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Formula for Change

The Formula was created by Richard Beckhard and David Gleicher and is sometimes called Gleicher's Formula. This formula provides a model to assess the relative strengths affecting the likely success or otherwise of organisational change programs.

D x V x F > R

Three factors must be present for meaningful organisational change to take place. These factors are: D = Dissatisfaction with how things are now; V = Vision of what is possible; F = Initial, concrete steps that can be taken towards the vision.

If the product of these three factors is greater than R = Resistance, then change is possible. Because of the multiplication of D, V and F, if any one is absent or low, then the product will be low and therefore not capable of overcoming the resistance.

To ensure a successful change it is necessary to use influence and strategic thinking in order to create vision and identify those crucial, early steps towards it. In addition, the organisation must recognise and accept the dissatisfaction that exists by communicating industry trends, leadership ideas, best practice and competitive analysis to identify the necessity for change.


  • Beckhard, R 1969 Organization Development: Strategies and Models, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.
  • Smith, A 1998, Training and Development in Australia, Butterworths, Sydney
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