintaining positive behavior change stemming from functional behavioral assessment in schools: Education & Treatment of Children Vol 23(3) Aug 2000, 286-297.
- Kearney, C. A., & Silverman, W. K. (1999). Functionally Based Prescriptive and Nonprescriptive Treatment for Children and Adolescents With School Refusal Behavior: Behavior Therapy Vol 30(4) Aut 1999, 673-695.
- Kelley, M. L., Noell, G. H., & Reitman, D. (2003). Practitioner's guide to empirically based measures of school behavior. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
- Landau, S., & Swerdlik, M. E. (2005). Commentary: What You See is What You Get: A Commentary on School-Based Direct Observation Systems: School Psychology Review Vol 34(4) 2005, 529-536.
- Lewis-Palmer, T., Bounds, M., & Sugai, G. (2004). Districtwide System for Providing Individual Student Support: Assessment for Effective Intervention Vol 30(1) Fal 2004, 53-65.
- Long, E. S., Sorrell, J. T., & Bahl, A. B. (2000). Functional assessment in the classroom: Ramifications of IDEA 1997: the Behavior Therapist Vol 23(2) Feb 2000, 37-38.
- Moore, J. W., Edwards, R. P., Sterling-Turner, H. E., Riley, J., DuBard, M., & McGeorge, A. (2002). Teacher acquisition of functional analysis methodology: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis Vol 35(1) Spr 2002, 73-77.
- Mueller, M. M., Edwards, R. P., & Trahant, D. (2003). Translating multiple assessment techniques into an intervention selection model for classrooms: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis Vol 36(4) Win 2003, 563-573.
- Mueller, M. M., Sterling-Turner, H. E., & Moore, J. W. (2005). Towards Developing a Classroom-Based Functional Analysis Condition to Assess Escape-to-Attention as a Variable Maintaining Problem Behavior: School Psychology Review Vol 34(3) 2005, 425-431.
- Mueller, M. M., Sterling-Turner, H. E., & Scattone, D. (2001). Functional assessment of hand flapping in a general education classroom: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis Vol 34(2) Sum 2001, 233-236.
- Olympia, D. E., Heathfield, L. T., Jenson, W. R., & Clark, E. (2002). Multifaceted functional behavior assessment for students with externalizing behavior disorders: Psychology in the Schools Vol 39(2) Mar 2002, 139-155.
- Packenham, M., Shute, R., & Reid, R. (2004). A Truncated Functional Behavioral Assessment Procedure for Children with Disruptive Classroom Behaviors: Education & Treatment of Children Vol 27(1) Feb 2004, 9-25.
- Roberts, M. L., Marshall, J., Nelson, J. R., & Albers, C. A. (2001). Curriculum-based assessment procedures embedded within functional behavioral assessments: Identifying escape-motivated behaviors in a general education classroom: School Psychology Review Vol 30(2) 2001, 264-277.
- Sasso, G. M., Conroy, M. A., Peck Stichter, J., & Fox, J. J. (2001). Slowing down the bandwagon: The misapplication of functional assessment for students with emotional or behavioral disorders: Behavioral Disorders Vol 26(4) Aug 2001, 282-296.
- Saunders, P., & Scialfa, C. T. (2003). The Effects of Pre-Exam Instruction on Students' Performance on an Effective Writing Exam: Written Communication Vol 20(2) Apr 2003, 195-212.
- Scott, T. M., Bucalos, A., Liaupsin, C., Nelson, C. M., Jolivette, K., DeShea, L., et al. (2004). Using Functional Behavior Assessment in General Education Settings: Making a Case for Effectiveness and Efficiency: Behavioral Disorders Vol 29(2) Feb 2004, 189-201.
- Scott, T. M., Meers, D. T., & Nelson, C. M. (2000). Toward a consensus of functional behavioral assessment for students with mild disabilities in public school contexts: A national survey: Education & Treatment of Children Vol 23(3) Aug 2000, 265-285.
- Scott, T. M., Nelson, C. M., & Zabala, J. (2003). Functional Behavior Assessment Training in Public Schools: Facilitating Systemic Change: Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions Vol 5(4) Fal 2003, 216-224.
- Stage, S. A., Jackson, H. G., Jensen, M. J., Moscovitz, K. K., Bush, J. W., Violette, H. D., et al. (2008). A validity study of functionally-based behavioral consultation with students with emotional/behavioral disabilities: School Psychology Quarterly Vol 23(3) Sep 2008, 327-353.
- Steege, M. W., Mace, F. C., & Brown-Chidsey, R. (2007). Functional behavioral assessment of classroom behavior. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
- Stichter, J. P., Lewis, T. J., Johnson, N., & Trussell, R. (2004). Toward a Structural Assessment: Analyzing the Merits of an Assessment Tool for a Student with E/BD: Assessment for Effective Intervention Vol 30(1) Fal 2004, 25-40.
- Sugai, G., & Lewis-Palmer, T. (2004). Overview of a Function-Based Approach to Behavior Support Within Schools: Assessment for Effective Intervention Vol 30(1) Fal 2004, 1-5.
- Weber, K. P., Killu, K., Derby, K. M., & Barretto, A. (2005). The Status of Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA): Adherence to Standard Practice in FBA Methodology: Psychology in the Schools Vol 42(7) Sep 2005, 737-744.
- Wright-Gallo, G. L., Higbee, T. S., Reagon, K. A., & Davey, B. J. (2006). Classroom-Based Functional Analysis and Intervention for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders: Education & Treatment of Children Vol 29(3) Aug 2006, 421-436.
- Beavers, K. F. (2001). Treatment utility of assessment within a consultative framework: A functional assessment vs. an empiric approach to academic reading interventions. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Doggett, R. A. (2001). Functional assessment and treatment: Using data from informant assessments to develop functionally based interventions to reduce problem behavior in general education classrooms. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Dowling, M. D. (2005). Functional analysis use by school psychologists and their identification of important variables associated with five hypothetical reasons for academic performance problems. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Gabrielson, J. (2007). A meta-analysis of functional behavioral assessments of students with high-incidence disabilities in public educational settings. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Hays, P. W. (2004). An analysis of functional communication training in a vocational/occupational training high school. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Henry, J. R. (2001). Functional assessment: Determining the maintaining variables of academic behavior. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Hilt, A. M. (2004). An approach to assessment in the classroom: A concurrent-operants functional analysis. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Ibanez Bernal, C., & Ribes Inesta, E. (2001). An interbehavioral analysis of educational processes: Revista Mexicana de Psicologia Vol 18(3) Dec 2001, 359-371.
- Karp, J. (2005). Comparing maternal and observer ratings of child temperament in the prediction of concurrent functioning and later school adjustment. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Lockley, J. R. M. (2001). Teacher acceptance of and utilization of functional assessment techniques. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Storm-Smith, C. A. (2006). A study of the present practices of public schools in Southern California in the use of functional behavioral assessment and functional analysis assessment. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.