Frizzled is a family of G protein-coupled receptor proteins that serve as receptors in the Wnt signaling pathway and other signaling pathways. When activated, Frizzled leads to activation of Dishevelled in the cytosol. Frizzled proteins and the genes that encode them have been identified in an array of animals, from sponges to humans. Frizzled proteins also play key roles in governing cell polarity, embryonic development, formation of neural synapses, cell proliferation, and many other processes in developing and adult organisms. Mutations in the human frizzled-4 receptor have been linked to familial exudative vitreoretinopathy, a rare disease affecting the retina at the back of the eye, and the vitreous, the clear fluid inside the eye.
The frizzled (fz) locus of Drosophila coordinates the cytoskeletons of epidermal cells, producing a parallel array of cuticular hairs and bristles. In fz mutants, the orientation of individual hairs with respect both to their neighbours and to the organism as a whole is altered. In the wild-type wing, all hairs point towards the distal tip.
In the developing wing, Fz has 2 functions: it is required for the proximal-distal transmission of an intracellular polarity signal; and it is required for cells to respond to the polarity signal. Fz produces an mRNA that encodes an integral membrane protein with 7 putative transmembrane (TM) domains. This protein should contain both extracellular and cytoplasmic domains, which could function in the transmission and interpretation of polarity information. This signature is usually found downstream of the Fz domain (Template:InterPro)
The following is a list of the ten known human frizzled receptors:
- FZD1 (FZD1)
- FZD2 (FZD2)
- FZD3 (FZD3)
- FZD4 (FZD4)
- FZD5 (FZD5)
- FZD6 (FZD6)
- FZD7 (FZD7)
- FZD8 (FZD8)
- FZD9 (FZD9)
- FZD10 (FZD10)
- ↑ Malbon CC (2004). Frizzleds: new members of the superfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. Front. Biosci. 9: 1048-58.
- ↑ Huang HC, Klein PS (2004). The Frizzled family: receptors for multiple signal transduction pathways. Genome Biol. 5 (7): 234.
- ↑ Adler PN, Vinson C, Park WJ, Conover S, Klein L (1990). Molecular structure of frizzled, a Drosophila tissue polarity gene. Genetics 126 (2): 401-416.
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 Adler PN, Conover S, Vinson CR (1989). A Drosophila tissue polarity locus encodes a protein containing seven potential transmembrane domains. Nature 338 (6212): 263-264.